In a remarkably conserved insulin signaling pathway that is well-known for its regulation of longevity in worms, flies, and mammals, the major C. elegans effector of this pathway, DAF-16/FOXO, also modulates many other physiological processes. This raises the question of how DAF-16/FOXO chooses the correct targets to achieve the appropriate response in a particular context. Here, we review current knowledge of tissue-specificity and interacting partners that modulate DAF-16/FOXO functional output. Developmental Dynamics 239:1405–1412, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.