Axonal regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans was first reported five years ago. Individual green fluorescent protein-labeled axons can be severed using laser microsurgery and their regrowth followed in vivo. Several neuron types display robust regrowth after injury, including motor and sensory neurons. The small size and transparency of C. elegans make possible large-scale genetic and pharmacological screens for regeneration phenotypes. Developmental Dynamics 239:1460–1464, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.