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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Ala-houlala 1988 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ala-Houhala M, Koskinen T, Koskinen M, Visakorpi JK. Double blind study on the need for vitamin D supplementation in prepubertal children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1988;77(1):89-93.
  • Andersen 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Andersen R, Molgaard C, Skovgaard LT, Brot C, Cashman KD, Jakobsen J, et al.Effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone and vitamin D status among Pakistani immigrants in Denmark: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled intervention study. British Journal of Nutrition 2008;100:197-207.
  • Cheng 2005 {published data only}
  • Cheng S, Lyytikainen A, Kroger H, Lamberg-Allardt C, Alen M, Koistinen A, et al.Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in 10-12 year old girls: a 2 year randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(5):1115-26.
  • Du 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • * Du X, Zhu K, Trube A, Zhang Q, Ma G, Hu X, et al.School-milk intervention trial enhances growth and bone mineral accretion in Chinese girls aged 10-12 years in Beijing. British Journal of Nutrition 2004;92(1):159-68.
  • Zhu K, Du X, Cowell CT, Greenfield H, Blades B, Dobbins TA, et al.Effects of school milk intervention on cortical bone accretion and indicators relevant to bone metabolism in Chinese girls aged 10-12 years in Beijing. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005 May;81(5):1168-75.
  • Zhu K, Greenfield H, Du X, Zhang Q, Ma G, Hu X, et al.Effects of two years' milk supplementation on size-corrected bone mineral density of Chinese girls. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;17:147-50.
  • Zhu K, Zhang Q, Foo LH, Trube A, Ma G, Hu X, et al.Growth, bone mass, and vitamin D status of Chinese adolescent girls three years after withdrawal of milk supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:714-21.
  • El Hajj Fuleihan 2006a {published and unpublished data}
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Vieth R. Vitamin D insufficiency and musculoskeletal health in children and adolescents. In: Burckhardt P, Heaney R, Dawson-Hughes B editor(s). Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis 2006, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, 4-6 May 2006, Lausanne, Switzerland. Elsevier, 2007.
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan 2006b {published and unpublished data}
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, Maalouf J, Salamoun M, Choucair M, et al.Impact of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal parameters in adolescents: a randomised trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19(Supplement 1):S13.
  • * El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, Maalouf J, Salamoun M, Khalife H, et al.Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in school children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006;91(2):405-12.
  • Viljakainen 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Viljakainen HT, Natri AM, Karkkainen M, Huttunen MM, Palssa A, Jakobsen J, et al.A positive dose-response effect of vitamin D supplementation on site-specific bone mineral augmentation in adolescent girls: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled 1 year intervention. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research June 2006;21(6):836-44.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Calvo 2000 {published data only}
  • Calvo MS. Dietary considerations to prevent loss of bone and renal function. Nutrition 2000;16(7-8):564-6.
  • Clutterbuck 2005 {published data only}
  • Clutterbuck J. The prevention and treatment of osteoporosis - part (i) of (ii). International Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 1995;13(1):19-22.
  • Compston 1998 {published data only}
  • Compston J. Vitamin D helps stem bone loss. Nursing Times 1998;94(49):47.
  • Duhamel 2000 {published data only}
  • Duhamel JF, Zeghoud F, Sempe M, Boudailliez B, Odievre M, Laurans M, et al.[Prevention of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents and pre-adolescents. An interventional multicenter study on the biological effect of repeated doses of 100,000 IU of vitamin D3] [Prophylaxie de la carence en vitamine D chez l'adolescent et le preadolescent. Etude interventionelle mulitcentrique sur les effets biologiques d'un apport repete de 100 000 UI de vitamine D3]. Archives de Pediatrie 2000;7(2):148-53.
  • Fehily 1992 {published data only}
  • Fehily AM, Coles RJ, Evans WD, Elwood PC. Factors affecting bone density in young adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1992;56(3):579-86.
  • Feliciano 1994 {published data only}
  • Feliciano ES, Ho ML, Specker BL, Falciglia G, Shui QM, Yin TA, et al.Seasonal and geographical variations in the growth rate of infants in China receiving increasing dosages of vitamin D supplements. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1994;40(3):162-5.
  • Flynn 2003 {published data only}
  • Flynn A. The role of dietary calcium in bone health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2003;62(4):851-8.
  • Guillemant 2001 {published data only}
  • Guillemant J, Le HT, Maria A, Allemandou A, Peres G, Guillemant S. Wintertime vitamin D deficiency in male adolescents: effect on parathyroid function and response to vitamin D3 supplements. Osteoporosis International 2001;12(10):875-9.
