• Open Access

AES/GRG5: More than just a dominant-negative TLE/GRG family member

Authors

  • Brandon Beagle,

    1. Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York
    2. Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
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  • Gail V.W. Johnson

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York
    2. Department of Cell Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama
    • Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 604, Rochester, New York 14642
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Abstract

The human Transducin-like Enhancer of Split (TLE) and mouse homologue, Groucho gene-related protein (GRG), represent a family of conserved non-DNA binding transcriptional modulatory proteins divided into two subgroups based upon size. The long TLE/GRGs consist of four pentadomain proteins that are dedicated co-repressors for multiple transcription factors (TF). The second TLE/GRG subgroup is composed of the Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) in humans and its mouse homolog GRG5 (AES/GRG5). In contrast to the dedicated co-repressor function of long TLE/GRGs, AES/GRG5 can both positively or negatively modulate various TF as well as non-TF proteins in a long TLE/GRG-dependent or -independent manner. Therefore, AES/GRG5 is a functionally dynamic protein that is not exclusively defined by its role as a long TLE/GRG antagonist. AES/GRG5 may function in various developmental and pathological processes but the functional characteristics of endogenous AES/GRG5 in a physiologically relevant context remains to be determined. Developmental Dynamics 239:2795–2805, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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