Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls


  • Conflict of Interest: Yossef Ben-Porath is a paid consultant to the MMPI-2-RF publisher, the University of Minnesota and Distributor, Pearson. As co-author of the MMPI-2-RF, he receives royalties on sales of the test.

  • Disclosure: Portions of this manuscript were presented as a poster at the International Conference on Eating Disorders (ICED) in Montreal, Canada (May, 2013). Please contact the first author (rmarek1@kent.edu) for an electronic copy of the poster.



Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED–).


Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m2 [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED– participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m2 [SD = 11.70]).


The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES).


BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:315–319)