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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Akcan 2009 {published data only}
  • Akcan E, Yigit R, Atici A. The effect of kangaroo care on pain in premature infants during invasive procedures. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2009;51:14-8.
  • Allen 1996 {published data only}
  • Allen KD, White DD, Walburn JN. Sucrose as an analgesic agent for infants during immunization injections. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1996;150(3):270-4.
  • Axelin 2006 {published data only}
  • Axelin A, Salantera S, Lehtonen L. Facilitated tucking by parents in pain management of preterm infants - a randomized crossover trial. Early Human Development 2006;82:241-7.
  • Axelin 2009 {published data only}
  • Axelin A, Salantera S, Kirjavainen J, Lehtonen L. Oral glucose and parental holding preferable to opioid in pain management in preterm infants. Clinical Journal of Pain 2009;25:138-45.
  • Bauchner 1996 {published data only}
  • Bauchner H, Vinci R, Bak S, Pearson C, Corwin MJ. Parents and procedures: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 1996;98(5):861-7.
  • Bellieni 2001 {published data only}
  • Bellieni CV, Buonocore G, Nenci A, Franci N, Cordelli DM, Bagnoli F. Sensorial saturation: an effective analgesic tool for heel-prick in preterm infants. Biology of the Neonate 2001;80(1):15-8.
  • Bellieni 2002 {published data only}
  • Bellieni CV, Bagnoli F, Perrone S, Nenci A, Cordelli DM, Fusi M, et al.Effect of multisensory stimulation on analgesia in term neonates: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Research 2002;51(4):460-3.
  • Blass 1999 {published data only}
  • Blass EM, Watt LB. Suckling- and sucrose-induced analgesia in human newborns. Pain 1999;83(3):611-23.
  • Bo 2000 {published data only}
  • Bo LK, Callaghan P. Soothing pain-elicited distress in Chinese neonates. Pediatrics 2000;105(4):E49. [DOI: 10.1542/peds.105.4.e49]
  • Bustos 2008 {published data only}
  • Bustos T, Jaaniste T, Salmon K, Champion GD. Evaluation of a brief parent intervention teaching coping-promoting behavior for the infant immunization context: a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Modification 2008;32(4):450-67. [DOI: 10.1177/0145445507309031]
  • Campos 1994 {published data only}
  • Campos RG. Rocking and pacifiers: two comforting interventions for heelstick pain. Research in Nursing & Health 1994;17(5):321-31.
  • Carbajal 1999 {published data only}
  • Carbajal R, Chauvet X, Couderc S, Olivier-Martin M. Randomised trial of analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and pacifiers in term neonates. BMJ 1999;319(7222):1393-7.
  • Carbajal 2003 {published data only}
  • Carbajal R, Veerapen S, Couderc S, Jugie M, Ville Y. Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates: Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) 2003;326(7379):13.
  • Castral 2008 {published data only}
  • Castral TC, Warnock F, Leite AM, Haas VJ, Scochi, CGS. The effects of skin-to-skin contact during acute pain in preterm newborns. European Journal of Pain 2008;12:464-471.
  • Catelin 2005 {published data only}
  • Catelin C, Tordjman S, Morin V, Oger E, Sizun J. Clinical, physiologic, and biologic impact of environmental and behavioral interventions in neonates during a routine nursing procedure. Journal of Pain 2005;6(12):791-7. [DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2005.07.010]
  • Chermont 2009 {published data only}
  • Chermont AG, Falcao LFM, de Souza Silva EHL, de Cassia Xavier Balda R, Guinsburg R. Skin-to-skin contact and/or oral 25% dextrose for procedural pain relief for term newborn infants. Pediatrics 2009;124:1101-7. [DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-0993]
  • Cohen 2002 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL. Reducing infant immunization distress through distraction. Health Psychology 2002;21(2):207-11.
  • Cohen 2006 {published data only}
  • Cohen LL, MacLaren JE, Fortson BL, Friedman A, DeMore M, Lim CS, et al.Randomized clinical trial of distraction for infant immunization pain. Pain 2006;125(1-2):165-71.
