The establishment of rat embryonic stem cells constitutes a precious tool since rat has been extensively used in biomedical research, in particular for the generation of human neurodisease animal models. Up to now only a few studies have described the isolation of rat embryonic stem-like cells. One out of 9 isolated rat embryonic stem-like cell lines (B1-RESC) obtained from a 4.5-day post-coitum blastocyst were extensively characterized and kept in culture for up to 80 passages on feeders with LIF. The stable growth of these cells and the expression of pluripotent markers were confirmed up to a high number of passages in culture, also in the absence of feeders and LIF. B1-RESC expresses the three germ layers markers both in vitro, within differentiating embryoid bodies, and in vivo through teratoma formation. Collectively, the B1-RESC line with a stable near-diploid karyotype can be used as a highly sensitive tool for testing anti-proliferative molecules. Developmental Dynamics 240:2482–2494, 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.