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LITERATURE CITED

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  • Fan G,Xiao L,Cheng L,Wang X,Sun B,Hu G. 2000. Targeted disruption of NDST-1 gene leads to pulmonary hypoplasia and neonatal respiratory distress in mice. FEBS Lett 467: 711.
  • Grobe K,Inatani M,Palleria SR,Castagnola J,Yamaguchi Y,Esko JD. 2005. Cerebral hypoplasia and craniofacial defects in mice lacking heparin sulfate ndst1 gene function. Development 132: 37773786.
  • Habuchi H,Nagai N,Sugaya N,Atsumi F,Stevens RI,Kimata K. 2007. Mice deficient in heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 exhibit defective heparan sulfate biosynthesis, abnormal placentation and late embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem 282: 1557815588.
  • Habuchi H,Tanaka M,Habuchi O,Yoshida K,Suzuki H,Ban K,Kimata K. 2000. The occurrence of three isoforms of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase having different specificities for hexuronic acid adjacent to the targeted N-sulfoglucosamine. J Biol Chem 275: 28592868.
  • HajMohammadi S,Enjyoji K,Princivalle M,Christi P,Beeler D,Rayburn H,Schwartz JJ,Barzegar S,deAgostini AI,Post MJ,Rosenberg RD,Shworak NW. 2003. Normal levels of anticoagulant heparan sulfate are not essential for normal hemostasis. J Clin Invest 111: 989999.
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  • Kamimura K,Fujise M,Villa F,Izumi S,Habuchi H,Kimata K,Nakato H. 2001. Drosophila heparin sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (dHS6ST) gene. Structure, expression and function in the formation of the tracheal system. J Biol Chem 276: 1701417021.
  • Kamimura K,Koyama T,Habuchi H,Ueda R,Masu M,Kimata K,Nakato H. 2006. Specific and flexible roles of heparan sulfate modifications in Drosophila FGF signaling. J Cell Biol 174: 773778.
  • Lamanna WC,Baldwin RJ,Padva M,Kalus I,Ten Dam G,van Kuppevelt TH,Gallagher JT,von Figura K,Dierks T,Merry CL. 2006. Heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases: Discrete in vivo activities and functional co-operativity. Biochem J 400: 6373.
  • Li JP,Gong F,Hagner- McWhirter A,Forsberg E,Abrink M,Kisilevsky R,Zhang X,Lindahl U. 2003. Targeted disruption of a murine glucuronyl C5-epimerase gene results in heparin sulfate lacking L-iduronic acid and in neonatal lethality. J Biol Chem 278: 2836328366.
  • Lin X,Perrimon N. 2000. Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in cell–cell signaling in Drosophila. Matrix Biol 19: 303307.
  • Liu P,Jenkins NA,Copeland NG. 2004. A highly efficient recombineering-based method for generating conditional knockout mutations. Genome Res 13: 476484.
  • Lum DH,Tan J,Rosen SD,Werb Z. 2007. Gene trap disruption of the mouse heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase gene, Sulf2. Mol Cell Biol 27: 678688.
  • MacArthur J,Bishop JR,Stanford KI,Wang L,Bensadoun A,Wiztum JL,Esko JD. 2007. Liver heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independently of LDL receptor family members. J Clin Invest 117: 153164.
  • Mecham RP,Broekelmann TJ,Fliazar CJ,Shapiro SD,Welgua HG,Senior RM. 1997. Elastin degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. Cleavage site specificity and mechanisms of elastolysis. J Biol Chem 272: 1807118076.
  • Nogami K,Suzuki H,Ishiguro N,Iwata H,Kimata K. 2004. Distinctive expression patterns of heparan sulfate O-sulfotransferases and regional differences in heparan sulfate structure in chick limb bubs. J Biol Chem 279: 82198229.
  • Nurcombe V,Smart CE,Chipperfeld H,Cool SM,Boilly B,Hondermarck H. 2000. The proliferative and migratory activities of breast cancer cells can be differentially regulated by heparan sulfates. J Biol Chem 275: 3000930018.
  • O'Gorman S,Dagenais NA,Qian M,Marchuk Y. 1997. Protamine-Cre recombinase transgenes efficiently recombine target sequences in the male germ line of mice, but not in embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 1460214607.
  • Ornitz DM. 2000. FGFs, heparin sulfate and FGFRs: Complex interactions essential for development. Bioessays 22: 108112.
  • Pratt T,Conway CD,Tian NM,Price DJ,Mason JO. 2006. Heparan sulphation patterns generated by specific heparan sulfotransferase enzymes direct distinct aspects of retinal axon guidance at the optic chiasm. J Neurosci 26: 69116923.
  • Princivalle M,de Agostini A. 2002. Developmental roles of heparan sulfate proteoglycans: A comparative review in Drosophila, mouse and human. Int J Dev Biol 46: 267278.
  • Ringvall M,Ledin J,Holmborn K,vanKuppevelt T,Ellin F,Eriksson I,Olofsson AM,Kjellen L,Forsberg E. 2000. Defective heparan sulfate biosynthesis and neonatal lethality in mice lacking N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1. J Biol Chem 275: 2592625930.
  • Sedita J,Izvolsky KI,Cardoso WV. 2004. Differential expression of heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase isoforms in the mouse embryo suggests distinctive roles during organogenesis. Dev Dyn 231: 782794.
  • Spencer JL,Stone PJ,Nugent MA. 2006. New insights into the inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by heparin. Biochemistry 45: 91049120.
  • Strader AD,Reizes O,Woods SC,Benoit SC,Steely RJ. 2004. Mice lacking syndecan-3 gene are resistant to diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest 114: 13541360.
  • Wang S,Ai X,Freeman SD,Pownall ME,Lu Q,Kessler DS,Emerson CPJr. 2004. QSulf1, a heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase, inhibits fibroblast growth factor signaling in mesoderm induction and angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 48334838.
  • Whitelock JM,Iozzo RV. 2005. Heparan sulfate: A complex polymer charged with biological activity. Chem Rev 105: 27452764.
  • Zcharia E,Metzger S,Chajek-Shaul T,Aingorn H,Elkin M,Friedmann Y,Weinstein T,Li JP,Lindahl U,Vlodavsky I. 2004. Transgenic expression of mammalian heparanase uncovers physiological functions of heparan sulfate in tissue morphogenesis, vascularization, and feeding behavior. FASEB J 18: 252263.