On the role of intrinsic and extrinsic forces in early cardiac S-looping (pages 801–816)
Ashok Ramasubramanian, Quynh B. Chu-Lagraff, Takashi Buma, Kevin T. Chico, Meagan E. Carnes, Kyra R. Burnett, Sarah A. Bradner and Shaun S. Gordon
Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.23968
- The embryonic heart has no intrinsic capability to form an s-loop.
- External forces supplied by the splanchnopleure and cervical flexure are necessary for cardiac s-loop formation.
- Computer modeling can be used to study the forces involved in s-loop formation.