  • Comaru 2009 {published data only}
  • Comaru T, Miura E. Postural support improves distress and pain during diaper change in preterm infants. Journal of Perinatology 2009;29:504-7. [DOI: 10.1038/jp.2009.13]
  • Corbo 2000 {published data only}
  • Corbo MG, Mansi G, Stagni A, Romano A, van den Heuvel J, Capasso Let al. Nonnutritive sucking during heelstick procedures decreases behavioral distress in the newborn infant. Biology of the Neonate 2000;77(3):162-7.
  • Corff 1995 {published data only}
  • Corff KE, Seideman R, Venkataraman PS, Lutes L, Yates B. Facilitated tucking: a nonpharmacologic comfort measure for pain in preterm neonates. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing 1995;24(2):143-7.
  • Cramer-Berness 2005 {published data only}
  • Cramer-Berness LJ, Friedman AG. Behavioral interventions for infant immunizations. Children's Health Care 2005;34(2):95-111.
  • Cramer-Berness 2005b {published data only}
  • Cramer-Berness LJ. A comparison of behavioral interventions for infant immunizations. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2005;66(12-B):6916.
  • Curtis 2007 {published data only}
  • Curtis SJ, Jou H, Ali S, Vandermeer B, Klassen T. A randomized controlled trial of sucrose and/or pacifier as analgesia for infants receiving venipuncture in a pediatric emergency department. BMC Pediatrics 2007;7:27.
  • de Sousa 2008 {published data only}
  • de Sousa Freire NB, Santos Garcia JB, Carvalho Lamy Z. Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates. Pain 2008;139(1):28-33. [DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.02.031]
  • Elserafy 2009 {published data only}
  • Elserafy FA, Alsaedi SA, Louwrens J, Bin Sadiq B, Mersal AY. Oral sucrose and a pacifier for pain relief during simple procedures in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Saudi Medicine 2009;29(3):184-8. [DOI: 10.4103/0256-4947.52821]
  • Fearon 1997 {published data only}
  • Fearon I, Kisilevsky BS, Hains SMJ, Muir DW, Tranmer J. Swaddling after heel lance: age-specific effects on behavioral recovery in preterm infants. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1997;18(4):222-32.
  • Ferber 2008 {published data only}
  • Ferber SG, Makhoul IR. Neurobehavioural assessment of skin-to-skin effects on reaction to pain in preterm infants: a randomized, controlled within-subject trial. Acta Paediatrica 2008;97(2):171-6. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00607.x]
  • Gormally 2001 {published data only}
  • Gormally S, Barr RG, Wertheim L, Alkawaf R, Calinoiu N, Young SN. Contact and nutrient caregiving effects on newborn infant pain responses. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2001;43(1):28-38.
  • Gray 2000 {published data only}
  • Gray L, Watt L, Blass EM. Skin-to-skin contact is analgesic in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 2000;105(1):e14.
  • Greenberg 2002 {published data only}
  • Greenberg CS. A sugar-coated pacifier reduces procedural pain in newborns. Pediatric Nursing 2002;28(3):271-7.
  • Herrington 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • Herrington CJ. Reducing pain of heelstick in premature infants with gentle human touch. Wayne State University Doctoral Dissertation unpublished:1-229.
  • Hill 2005 {published data only}
  • Hill S, Engle S, Jorgensen J, Kralik A, Whitman K. Effects of facilitated tucking during routine care of infants born preterm. Pediatric Physical Therapy 2005;17(2):158-63.
  • Hillgrove Stuart 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Hillgrove Stuart J, Pillai Riddell R. Distraction as a pain management strategy for infants. Master's Thesis unpublished.
  • Im 2008 {published data only}
  • Im H, Kim E, Park E, Sung K, Oh W. Pain reduction of heel stick in neonates: Yakson compared to non-nutritive sucking. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2008;54(1):31-5.
