Translational research has fostered significant gains in neuroscience and psychiatry and has been identified by the NIMH as a “priority area” for further funding. As applied to anorexia nervosa (AN), “translational research” describes the application of principles and methodologies employed in related fields to advance the understanding, and ultimately treatment and prevention, of this disorder. Several promising areas of translational research in AN are identified. Such research, particularly when linked to a conceptual framework, offers the potential of lending much-needed novel insight into this challenging and enigmatic disorder. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.