  • Ho 1985 {published data only}
  • Ho ML, Yen HC, Tsang RC. Randomized study of sunshine exposure and serum 25-OHD in breast-fed infants in Beijing, China. Journal of Pediatrics 1985;107(6):928-31.
  • Matsumoto 2008 {published data only}
  • Matsumoto T, Kubodera N. ED-71, a new active vitamin D3, increases bone mineral density regardless of serum 25(OH)D levels in osteoporotic subjects. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2007;103:584-6.
  • Venkataraman 1992 {published data only}
  • Venkataraman PS, Luhar H, Neylan MJ. Bone mineral metabolism in full-term infants fed human milk, cow milk-based, and soy-based formulas. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1992;146(11):1302-5.
  • Additional references
  • Access 2001
  • Access Economics. The burden of brittle bones: costing osteoporosis in Australia. Canberra: Access Economics, 2001.
  • Ala-Houhala 1988
  • Ala-Houhala M, Koskinen T, Koskinen M, Visakorpi JK. Double blind study on the need for vitamin D supplementation in prepubertal children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1988;77:89-93.
  • Alderson 2002
  • Alderson P, Green S. Additional Module 1: Meta-analysis of Continuous Data. Cochrane Collaboration: open learning material for reviewers 2002 [accessed 20 September 2005]; http://www.cochrane-net.org/openlearning/HTML/modA1.htm. Cochrane Collaboration, 2002.
  • ANZBMS 2005
  • Working Group of the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society. Endocrine Society of Australia. Osteoporosis Australia. Vitamin D and adult bone health in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Medical Journal of Australia 2005;182:281-5.
  • Bailey 1999
  • Bailey DA, McKay HA, Mirwald RL, Crocker PR, Faulkner RA. A six-year longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual in growing children: the university of Saskatchewan bone mineral accrual study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1999;14:1672-9.
  • Burge 2007
  • Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A. Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005-2025. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22:465-75.
  • Cheng 2003
  • Cheng S, Tylavsky F, Kroger H, Karkkainen M, Lyytikainen A, Koistinen A, et al.Association of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations and low cortical bone density in early pubertal and prepubertal Finnish girls. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78:485-92.
  • Cummings 1993
  • Cummings SR, Black DM, Nevitt MC, Browner W, Cauley J, Ensrud K, et al.Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Lancet 1993;341:72-5.
  • Du 2005
  • Du X, Zhu K, Trube A, Fraser DR, Greenfield H, Zhang Q, et al.Effects of school-milk intervention on growth and bone mineral accretion in Chinese girls aged 10-12 years: accounting for cluster randomisation. British Journal of Nutrition 2005;94:1038-9.
  • El-Hajj 2001
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Choucair M, Salamoun M, Hajj Shahine C, Kizirian A, et al.Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren. Pediatrics 2001;107:E53.
  • El-Hajj 2004
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, Maalouf J, Salamoun M, Choucair M, et al.Impact of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal parameters in adolescents: a randomised trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2004;19:S13.
  • El-Hajj 2006
  • El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Nabulsi M, Tamim H, Maalouf J, Salamoun M, Khalife H, et al.Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in school children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006;91:405-12.
  • Finnern 2003
  • Finnern HW, Sykes DP. The hospital cost of vertebral fractures in the EU: estimates using national datasets. Osteoporosis International 2003;14:429-36.
  • French 2005
  • French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA, Himes JH, Hannan P, Neumark-Sztainer D, et al.Increasing weight-bearing physical activity and calcium-rich foods to promote bone mass gains among 9-11 year old girls: outcomes of the Cal-Girls study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2005;2:8.
  • Gilsanz 1998
  • Gilsanz V. Bone density in children: a review of the available techniques and indications. European Journal of Radiology 1998;26(2):177-82.
  • Goulding 1998
  • Goulding A, Cannan R, Williams SM, Gold EJ, Taylor RW, Lewis-Barned NJ. Bone mineral density in girls with forearm fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1998;13:143-8.
  • Goulding 2001
  • Goulding A, Jones IE, Taylor RW, Williams SM, Manning PJ. Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry study. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:509-15.
  • Hansen 1991
  • Hansen MA, Overgaard K, Riis BJ, Christiansen C. Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12-year study. BMJ 1991;303:961-4.
  • Higgins 2009
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
  • Hind 2007
  • Hind K, Burrows M. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials. Bone 2007;40:14-27.
