Amphibians have been used for over a century as experimental animals. In the field of developmental biology in particular, much knowledge has been accumulated from studies on amphibians, mainly because they are easy to observe and handle. Xenopus laevis is one of the most intensely investigated amphibians in developmental biology at the molecular level. Thus, Xenopus is highly suitable for studies on the mechanisms of organ differentiation from not only a single fertilized egg, as in normal development, but also from undifferentiated cells, as in the case of in vitro organogenesis. Based on the established in vitro organogenesis methods, we have identified many genes that are indispensable for normal development in various organs. These experimental systems are useful for investigations of embryonic development and for advancing regenerative medicine. Developmental Dynamics 238:1309–1320, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.