Serous atrophy or gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow (GMT), often seen with severe nutritional deprivation in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), is characterized by hypocellularity and patchy or diffuse replacement of the bone marrow with hyaluronic acid-like mucopolysaccharide material. Treatment with nutritional support alone is often temporary due to the relapsing nature of AN. We present the case of a patient with pancytopenia due to GMT who had multiple prior hospitalizations for infections and blood transfusions. Nutritional support was inadequate in restoring her bone marrow function. She was successfully treated with hematopoietic growth factors and achieved a sustained hematopoietic recovery. In addition, use of growth factors resulted in a 91% reduction in the cost of health care delivered to this patient. Int J Eat Disord 2010. © 2010 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.