  • Holick 2007
  • Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;357:266-81.
  • Javaid 2002
  • Javaid MK, Cooper C. Prenatal and childhood influences on osteoporosis. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2002;16:349-67.
  • Johnell 2006
  • Johnell O, Kanis JA. An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis International Dec 2006;17:1726-33.
  • Jones 1994
  • Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook PN, Kelly PJ, Gilbert C, Eisman JA. Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). Osteoporosis International 1994;4:277-82.
  • Jones 1998
  • Jones G, Dwyer T. Bone mass in prepubertal children: gender differences and the role of physical activity and sunlight exposure. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998;83:4274-9.
  • Jones 1999
  • Jones G, Blizzard C, Riley MD, Parameswaran V, Greenaway TM, Dwyer T. Vitamin D levels in prepubertal children in southern Tasmania: prevalence and determinants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;53:824-9.
  • Jones 2005
  • Jones G, Dwyer T, Hynes KL, Parameswaran V, Greenaway TM. Vitamin D insufficiency in adolescent males in southern Tasmania: prevalence, determinants, and relationship to bone turnover markers. Osteoporosis International 2005;16:636-41.
  • Lanou 2005
  • Lanou AJ. Bone health in children. BMJ 2006;33:763-4.
  • Lehtonen 2002
  • Lehtonen-Veromaa MK, Mottonen TT, Nuotio IO, Irjala KM, Leino AE, Viikari JS. Vitamin D and attainment of peak bone mass among peripubertal Finnish girls: a 3-year prospective study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;76:1446-53.
  • Looker 2002
  • Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, Gunter EW, Sahyoun NR. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 2002;30:771-7.
  • Ma 2003
  • Ma D, Jones G. The association between bone mineral density, metacarpal morphometry, and upper limb fractures in children: a population-based case-control study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2003;88:1486-91.
  • Marshall 1996
  • Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H. Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. BMJ 1996;312:1254-9.
  • Munns 2006
  • Munns C, Zacharin MR, Rodda CP, Batch JA, Morley R, Cranswick NE, et al.Prevention and treatment of infant and childhood vitamin D deficiency in Australia and New Zealand: a consensus statement. Medical Journal of Australia 2006;185:268-72.
  • NIH 1993
  • National Institutes of Health. Consensus development conference: diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 1993;94:646-50.
  • NIH 2000
  • Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis and Therapy. 2000 March 2000;17:1-45. NIH Consensus Statement 2000 Mar 27-29 2000; Vol. 17, issue 1:1-45.
  • Outila 2001
  • Outila TA, Karkkainen MU, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Vitamin D status affects serum parathyroid hormone concentrations during winter in female adolescents: associations with forearm bone mineral density. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74:206-10.
  • Riis 1996
  • Riis BJ, Hansen MA, Jensen AM, Overgaard K, Christiansen C. Low bone mass and fast rate of bone loss at menopause: equal risk factors for future fracture: a 15-year follow-up study. Bone 1996;19:9-12.
  • Ritenbaugh 2003
  • Ritenbaugh C, DeBar L, Aickin M, Elmer PJ, Elliott D, Orwoll E. The effects of a lifestyle intervention for teen girls on bone mineral density. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2003;18:S33.
  • Rockell 2005
  • Rockell JE, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Whiting SJ, Taylor RW, Williams SM, et al.Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5-14 years. Journal of Nutrition 2005;135:2602-8.
  • Rockell 2006
  • Rockell JE, Skeaff CM, Williams SM, Green TJ. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of New Zealanders aged 15 years and older. Osteoporosis International 2006;17:1382-9.
  • Timperio 2004
  • Timperio A, Salmon J, Ball K. Evidence-based strategies to promote physical activity among children, adolescents and young adults: review and update. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2004;7:20-9.
  • Tylavsky 2006
  • Tylavsky FA, Cheng S, Lyytikainen A, Viljakainen H, Lamberg-Allardt C. Strategies to improve vitamin D status in northern European children: exploring the merits of vitamin D fortification and supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136:1130-4.
  • Winzenberg 2006a
  • Winzenberg TM, Shaw K, Fryer J, Jones G. Calcium supplementation for improving bone mineral density in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005119.pub2]
  • Winzenberg 2006b
  • Winzenberg T, Shaw K, Fryer J, Jones G. Effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2006;333:775.
  • Zamora 1999
  • Zamora SA, Rizzoli R, Belli DC, Slosman DO, Bonjour JP. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;84:4541-4.