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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Ahrens 1984 {published data only}
  • Ahrens J. Multicentre double-blind clinical trial with broncho-vaxom in children. Therapiewoche 1984;34:3469-75.
  • Andrianova 2003 {published data only}
  • Andrianova IV, Sobenin IA, Sereda EV, Borodina LI, Studenikin MI. Effect of long-acting garlic tablets “allicor" on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 2003;75(3):53-6.
  • Arroyave 1999 {published data only}
  • Arroyave CM. Klebsiella pneumoniae glycoproteins as coadjuvants in the prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children 1 to 6 years of age [Glicoproteínas de Klebsiella pneumoniae como coadyuvantes en la prevención de infecciones recurrentes respiratorias en niños de 1 a 6 años de edad]. Revista Alergia México 1999;46(3):66-71. [MEDLINE: 10425883]
  • Burgio 1994 {published data only}
  • Burgio GR, Marseglia GL, Severi F, De Benedetti F, Masarone M, Ottolenghi A, et al.Immunoactivation by pidotimod in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(Suppl 12A):152-9. [MEDLINE: 7857357]
  • Caramia 1994 {published data only}
  • Caramia G, Clemente E, Solli R, Mei V, Cera R, Carnelli V, et al.Efficacy and safety of pidotimod in the treatment of recurrent respiratory infections in children. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(Suppl 12A):1480-4. [MEDLINE: 7857347]
  • Careddu 1994a {published data only}
  • * Careddu P. Role of immunoactivation with pidotimod in recurrent respiratory infections in childhood. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(Suppl 12A):1506-11. [MEDLINE: 7857353]
  • Careddu P, Biolchini A, Alfano S, Zavattini G. Pidotimod in the prophylaxis of recurrent acute tonsillitis in childhood. Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 1992;47:328-31. [MEDLINE: 1456157]
  • Careddu 1994b {published data only}
  • Careddu P, Alfano S, Zavattini G. Pidotimod in the prophylaxis of recurrent acute tonsillitis in childhood. Advances in Therapy 1992;9(3):174-83.
  • * Careddu P, Mei V, Venturoli V, Corsini A. Pidotimod in the treatment of recurrent respiratory infections in paediatric patients. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(Suppl 12A):1485-9. [MEDLINE: 7857348]
  • Chen 2004 {published data only}
  • Chen AH, Chen RC, Zhang CQ, Chen D, Huang S, Lin Y, et al.Efficacy of sublingual polyvalent bacterial vaccine (Lantigen B) in children with recurrent respiratory infection: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Pediatrics] 2004;42(6):463-4.
  • Clerici 1988 {published data only}
  • Clerici-Schoeller M, Careddu P, Sandri MT, Cazzola P. Recurrent respiratory infections in children: prevention of acute episodes by oral administration of thymomodulin. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1988;44(4):503-9.
  • Cohen 2004 {published data only}
  • Cohen HA, Varsano I, Kahan E, Sarrell EM, Uziel Y. Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004;158(3):217-21.
  • Collet 1993 {published data only}
  • Aymard M, Chomel JJ, Allard JP, Thouvenot D, Honegger D, Floret D, et al.Epidemiology of viral infections and evaluation of the potential benefit of OM-85 BV on the virologic status of children attending day-care centers. Respiration 1994;61(Suppl 1):24-31. [MEDLINE: 7800968]
  • * Collet JP, Ducruet T, Kramer MS, Haggerty J, Floret D, Chomel JJ, et al.Stimulation of nonspecific immunity to reduce the risk of recurrent infections in children attending day-care centers. The Epicreche Research Group. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1993;12(8):648-52. [MEDLINE: 8414777]
  • De Loore 1979 {published data only}
  • De Loore F, Heck E, Van Eygen M, Casneuf J. Levamisole (R 12564) in the prevention of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in children: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1979;6(2):142-7.
  • Del-Rio-Navarro 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Del Río Navarro BE, Luis Sienra Monge JJ, Berber A, Torres Alcantara S, Avila Castañón L, Gómez Barreto D. Use of OM-85 BV in children suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections and subnormal IgG subclass levels. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 2003;31:7-13.