  • Ipp 2004 {published data only}
  • Ipp M, Taddio A, Goldbach M, Ben David S, Stevens B, Koren G. Effects of age, gender and holding on pain response during infant immunization. Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2004;11(1):e2-7.
  • Jain 2006 {published data only}
  • Jain S, Kumar P, McMillan DD. Prior leg massage decreases pain responses to heel stick in preterm babies. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health 2006;42(9):505-8. [DOI: 10.111/j.1440-1754.2006.00912.x]
  • Johnston 1997 {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Stremler RL, Stevens BJ, Horton LJ. Effectiveness of oral sucrose and simulated rocking on pain response in preterm neonates. Pain 1997;72(1-2):193-9.
  • Johnston 2003 {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Stevens B, Pinelli J, Gibbins S, Filion F, Jack A, et al.Kangaroo care is effective in diminishing pain response in preterm neonates. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2003;157(11):1084-8.
  • Johnston 2007 {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Filion F, Nuyt AM. Recorded maternal voice for preterm neonates undergoing heel lance. Advances in Neonatal Care 2007;7(5):258-66.
  • Kashaninia 2008 {published data only}
  • Kashaninia Z, Sajedi F, Rahgozar M, Noghabi FA. The effect of kangaroo care on behavioral responses to pain of an intramuscular injection in neonates. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 2008;13(4):275-80.
  • Kostandy 2008 {published data only}
  • Kostandy RR, Ludington-Hoe SM, Cong X, Abouelfettoh A, Bronson C, Stankus A, et al.Kangaroo care (skin contact) reduces crying response to pain in preterm neonates: pilot results. Pain Management Nursing 2008;9(2):55-65.
  • Kozub 2001 {unpublished data only}
  • Kozub ML. The effect of therapeutic touch on pain response in infants receiving injections. Ohio: Medical College of Ohio, 2001.
  • Liaw 2010 {published data only}
  • Liaw J, Yang L, Ti Y, Tucker Blackburn S, Chang Y, Sun L. Non-nutritive sucking relieves pain for preterm infants during heel stick procedures in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2010;19:2741-51.
  • Liu 2010 {published data only}
  • Liu M, Lin K, Chou Y, Lee T. Using non-nutritive sucking and oral glucose solution with neonates to relieve pain: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2010;19:1604-11.
  • Morrow 2010 {published data only}
  • Morrow C, Hidinger A, Wilkinson-Faulk D. Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures. American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing 2010;35(6):346-54.
  • Sizun 2002 {published data only}
  • Sizun J, Ansquer H, Browne J, Tordjman S, Morin JF. Developmental care decreases physiologic and behavioral pain expression in preterm neonates. Journal of Pain 2002;3(6):446-50.
  • Stevens 1999 {published data only}
  • Stevens B, Johnston C, Franck L, Petryshen P, Jack A, Foster G. The efficacy of developmentally sensitive interventions and sucrose for relieving procedural pain in very low birth weight neonates. Nursing Research 1999;48(1):35-43.
  • Ward-Larson 2004 {published data only}
  • Ward-Larson C, Horn RA, Gosnell F. The efficacy of facilitated tucking for relieving procedural pain of endotracheal suctioning in very low birthweight infants. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 2004;29(3):151-6.
  • Whipple 2004 {published data only}
  • Whipple J. The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on state of preterm, low birthweight infants experiencing heelstick. Florida: The Florida State University, 2004.
  • Yilmaz 2010 {published data only}
  • Yilmaz F, Arikan D. The effects of various interventions to newborns on pain and duration of crying. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2010;20:1008-17.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Abedin 2008 {published data only}
  • Abedin S, Kapoor G. Peripherally inserted central venous catheters are a good option for prolonged venous access in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood Cancer 2008;51:251-5.
  • Aguirre 2008 {published data only}
  • Aguirre Unceta-Barrenechea A, Saitua Iturriaga G, Sainz de Rozas Aparicio I, Riveira Fernandez D. Analgesia when taking heel-lance blood in the newborn. Anales de Pediatria 2008;69(6):544-7.
