Matrix metalloproteinase expression during blastema formation in regeneration-competent versus regeneration-deficient amphibian limbs

Authors

  • Neetha Santosh,

    1. Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine (CRBM), Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • L. Jack Windsor,

    1. Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine (CRBM), Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Behnaz S. Mahmoudi,

    1. Department of Biology, School of Science, and CRBM, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Bingbing Li,

    1. Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine (CRBM), Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Weiping Zhang,

    1. Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine (CRBM), Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ellen A. Chernoff,

    1. Department of Biology, School of Science, and CRBM, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Nandini Rao,

    1. Department of Biology, School of Science, and CRBM, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • David L. Stocum,

    1. Department of Biology, School of Science, and CRBM, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Fengyu Song

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine (CRBM), Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    • Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 W Michigan Street, DS-244 Indianapolis, IN 46202
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

We used an antibody array to compare the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-1, -2, -3, -8, -9, -10, and -13, as well as the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)-1, -2, and -4 during blastema formation in amputated hindlimbs of regeneration-competent wild-type axolotls and stage-54 Xenopus, and regeneration-deficient short-toes axolotls and Xenopus froglets. Expression of MMP-9 and -2 was also compared by zymography. Both short-toes and froglet failed to up-regulate MMPs in a pattern comparable to the wild-type axolotl, suggesting that subnormal histolysis is at least in part responsible for the poor blastema formation characteristic of both short-toes and froglet. MMP levels were much lower in amputated stage-54 Xenopus limb buds than in the other animals, suggesting that blastema formation in these limb buds requires much less extracellular matrix degradation than in fully differentiated limbs. TIMP expression patterns followed the same trends as the MMP's in each group of animals. Developmental Dynamics 240:1127–1141, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ancillary