• retina;
  • intracellular transport;
  • membrane folding;
  • apical basal polarity;
  • intraflagellar transport;
  • cilia;
  • disease;
  • genetics;
  • morphology;
  • photoreceptors


Vision mediating photoreceptor cells are specialized light-sensitive neurons in the outer layer of the vertebrate retina. The human retina contains approximately 130 million of such photoreceptors, which enable images of the external environment to be captured at high resolution and high sensitivity. Rod and cone photoreceptor subtypes are further specialized for sensing light in low and high illumination, respectively. To enable visual function, these photoreceptors have developed elaborate morphological domains for the detection of light (outer segments), for changing cell shape (inner segments), and for communication with neighboring retinal neurons (synaptic terminals). Furthermore, rod and cone subtypes feature unique morphological variations of these specialized characteristics. Here, we review the major aspects of vertebrate photoreceptor morphology and key genetic mechanisms that drive their formation. These mechanisms are necessary for cell differentiation as well as function. Their defects lead to cell death. Developmental Dynamics 238:2115–2138, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.