  • Al-Bekaa 2003 {published data only}
  • Al-Bekaa S. Harmonic scalpel tonsillectomy vs diathermy tonsillectomy: a comparative study. Australian Journal of Otolaryngology 2003;6(2):78-80.
  • Aslanabadi 2008 {published data only}
  • Aslanabadi S, Ghalehgolab-Behbahan A, Zarrintan S, Jamshidi M, Seyyedhejazi M. Transanal one-stage endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease: a comparison with the staged procedures. Pediatric Surgery International 2008;24:925-9.
  • Axelin 2010 {published data only}
  • Axelin A, Lehtonen L, Pelander T, Slantera S. Mothers' different styles of involvement in preterm infant pain care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 2010;39:415-24.
  • Bellieni 2003 {published data only}
  • Bellieni CV, Bagnoli F, Cordelli DM, Perrone S, Nenci A, Buonocore G. Analgesia for premature children. Italian Journal of Pediatrics 2003;29(4):286-90.
  • Bellieni 2007 {published data only}
  • Bellieni CV, Cordelli DM, Marchi S, Ceccarelli S, Perrone S, Maffei M, et al.Sensorial saturation for neonatal analgesia. Clinical Journal of Pain 2007;23(3):219-21.
  • Boots 2010 {published data only}
  • Boots BK, Edmundson EE. A controlled, randomised trial comparing single to multiple application lidocaine analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing urethral catheterisation procedures. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2010;19:744-8.
  • Bueno 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • Bueno M, Bussotti E, DaSilva A, Leao E. Non nutritive sucking and swaddling for pain relief in term neonates. Abstract from the International Symposium on Pediatric Pain 2010:1.
  • Campbell-Yeo 2009 {published data only}
  • Campbell-Yeo ML, Johnston C, Joseph KS, Feeley NL, Chambers CT, Barrington KJ. Co-bedding as a comfort measure for twins undergoing painful procedures (CComForT Trial). BMC Pediatrics 2009;9:76. [DOI: 10.1 186/1471-2431-9-76]
  • Campos 1989 {published data only}
  • Campos RG. Soothing pain-elicited distress in infants with swaddling and pacifiers. Child Development 1989;60(4):781-92.
  • Carlson 2000 {published data only}
  • Carlson KL, Broome M, Vessey JA. Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses 2000;5(2):75-85.
  • Cignacco 2008 {published data only}
  • Cignacco E, Hamers JP, Van Lingen RA, Zimmermann LJI, Muller R, Gessler P, et al.Pain relief in ventilated preterm infants during endotracheal suctioning: a randomized controlled trial. Swiss Medical Weekly 2008;138(43-44):635-45.
  • Cologna 1999 {published data only}
  • Cologna M, Sperandio L. The effect of two different methods of heel lancing on pain reaction in preterm neonates. Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca:Air 1999;18(4):185-92.
  • Cong 2009 {published data only}
  • Cong X, Ludington-Hoe SM, McCain G, Fu P. Kangaroo care modifies preterm infant heart rate variability in response to heel stick pain: pilot study. Early Human Development 2009;85:561-7. [DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.05.012]
  • D'Agostino 2008 {published data only}
  • D'Agostino R, Tarantino V, Calevo MG. Blunt dissection versus electronic molecular resonance bipolar dissection for tonsillectomy: operative time and intraoperative and postoperative bleeding and pain. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2008;72(7):1077-84.
  • Dahlquist 2002 {published data only}
  • Dahlquist LM, Pendley JS, Landthrip DS, Jones CL, Steuber CP. Distraction intervention for preschoolers undergoing intramuscular injections and subcutaneous port access. Health Psychology 2002;21(1):94-9.
