• AES;
  • GRG5;
  • TLE/GRG;
  • transcription factor;
  • HDAC


The human Transducin-like Enhancer of Split (TLE) and mouse homologue, Groucho gene-related protein (GRG), represent a family of conserved non-DNA binding transcriptional modulatory proteins divided into two subgroups based upon size. The long TLE/GRGs consist of four pentadomain proteins that are dedicated co-repressors for multiple transcription factors (TF). The second TLE/GRG subgroup is composed of the Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) in humans and its mouse homolog GRG5 (AES/GRG5). In contrast to the dedicated co-repressor function of long TLE/GRGs, AES/GRG5 can both positively or negatively modulate various TF as well as non-TF proteins in a long TLE/GRG-dependent or -independent manner. Therefore, AES/GRG5 is a functionally dynamic protein that is not exclusively defined by its role as a long TLE/GRG antagonist. AES/GRG5 may function in various developmental and pathological processes but the functional characteristics of endogenous AES/GRG5 in a physiologically relevant context remains to be determined. Developmental Dynamics 239:2795–2805, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.