  • Dils 1979 {published data only}
  • Dils F. A placebo controlled, double-blind evaluation of levamisole in the reduction of the frequency, duration and severity of attacks in children suffering from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Journal of International Medical Research 1979;7(4):302-4.
  • Fiocchi 1986 {published data only}
  • Fiocchi A, Borella E, Riva E, Arensi D, Travaglini P, Cazzola P, et al.A double-blind clinical trial for the evaluation of the therapeutical effectiveness of a calf thymus derivative (thymomodulin) in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Thymus 1986;8(6):331-9. [MEDLINE: 3544353]
  • Fiocchi 1988 {published data only}
  • Fiocchi A, Zuccotti G, Rottoli A, Grasso U, Pogliani L, Vimercati E, et al.Treatment with immucytal in recidivant respiratory infection in the pediatric age [Trattamento con immucytal nele infezioni respiratorie recidivanti in eta pediatrica]. Rivista di Pediatria Preventiva e Sociale 1988;38(4):213-9.
  • Fiocchi 1989 {published data only}
  • Fiocchi A, Arancio R, Cinquepalmi P, Sala M, Zuccotti GV, Riva E, et al.Recurrent respiratory infections in childhood: experience with a bacterial extract plus bacterial ribosomes (immucytal). Journal of International Medical Research 1990;18(1):50-60. [MEDLINE: 2185964]
  • * Fiocchi A, Vignati B, Cinquepalmi P, Machado E, Peano L, Pulejo R, et al.Treatment using immucytal in children with recurrent respiratory infections: an Italian multicenter experience [Terapia con immucytal di bambini affetti da infezioni respiratorie recidivanti: esperienza italina policentrica]. La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica 1989;11(3):285-92. [MEDLINE: 2687818]
  • Fukuda 1999 {published data only}
  • Fukuda Y, Jordão-Neves BM, da-Cunha J, Mangabeira Albernaz PL. Assessment of efficacy and safety of thymomodulin (Leucogen®) in the prevention of recurrent otitis media and recurrent tonsillitis [Estudo clínico-imunológico da eficácia de timomodulina (Leucogen®) na otite média aguda recorrente e na amigdalite de repetição]. Pediatria Moderna 1999;XXV(10):828-34. [: www.moerirajr.com.br/pediatriamoderna/ped1099/pedleuco.htm]
  • Garabedian 1990 {published data only}
  • Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • Boyle P, Bellantu JA, Robertson C. Meta-analysis of published clinical trials of a ribosomal vaccine (Ribomunyl R) in prevention of respiratory infections. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2000;14:389-408.
  • * Garabedian EN, Dubreuil C, Triglia JC. Effectiveness and tolerance of Ribomunyl tablets in preventing middle ear infections in children affected by S.O.M. International Congress on Prevention of Infection, Nice, France. 1990.
  • Giovannini 2000 {published data only}
  • Giovannini M, Fiocchi A, Sala M, Fontana P, Fiori L, Silano M, et al.Immucytal(R) in the prevention and treatment of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. International Journal of Immunotherapy 2000;16(3-4):67-75.
  • Gutiérrez-Tarango 2001 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gutiérrez-Tarango MD, Berber A. Safety and efficacy of two courses of OM-85 BV in the prevention of respiratory tract Infections in children during 12 months. Chest 2001;119(6):1742-8.
  • Gómez-Barreto 1998 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gomez Barreto D, De la Torre C, Alvarez A, Faure A, Berber A. Safety and efficacy of OM-85-BV plus amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of subacute sinusitis and the prevention of recurrent infections in children [Seguridad y eficacia de OM-85-BV más amoxicilina/clavulanato en el tratamiento de la sinusitis subaguda y prevención de infecciones recurrentes en niños]. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 1998;26(1):17-22. [MEDLINE: 9585823]
  • Hauguenauer 1987 {published data only}
  • Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • Boyle P, Bellantu JA, Robertson C. Meta-analysis of published clinical trials of a ribosomal vaccine (Ribomunyl R) in prevention of respiratory infections. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2000;14:389-408.
