Mechanisms that underlie co-variation of the brain and face

Authors

  • Ralph S. Marcucio,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of California, San Francisco, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110
    • University of California, San Francisco, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco General Hospital, Bldg. 9, Room 342, 2550 23rd Street, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
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  • Nathan M. Young,

    1. University of California, San Francisco, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110
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  • Diane Hu,

    1. University of California, San Francisco, Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California 94110
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  • Benedikt Hallgrimsson

    1. Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada
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Abstract

The effect of the brain on the morphology of the face has long been recognized in both evolutionary biology and clinical medicine. In this work, we describe factors that are active between the development of the brain and face and how these might impact craniofacial variation. First, there is the physical influence of the brain, which contributes to overall growth and morphology of the face through direct structural interactions. Second, there is the molecular influence of the brain, which signals to facial tissues to establish signaling centers that regulate patterned growth. Importantly, subtle alterations to these physical or molecular interactions may contribute to both normal and abnormal variation. These interactions are therefore critical to our understanding of how a diversity of facial morphologies can be generated both within species and across evolutionary time. genesis 49:177–189, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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