Special Issue Patterns & Phenotypes
Expression of key retinoic acid modulating genes suggests active regulation during development and regeneration of the amphibian limb
Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Special Issue: Special Issue on Limb Development
Volume 240, Issue 5, pages 1259–1270, May 2011
How to Cite
McEwan, J., Lynch, J. and Beck, C. W. (2011), Expression of key retinoic acid modulating genes suggests active regulation during development and regeneration of the amphibian limb. Dev. Dyn., 240: 1259–1270. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.22555
- Issue published online: 20 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 DEC 2010
- University of Otago Research Grant (2008)
- retinoic acid;
- positional information
We have previously shown differential regulation of components of the Retinoic acid (RA) pathway in Xenopus tadpole hindlimb regeneration. RA is thought to act as a morphogen, providing positional information during development and regeneration. We have investigated the regulation of genes involved in RA synthesis, catabolism, and binding in developing and regenerating Xenopus limbs. Our data indicate that RA is synthesised by Raldh2 in proximal cells during limb bud outgrowth. Furthermore, Cyp26b is expressed transiently in the progress zone of developing limbs and the blastema of regenerating limbs suggesting degradation of RA occurs in both processes. The RA-binding protein Crabp2 is also upregulated during regeneration. We summarise this data to predict the presence of evolving gradients of RA in the developing amphibian limb. Thus, RA from the stump cells could be responsible for the establishment of proximal-distal pattern during limb regeneration, as predicted by classical studies. Developmental Dynamics 240:1259–1270, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.