Müller cells in the chick retina are generally thought to be a homogeneous population. We show that the transcription factor Pax2 is expressed by Müller cells in the central chick retina and its expression was first observed at stage 32 (embryonic day [E] 7.5). Birth-dating indicated that the majority of Pax2-positive Müller cells are generated between stage 29 and 33 (E5.5–E8). At stage 42 (E16), several Müller cell markers, such as Sox2 and 2M6, had reached the peripheral retina, while the Pax2 labeling extended approximately half-way. A similar pattern was maintained in the 6-month-old chicken. Neither the Pax2-positive nor the Pax2-negative Müller cells could be specifically associated to proliferative responses in the retina induced by growth factors or N-methyl-D-aspartate. Pax2 was not detected in Müller cells in mouse, rat, guinea-pig, rabbit, or pig retinas; but the zebrafish retina displayed a similar pattern of central Pax2-expressing Müller cells. Developmental Dynamics 239:1858–1866, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.