  • * Haguernauer JP. Prevention of the ENT repeating infectious episodes by D53 tablets in children of less than 5 years [Prévention des épisodes infectieux récidivants de la sphére ORL par D53 comimés chez lénfant de moins de 5 ans]. Immunologie Medicale 1987;18:36-9.
  • Hüls 1995 {published data only}
  • Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • * Hüls P, Welbers P, Lindemann H. Immunotherapy of children with the help of a multibacterial ribosomal preparation [Immuntherapie bei kindern mit hilfe eines multibakteriellen ribosomenpräparates]. Der Kinderartz 1995;26(8):1018-24.
  • Iuldashev 1988 {published data only}
  • Iuldashev AK, Slepushkin AN, Khodzhaeva MA, Schastnyi EI, Kamilov FK. Prophylactic efficacy of reaferon in viral hepatitis A and acute respiratory infections in children. Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii 1988;5:65-9.
  • Jara-Pérez 2000 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jara-Perez JV, Berber A. Primary prevention of acute respiratory tract infections in children using a bacterial immunostimulant: a double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2000;22(6):748-59. [MEDLINE: 10929921]
  • Karam-Bechara 1995 {published data only}
  • Karam-Bechara J, Rodríguez-Suárez R, Fuare-Fontela A, Posada-Maldonado EE, Rivera-Gutiérrez SM, Sánchez-Díaz R. Thymomodulin in the prevention of recurrent infectious episodes of chronic bronchitis in pediatric patients. Double blind trial [Timomodulina en la prevención de los episodios infecciosos recurrentes de la bronquitis crónica en pacientes pediátricos. Estudio doble ciego]. Investigación Médica Internacional 1995;22(43):43-51.
  • Lacomme 1985 {published data only}
  • Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • Boyle P, Bellantu JA, Robertson C. Meta-analysis of published clinical trials of a ribosomal vaccine (Ribomunyl R) in prevention of respiratory infections. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2000;14:389-408.
  • * Lacomme Y, Narcy P. Prevention of the repeating episodes of ENT superinfection by ribosomal immunotherapy in the child. Clinical results of a multicenter study [Prévention par immunothérapie ribosomale des épisodes de superinfection récidivantes de la sphére ORL chez l'enfant. Résultats cliniques d'une étude multicentrique]. Immunologie Medicale 1985;11:73-5.
  • Litzman 1999 {published data only}
  • Litzman J, Lokaj J, Krejci M, Pesak S, Morgan G. Isoprinosine does not protect against frequent respiratory tract infections in childhood. European Journal of Pediatrics 1999;158(1):32-7.
  • Longo 1988 {published data only}
  • Longo F, Lepore L, Agosti E, Panizon F. Evaluation of the effectiveness of thymomodulin in children with recurrent respiratory infections. La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica 1988;10(6):603-7. [MEDLINE: 3244540]
  • Maestroni 1984 {published data only}
  • Losa GA, Maestroni GJ. Clinical and immunobiological action of an orally administered bacterial extract. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift 1984;114(25):930-2. [MEDLINE: 6235582]
  • * Maestroni GJ, Losa GA. Clinical and immunobiological effects of an orally administered bacterial extract. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 1984;6(2):111-7.
  • Martin du Pan 1982 {published data only}
  • Martin du Pan RE, Martin du Pan RC. Clinical study concerning the prevention of infections of the upper respiratory tract of preschool children. Schweizerische Rundschau fur Medizin Praxis 1982;71(36):1385-9.
  • Mora 2002 {published data only}
  • Mora R, Barbieri M, Passali GC, Sovatzis A, Mora F, Cordone MP. A preventive measure for otitis media in children with upper respiratory tract infections. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2002;63(2):111-8.
