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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Al-Nakib 1987 {published data only}
  • Al-Nakib W, Higgins PG, Barrow I, Batstone G, Tyrell DAJ. Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc gluconate lozenges. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1987;20:893-901.
  • Douglas 1987 {published data only}
  • Douglas R, Miles H, Moore B, Ryan P, Pinnock C. Failure of effervescent zinc acetate lozenges to alter the course of upper respiratory tract infections in Australian adults. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31(8):1263-5.
  • Farr 1987a {published data only}
  • Farr B, Conner E, Betts R, Oleski J, Minnefor A, Gwaltney J. Two randomised controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31(8):1183-7.
  • Godfrey 1992 {published data only}
  • Godfrey JC, Sloanne BB, Smith D, Turco JH, Mercer N, Godfrey NJ. Zinc gluconate and the common cold: a controlled clinical study. Journal of International Medical Research 1992;20(3):234-46.
  • Kurugol 2006a {published data only}
  • Kurugol Z, Akilli M, Bayram N, Koturoglu G. The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children. Acta Paediatrica 2006;95:1175-81.
  • Kurugol 2006b {published data only}
  • Kurugol Z, Akilli M, Bayram N, Koturoglu G. The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children. Acta Paediatrica 2006;95:1175-81.
  • Kurugol 2007 {published data only}
  • Kurugol Z, Bayram N, Atik T. Effect of zinc sulfate on common cold in children: randomized, double blind study. Pediatrics International 2007;49:842-7.
  • Macknin 1998 {published data only}
  • Macknin ML, Piedmonte M, Calendine C, Janosky J, Wald E. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold in children. JAMA 1998;279(24):1962-7.
  • Mossad 1996 {published data only}
  • Mossad SB, Macknin M, Medendorp S. Zinc gluconate lozenges for treating the common cold. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;125(2):81-8.
  • Petrus 1998 {published data only}
  • Petrus EJ, Lawson KA, Bucci LR, Blum K. Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc acetate lozenges on common cold symptoms in allergy-tested subjects. Current Therapeutic Research 1998;59(9):595-607.
  • Prasad 2000 {published data only}
  • Prasad AS, Fitzgerald JT, Bao B, Beck FWJ, Chandrasekar PH. Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;133(4):245-52.
  • Prasad 2008 {published data only}
  • Prasad AS, Beck FWJ, Bao B, Snell D, Fitzgerald JT. Duration and severity of symptoms and levels of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold treated with zinc acetate. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197(15):795-802.
  • Smith 1989 {published data only}
  • Smith DS, Helner EC, Nutall CE, Collins M, Rofman B, Ginsberg D, et al.Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1989;33(5):646-8.
  • Vakili 2009 {published data only}
  • Vakili R, Vahedian M, Khodaei GH, Mahmoudi M. Effects of zinc supplementation in occurrence and duration of common cold in school aged children during cold season: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2009;19(4):376-80.
  • Weismann 1990 {published data only}
  • Weismann K, Jakobsen J, Weismann JE, Hammer UM, Nyholm SM, Hansen B, et al.Zinc gluconate lozenges for common cold. Danish Medical Journal 1990;37:279-81.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Eby 1984 {published data only}
  • Eby GA, Davis DR, Halcomb WW. Reduction in duration of common colds by zinc gluconate lozenges in a double blind study. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1984;25:20-4.
  • McElroy 2003 {published data only}
  • McElroy BH, Miller SP. An open-label, single-center, phase IV clinical study of the effectiveness of zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (Cold-Eeze) in reducing the duration and symptoms of the common cold in school-aged subjects. American Journal of Therapeutics 2003;10:324-9.
  • Potter 1993 {published data only}
  • Potter YJ, Hart LL. Zinc lozenges for the common cold. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1993;27:589-91.
  • Turner 2000 {published data only}
  • Turner RB, Cetnarowski WE. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;31:1202-8.
  • Veverka 2009 {published data only}
  • Veverka DV, Wilson C, Martinez MA, Wenger R, Tamosuinas A. Use of zinc supplements to reduce upper respiratory infections in United States Air Force Academy Cadets. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2009;15:91-5.
  • Additional references
  • Chandra 1984
  • Chandra RK. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 1984;252:1443-6.
  • Couch 1984
  • Couch RB. The common cold control?. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1984;150:167-73.
