Organ size control is a fundamental and core process of development of all multicellular organisms. One important facet of organ size control is the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death. Here we address the question, What are the developmental mechanisms that control intrinsic organ size? In several multicellular animals including humans and flies, organs develop according to an instructive model where proliferation is regulated by extracellular signals. However, the signals that regulate proliferation (and organ size) remain poorly understood. Recent data from flies have shed some light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate growth and size of organs. In this review, we will briefly discuss classic studies that revealed the mysteries of growth regulation. We will then focus on the recent findings from the Drosophila Hippo signaling pathway and its role in the regulation of organ size. Finally, we will discuss the mammalian Hippo pathway, and its implications in regulation of growth/proliferation during development and disease. Developmental Dynamics 238:1627–1637, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.