  • Mora 2007 {published data only}
  • Mora R, Dellepiane M, Crippa B, Salami A. Ribosomal therapy in the prophylaxis of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2007;71(2):257-61. [PUBMED: 17126918]
  • Mora 2010a {published data only}
  • Mora R, Dellepiane M, Crippa B, Guastini L, Santomauro V, Salami A. Ribosomal therapy in the treatment of recurrent acute adenoiditis. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 2010 (in press (pending)). [PUBMED: 20052587]
  • Motta 1994 {published data only}
  • Motta G, De Campora E, De Vita C, Esposito S, Galletti C, Incutti V, et al.Immunoactivity of pidotimod against episodes of recurrent tonsillitis in childhood. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(Suppl 12A):1521-4. [MEDLINE: 7857356]
  • Passali 1994a {published data only}
  • * Passali D, Calearo C, Conticello S. Pidotimod in the management of recurrent pharyngotonsillar infections in childhood. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44(12A):1511-6. [MEDLINE: 7857354]
  • Passali D, Calearo C, Conticello S, Ferri P, Zavattini G. Recurrent pharingo-tonsillar infections in infants. Treatment with pidotimod [Le infezioni ricorrenti faringo-tonsillari dell'infanzia: tattamento con pidotimod]. Otorinolaringologia Pediatrica 1994;V(3):231-9.
  • Paupe 1986 {published data only}
  • Paupe J, Paupe G. Biostim prevention of recurrent respiratory infections in children. A double-blind versus placebo study [Prévention par le biostim des infections respiratoiresá répétition chez l'enfant]. Annales de Pediatrie 1986;33(9):843-5.
  • Paupe 1991 {published data only}
  • * Paupe J. Immunotherapy with an oral bacterial extract (OM-85 BV) for upper respiratory infections. Respiration 1991;58(3-4):150-4. [MEDLINE: 1745846]
  • Paupe J. Value of Imocur in the prevention of recurrent infections in children under six years of age. Results of a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial [Interet d'imocur(r) dans la prevention des infections recidivantes del'enfant de moins de six ans. Resultats d'une etude multicentrique contre placebo]. Annales de Pediatrie 1990;37(7):475-9. [MEDLINE: 2256645]
  • Pech 1987 {published data only}
  • Pech A, Zanaret M. Double blind trial of biostim versus placebo in children repeating rhinopharyngities [Etude du biostim double aveugle contre placebo dans les rhinopharyngities récidivantes del'enfant]. Les Cahiers d'ORL 1987;22:217-20.
  • Reinert P, Morales M, Brin S, Fagnani. Evaluation of RU 41740 for the prevention of recurrent nasopharyngeal infections in pediatric patients [Evaluation d'un traitement preventif par RU 41740 (biostim) des infections rhinopharyngees recidivantes de l'enfant]. Annales de Pediatrie 1995;42:454-60.
  • Piquett 1986 {published data only}
  • Piquet JJ, Piedro P. Bisotim investigation in the treatment of recurrent ENT infections in children [Intéret du biostim dans le traitement des infections ORL récidivantes de l'enfant]. Les Cahiers d'ORL 1986;21:725-30.
  • Reinert P, Morales M, Brin S, Fagnani. Evaluation of RU 41740 for the prevention of recurrent nasopharyngeal infections in pediatric patients [Evaluation d'un traitement preventif par RU 41740 (biostim) des infections rhinopharyngees recidivantes de l'enfant]. Annales de Pediatrie 1995;42:454-60.
  • Pozzi 2004 {published data only}
  • Pozzi E, Serra C. Efficacy of Lantigen B in the prevention of bacterial respiratory infections. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 2004;61(1):19-27.
  • RB10 1994 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • RB17 1988 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • RB21 1988 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • RB22 1990 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • RB24 1990 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • RB25 1990 {published data only}
  • * Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • Renzo 2004 {published data only}
  • Renzo M, Giovanni R, Maria PF, Barbara C, Stefano O, Francesco M, et al.Short ribosomal prophylaxis in the prevention of clinical recurrences of chronic otitis media in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2004;68(1):83-9.
