pHMA, a pH-sensitive GFP reporter for cell engulfment, in Drosophila embryos, tissues, and cells
Article first published online: 11 DEC 2009
Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 239, Issue 2, pages 559–573, February 2010
How to Cite
Fishilevich, E., Fitzpatrick, J. A. J. and Minden, J. S. (2010), pHMA, a pH-sensitive GFP reporter for cell engulfment, in Drosophila embryos, tissues, and cells. Dev. Dyn., 239: 559–573. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.22180
- Issue published online: 22 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 11 DEC 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 4 NOV 2009
- National Institutes of Health. Grant Number: 1R21 HD049554
- American Cancer Society. Grant Number: PF-07-118-01-DDC
- NIH National Technology Center for Networks and Pathways. Grant Number: 5U54 RR022241
- cell engulfment;
Engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis ensures the removal of unwanted and defective cells. We developed a genetically encoded marker for cell engulfment, pHMA, which consists of the pH-Sensitive derivative of GFP, pHluorin, fused to the actin-binding domain of Moesin. In healthy cells of Drosophila embryos and cultured cells, pHMA resides at the cell cortex. In dying cells, pHMA loses its cortical localization and reports a modest decrease in pH. In embryos, the dying cells lose their apical contacts, then move basally and are ultimately engulfed by neighboring cells or macrophages. The cell corpse material is strongly acidified soon after engulfment and persists in the phagocytic cell for several hours. Changes in the pHMA signal correlate well with increases or decreases in apoptosis. These data show that pHMA is a useful reporter for cell engulfment and can be used in screening for mutations that affect cell engulfment. Developmental Dynamics 239:559–573, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.