  • Eby 1995
  • Eby GA. Linearity in dose-response from zinc lozenges in treatment of common colds. Journal of Pharmacy Technology 1995;11:110-12.
  • Eby 2004
  • Eby GA. Zinc lozenges: cold cure or candy? Solution chemistry determinations. Bioscience Reports 2004;24:23-39.
  • Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629-34.
  • Farr 1987b
  • Farr B, Gwaltney JM. The problems of taste in placebo matching: an evaluation of zinc gluconate for the common cold. Journal of Chronic Disease 1987;40(9):875-9.
  • Farr 1988
  • Farr B, Hayden FG, Gwaltney JM. Letter to the Editor. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1988;32:607.
  • Fendrick 2003
  • Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163(4):487-94.
  • Garibaldi 1985
  • Garibaldi RA. Epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory tract infections in adults. Incidence, etiology, and impact. American Journal of Medicine 1985;78(6B):32-7.
  • Geist 1987
  • Geist F, Bateman J, Hayden F. In vitro activity of zinc salts against human rhinoviruses. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31:622-4.
  • Gwaltney 1966
  • Gwaltney JM Jr, Hendley JO, Simon G, Jordan WS Jr. Rhinovirus infections in an industrial population. I. The occurrence of illness. New England Journal of Medicine 1966;275:1261-8.
  • Harisch 1987
  • Harisch G, Kretschmer M. Some aspects of a non-linear effect of zinc ions on the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 1987;55:39-48.
  • Hatch 1987
  • Hatch B, Berthon G. Metal ion-FTS nonapeptide interactions. A quantitative study of zinc(II)-nonapeptide complexes (thymulin) under physiological conditions and assessment of their biological significance. Inorganica Chimica Acta 1987;136:165-71.
  • Higgins 2003
  • Higgins JPT, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 2003;327(7414):557-60.
  • Higgins 2009
  • Higgins J, Altman DG. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.2 (updated September 2009). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
  • Hulisz 2004
  • Hulisz D. Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 2004;44:594-603.
  • Kelly 1983
  • Kelly RW, Abel MH. Copper and zinc inhibit the metabolism of prostaglandin by the human uterus. Biology of Reproduction 1983;28:883-9.
  • Kirkpatrick 1996
  • Kirkpatrick GL. The common cold. Primary Care 1996;23(4):657-75.
  • Korant 1976
  • Korant BD, Butterworth BE. Inhibition by zinc of rhinovirus protein cleavage: interaction of zinc with capsid polypeptides. Journal of Virology 1976;18:298-306.
  • Lau 1997
  • Lau J, Ioannidis JP, Schmid CH. Quantitative synthesis in systematic reviews. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;127:820-6.
  • Lefebvre 2009
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). In: Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
  • Macknin 1999
  • Macknin ML. Zinc lozenges for the common cold. Cleveland Clinical Journal of Medicine 1999;66:27-32.
  • Marshall 1998
  • Marshall S. Zinc gluconate and the common cold. Review of randomized controlled trials. Canadian Family Physician 1998;44:1037-42.
  • Novick 1996
  • Novick SG, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ, Wilder HR. How does zinc modify the common cold? Clinical observations and implications regarding mechanisms of action. Medical Hypotheses 1996;46:295-302.
  • Pasternak 1987
  • Pasternak CA. Virus, toxin, complement: common actions and their prevention by Ca2+ or Zn2+. Bioassays 1987;6:14-9.
  • Pfeiffer 1980
  • Pfeiffer CC, Papaioannou R, Sohler A. Effect of chronic zinc intoxication on copper levels, blood formation and polyamines. Orthomol Psychiatry 1980;9:79-89.
  • RevMan 2008
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
  • Rothman 1988
  • Rothman KJ. Causal inference. Epidemiology Resources, Boston: Chestnut Hill 1988.
  • Simasek 2007
  • Simasek M, Blandino DA. Treatment of the common cold. American Family Physician 2007;75(4):515-20.
  • Turner 2001
  • Turner RB. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antiviral Research 2001;49:1-4.
  • Zarembo 1992
  • Zarembo JE, Godfrey JC, Godfrey NJ. Zinc(II) in saliva: determination of concentrations produced by different formulations of zinc gluconate lozenges containing common excipients. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1992;81(2):128-30.
  • References to other published versions of this review
  • Marshall 1999
  • Marshall IIR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1999, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub2]