  • Riedl-Seifert 1995 {published data only}
  • Riedl-Seifert RJ, van Aubel A, Kammereit A, Elsasser U. Reduction of the number and severity of respiratory tract infections in children by oral immunostimulation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1995;371B:799-802. [MEDLINE: 7502900]
  • Rutishauser 1998 {published data only}
  • Rutishauser M, Pitzke P, Grevers G, van Aubel A, Elsasser U, Kammereit A. Use of a polyvalent bacterial lysate in patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections: results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Advances in Therapy 1998;15(6):330-41.
  • Saracho-Weber 2001 {published data only}
  • Saracho-Weber F, Vázquez-Ramos V, Ayala-Barajas C. Evaluation of glycoprotein of Klebsiella pneumoniae efficacy in recurrent infections [Evaluación de la eficacia de glucoproteínas de Klebsiella pneumoniae en infecciones recurrentes]. Alergia Asma e Inmunología Pediátrica 2001;10(2):33-9.
  • Schaad 1986 {published data only}
  • Schaad UB, Farine JC, Fux T. Prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study using a bacterial lysate in infections of the respiratory tract and ENT region in children [Prospective placebo-kontrollierte Doppelblindstudie mit einem Bakterienlysat bei Infektionen der Atemwege und des ORL-Bereiches im Kindesalter]. Helvetica Paediatrica Acta 1986;41(1-2):7-17.
  • Schaad 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Schaad UB, Mutterlein R, Goffin H, BV-Child Study Group. Immunostimulation with OM-85 in children with recurrent infections of the upper respiratory tract: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study. Chest 2002;122:2042-9.
  • Sramek 1986 {published data only}
  • Sramek J, Josifko M, Helcl J, Holoubkova E, Janout V, Kozesnik B, et al.Bacterial lysate (I.R.S. 19) applied intranasally in the prevention of acute respiratory diseases in children: A randomized double-blind study. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology 1986;30(4):377-85. [MEDLINE: PMID: 3805711]
  • Taylor 2003 {published data only}
  • Barret B. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pediatrics 2004;145(1):135-6.
  • * Taylor JA, Weber W, Standish L, Quinn H, Goesling J, McGann M, et al.Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(21):2824-30.
  • Weber W, Taylor JA, Stoep AV, Weiss NS, Standish LJ, Calabrese C. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2005;11:1021-6.
  • Weber WJ, Taylor JA, Vander Stoep A, Weiss N, Standish LJ, Calabrese C. The effect of echinacea purpurea treatment on prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Journal of Investigative Medicine 2004;52(Suppl 2):392.
  • Van Eygen 1976 {published data only}
  • Van Eygen M, Znamensky PY, Heck E, Raymaekers I. Levamisole in prevention of recurrent upper-respiratory-tract infections in children. Lancet 1976;1(7956):382-5.
  • Van Eygen 1979 {published data only}
  • Van Eygen M, Dils F, Gillerot J, Verschueren E. A double-blind pediatric evaluation of levamisole in the prevention of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. European Journal of Pediatrics 1979;131(3):147-53.
  • Vautel 1993 {published data only}
  • Bellanti J, Olivieri D, Serrano E. Ribosomal immunostimulation: assessment of studies evaluating its clinical relevance in the prevention of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children and adults. BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy 2003;17:355-67.
  • * Vautel JM, Cauquil J, Perruchet AM, Thomas AM. Prevention of recurrent ear, nose, and throat infections in young children with Ribomunyl, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1993;53(6):722-9.
  • Wahl 2008 {published data only}
  • * Wahl RA, Aldous MB, Worden KA, Grant KL. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008;8(56):1-9. [PUBMED: 18831749]
  • Zagar 1988 {published data only}
  • Zagar S, Lofler-Badzek D. Broncho-vaxom in children with rhinosinusitis: a double-blind clinical trial. Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Related Specialties 1988;50(6):397-404. [MEDLINE: 3068610]
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Almeida 1999 {published data only}
  • Almeida VM, Matta JJ, Hernández DD, Campos MG. Immunomodulatory effect of a glycoprotein from klebsiella versus levamisole in asthmatic patients with phagocytic deficiency. Alergia, Asma e Inmunología Pediátricas 1999;8(3):85-9.
