Looking proximally and distally: 100 years of limb regeneration and beyond

Authors

  • David L. Stocum,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biology and Indiana University Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana
    • Department of Biology and Indiana University Center, 723 W. Michigan St., Indianapolis, IN 46202
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    • Affiliate Faculty in the RBTE Theme of the IGB at UIUC, and the CRBM at IUPUI, respectively.

  • Jo Ann Cameron

    1. Institute for Genomic Biology, Regenerative Biology and Tissue Engineering Theme, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois
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    • Affiliate Faculty in the RBTE Theme of the IGB at UIUC, and the CRBM at IUPUI, respectively.


Abstract

The experimental study of amphibian limb regeneration spans most of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. We first review the major questions investigated over this time span: (1) the origin of regeneration blastema cells, the mechanism of tissue breakdown that liberates cells from their tissue organization to participate in blastema formation, (3) the mechanism of dedifferentiation of these cells, (4) how the blastema grows, (5) how the blastema is patterned to restore the missing limb structures, and (6) why adult anurans, birds and mammals do not have the regenerative powers of urodele salamanders. We then look forward in a perspective to discuss the many unanswered questions raised by investigations of the past century, what new approaches can be taken to answer them, and what the prospects are for translation of basic research on limb regeneration into clinical means to regenerate human appendages. Developmental Dynamics 240:943–968, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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