• Hox proteins;
  • protein-protein interactions;
  • translation;
  • DNA repair;
  • DNA replication;
  • signaling pathways;
  • interactomics

Hox proteins are conserved homeodomain transcription factors involved in the control of embryo patterning, organ development, and cell differentiation during animal development and adult life. Although recognizably active in gene regulation, accumulating reports support that Hox proteins are also active in controlling other molecular processes like mRNA translation, DNA repair, initiation of DNA replication, and possibly modulation of signal transduction. Here we review experimental evidence as well as databases entries indicative of non-transcriptional activities of Hox proteins. Developmental Dynamics 243:117–131, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.