  • Diego 2009 {published data only}
  • Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M. Procedural pain heart rate responses in massaged preterm infants. Infant Behavior & Development 2009;32:226-9. [DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2008.12.001]
  • Dilen 2010 {published data only}
  • Dilen B, Elseviers M. Oral glucose solution as pain relief in newborns: results of a clinical trial. Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care 2010;37(2):98-105.
  • Drago 2009 {published data only}
  • Drago LA, Singh SB, Douglass-Bright A, Yaa Yiadom M, Baumann BM. Efficacy of ShotBlocker in reducing pediatric pain associated with intramuscular injections. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2009;27:536-43. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2008.04.011]
  • Duncan 2004 {published data only}
  • Duncan B, Barton L, Edmonds D, Blashill BM. Parental perceptions of the therapeutic effect from osteopathic manipulation or acupuncture in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Clinical Pediatrics 2004;43(4):349-53.
  • El-Naggar 2010 {published data only}
  • El-Naggar W, Yiu A, Mohamed A, Shah V, Manley J, McNamara P, et al.Comparison of pain during two methods of urine collection in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2010;125(6):1224-9.
  • Favara-Scacco 2001 {published data only}
  • Favara-Scacco C, Smirne G, Schiliro G, Di Cataldo A. Art therapy as support for children with leukemia during painful procedures. Medical & Pediatric Oncology 2001;36(4):474-80.
  • Felt 2000 {published data only}
  • Felt BT, Mollen E, Diaz S, Renaud E, Zeglis M, Wheatcroft G, Mendelow D. Behavioral interventions reduce infant distress at immunization. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medine 2000;154:719-724.
  • Gedaly-Duff 1992 {published data only}
  • Gedaly-Duff V, Burns C. Reducing children's pain-distress associated with injections using cold: a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 1992;4(3):95-9.
  • Gold 2006 {published data only}
  • Gold JI, Kim SH, Kant AJ, Joseph MH, Rizzo AS. Effectiveness of virtual reality for pediatric pain distraction during i.v. placement. Cyberpsychology & Behavior 2006;9(2):207-12.
  • Gonzalez 1989 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez JC, Routh DK, Saab PG, Armstrong FD, Shifman L, Guerra Eet al. Effects of parent presence on children's reactions to injections: behavioral, physiological, and subjective aspects. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1989;14(3):449-62.
  • Gonzalez 1993 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez JC, Routh DK, Armstrong FD. Effects of maternal distraction versus reassurance on children's reactions to injections. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1993;18(5):593-604.
  • Goubet 2003 {published data only}
  • Goubet N, Rattaz C, Pierrat V, Bullinger A, Lequien P. Olfactory experience mediates response to pain in preterm newborns. Developmental Psychobiology 2003;42(2):171-80.
  • Goubet 2007 {published data only}
  • Goubet N, Strasbaugh K, Chesney J. Familiarity breeds content? Soothing effect of a familiar odor on full-term newborns. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 2007;28(3):189-94.
  • Greenberg 1997 {published data only}
  • Greenberg CS. An evaluation of the efficacy of selected nonpharmacologic pain interventions in infants. San Diego: University of San Diego, 1997.
  • Grunau 2004 {published data only}
  • Grunau RE, Linhares MB, Holsti L, Oberlander TF, Whitfield MF. Does prone or supine position influence pain responses in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestational age?. Clinical Journal of Pain 2004;20(2):76-82.
  • Hanson 2010 {published data only}
  • Hanson D, Hall W, Mills LL, Au S, Bhagat R, Hernandez M, et al.Comparison of distress and pain in infants randomized to groups receiving standard versus multiple immunizations. Infant Behavior and Development 2010;33:289-96.
  • Harrison 2000 {published data only}
  • Harrison LL, Williams AK, Berbaum ML, Stem JT, Leeper J. Physiologic and behavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm infants. Research in Nursing & Health 2000;23(6):435-46.
  • Hatem 2006 {published data only}
  • Hatem TP, Lira PI, Mattos SS. The therapeutic effects of music in children following cardiac surgery. Jornal de Pediatria 2006;82(3):186-92.
