Drs. Fresques and Zazueta-Novoa contributed equally to this work.
Patterns & Phenotypes
Selective accumulation of germ-line associated gene products in early development of the sea star and distinct differences from germ-line development in the sea urchin
Article first published online: 25 DEC 2013
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 243, Issue 4, pages 568–587, April 2014
How to Cite
Fresques, T., Zazueta-Novoa, V., Reich, A. and Wessel, G. M. (2014), Selective accumulation of germ-line associated gene products in early development of the sea star and distinct differences from germ-line development in the sea urchin. Dev. Dyn., 243: 568–587. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24038
- Issue published online: 25 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 25 DEC 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 29 AUG 2013 06:17AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 12 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 16 APR 2013
- NIH . Grant Number: 2R01HD028152
- NSF . Grant Number: IOS-1120972
- germ line;
- inductive germ-cell determination;
- posterior enterocoel
Background: Echinodermata is a diverse phylum, a sister group to chordates, and contains diverse organisms that may be useful to understand varied mechanisms of germ-line specification. Results: We tested 23 genes in development of the sea star Patiria miniata that fall into five categories: (1) Conserved germ-line factors; (2) Genes involved in the inductive mechanism of germ-line specification; (3) Germ-line associated genes; (4) Molecules involved in left–right asymmetry; and (5) Genes involved in regulation and maintenance of the genome during early embryogenesis. Overall, our results support the contention that the posterior enterocoel is a source of the germ line in the sea star P. miniata. Conclusions: The germ line in this organism appears to be specified late in embryogenesis, and in a pattern more consistent with inductive interactions amongst cells. This is distinct from the mechanism seen in sea urchins, a close relative of the sea star clad. We propose that P. miniata may serve as a valuable model to study inductive mechanisms of germ-cell specification and when compared with germ-line formation in the sea urchin S. purpuratus may reveal developmental transitions that occur in the evolution of inherited and inductive mechanisms of germ-line specification. Developmental Dynamics 243:568–587, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.