The frog Xenopus has been vital for biomedical science for over 80 years, contributing to diverse fields from cell signaling, cell and developmental biology, to ion channel physiology and toxicology. Its experimentally manipulable oocytes and embryos provide abundant material for molecular and biochemical approaches for a wide range of gene discovery and protein function studies. In recent years, the Xenopus community has invested in key resources for functional genomics, including genome-wide full-length cDNA collections and genome assemblies as well as genetic tools. These assets combine with Xenopus' extensive range of functional assays to create exciting new research avenues with medical as well as basic applications. This review describes how these resources were developed and what new tools are on the horizon. genesis 50:133–142, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.