  • Aymard 1994 {published data only}
  • Aymard M, Chomel JJ, Allard JP, Thouvenot D, Honegger D, Floret D, et al.Epidemiology of viral infections and evaluation of the potential benefit of OM-85 BV on the virologic status of children attending day-care centers. Respiration 1994;61(Suppl 1):24-31.
  • Barr 1965 {published data only}
  • Barr SE, Brown H, Fuchs M, Orvis H, Connor A, Murray FJ, et al.A double-blind study of the effects of bacterial vaccine on infective asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1965;36:47-61.
  • Bánovein 1992 {published data only}
  • Banovcin P, Minarik M, Rosslerova V, Miklerova M, Cap J, Pullmann R. Broncho-vaxom and IRS 19 in the treatment of recurrent respiratory tract inflammation in children [Broncho-vaxom a IRS 19 vliebe recidivujucich zapalov dychacich ciest u deti]. Ceskoslovenska Pediatrie 1992;47(11):666-9. [MEDLINE: 1483278]
  • Das 2000 {published data only}
  • Das GC. Evaluation of immunomodulatory effects of bacterial vaccine in patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections. VII International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI). 2000.
  • Fiocchi 1990 {published data only}
  • Fiocchi A, Arancio R, Cinquepalmi P, Sala M, Zuccotti GV, Riva E, et al.Recurrent respiratory infections in childhood: experience with a bacterial extract plus bacterial ribosomes (immucytal). Journal of International Medical Research 1990;18(1):50-60.
  • Fontana 1965 {published data only}
  • Fontana VJ, Salanitro AS, Wolfe HI, Moreno F. Hyposensitization with bacterial vaccine in infectious asthma. A double-blind study and a longitudinal study. JAMA 1965;193:895-900.
  • Grimfeld 2004 {published data only}
  • Grimfeld A, Holgate ST, Canonica GW, Bonini S, Borres MP, Adam D, et al.Prophylactic management of children at risk for recurrent upper respiratory infections: the preventia I study. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2004;34(11):1665-72. [PUBMED: 15544588]
  • Grimm 1999 {published data only}
  • Grimm W, Muller HH. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fluid extract of Echinacea purpurea on the incidence and severity of colds and respiratory infections. American Journal of Medicine 1999;106(2):138-43.
  • Heinz 2010 {published data only}
  • Heinz SA, Henson DA,  Austin MD, Jin F, Nieman DC. Quercetin supplementation and upper respiratory tract infection: a randomized community clinical trial. Pharmacological Research 2010;62(3):237-42.
  • Herrera-Basto 1998 {published data only}
  • Herrera-Basto E, Hernández-Guerra R, Escamilla G, Robledo JL. Pidotimod in the treatment of recurrent respiratory infection [Pidotimod en el tratamiento de la infección respiratoria recurrente]. Investigación Médica Internacional 1998;25(8):8-13.
  • Kozhukharova 1987 {published data only}
  • Kozhukharova MS, Slepushkin AN, Radeva KhT, Lavrukhina LA, Demidova SA. Evaluation of dipyridamole efficacy as an agent for preventing acute respiratory viral diseases. Voprosy Virusologii 1987;32(3):294-7.
  • Lauriello 1990 {published data only}
  • Lauriello G, Giella D, Berra A, Matonti V. Combination of oral bacterial vaccines and antibiotics in acute recurrent respiratory infections [Sull'associazione vaccino batterico orale e antibiotici in corso di infezioni respiratorie acute ricorrenti]. Clinica Terapeutica 1990;133:87-90.
  • Luchikhin 2000 {published data only}
  • Luchikhin LA, Beliakova LV, Gurov AV. Prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with IRS-19 and polydex with phenylephrine. Vestnik Otorinolaringologii 2000;4:54-7.
  • Ma 1994 {published data only}
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