  • He 2010 {published data only}
  • He H, Jahja R, Lee T, Ang E, Sinnappan R, Vehvilainen-Julkunen K, et al.Nurses' use of non-pharmacological methods in children's postoperative pain management: educational intervention study. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2010;66(11):2398-409.
  • Heden 2009 {published data only}
  • Heden L, von Essen L, Ljungman G. Randomized interventions for needle procedures in children with cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care 2009;18:358-63. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2354.2008.00939.x]
  • Hoffman 2006 {published data only}
  • Hoffman HG, Richards TL, Bills AR, Van Oostrom T, Magula J, Seibel EJ, et al.Using fMRI to study the neural correlates of virtual reality analgesia. CNS Spectrums 2006;11(1):45-51.
  • Holsti 2005 {published data only}
  • Holsti L, Grunau RE, Oberlander TF, Whitfield MF. Prior pain induces heightened motor responses during clustered care in preterm infants in the NICU. Early Human Development 2005;81(3):293-302.
  • Hsu 1995 {published data only}
  • Hsu CY, Huang LM, Lee CY, Lin TY, Lee PI, Chen JM. Local massage after vaccination enhances the immunogenicity of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1995;14(7):567-72.
  • Huang 1999 {published data only}
  • Huang FY, Huang LM. Effect of local massage on vaccination: DTP and DTPa. Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica 1999;40(3):166-70.
  • Huang 2004 {published data only}
  • Huang CM, Tung WS, Kuo LL, Ying-Ju C. Comparison of pain responses of premature infants to the heelstick between containment and swaddling. Journal of Nursing Research 2004;12(1):31-40.
  • Ida 2008 {published data only}
  • Ida S, Yoshimura N, Nakacho M, Ota M, Mine H, Moriyama H, et al.Evaluation of the use of PenNeedle 32G Taper in children being treated with growth hormone. Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 2008;17(1):1-7.
  • Ipp 2007 {published data only}
  • Ipp M, Taddio A, Sam J, Goldbach M, Parkin PC. Vaccine-related pain: randomised controlled trial of two injection techniques. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2007;92(12):1105-8.
  • Ipp 2009 {published data only}
  • Ipp M, Parkin PC, Lear N, Goldbach M, Taddio A. Order of vaccine injection and infant pain response. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(5):469-72.
  • Jackson 2008 {published data only}
  • Jackson LA, Starkovich P, Dunstan M, Yu O, Nelson J, Dunn J, et al.Prospective assessment of the effect of needle length and injection site on the risk of local reactions to the fifth diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccination. Pediatrics 2008;21(3):e646-52.
  • Jo 2007 {published data only}
  • Jo SH, Mathiasen RA, Gurushanthaiah D. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of a hemostatic sealant in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 2007;137(3):154-8.
  • Johnston 2007b {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Gagnon A, Rennick J, Rosmus C, Patenaude H, Ellis J, et al.One-on-one coaching to improve pain assessment and management practices of pediatric nurses. Pediatric Nursing 2007;22(6):467-78.
  • Johnston 2008a {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Filion F, Campbell-Yeo M, Goulet C, Bell L, McNaughton K, et al.Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: a crossover trial. BMC Pediatrics 2008;8:13. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-13]
  • Johnston 2009 {published data only}
  • Johnston CC, Filion F, Campbell-Yeo M, Goulet C, Bell L, McNaughton K, et al.Enhanced kangaroo mother care for heel lance in preterm neonates: a crossover trial. Journal of Perinatology 2009;29:51-6. [DOI: 10.1038/jp.2008.113]
  • Kivijärvi 2008 {published data only}
  • Kivijärvi R, Palviainen J. "Just like I had kicked my toe" -- Children's experiences of postsurgical pain. Sairaanhoitaja 2008;81(1):27-9.
  • Koivusalo 2009 {published data only}
  • Koivusalo AI, Korpela R, Wirtavuori K, Piiparinen S, Rintala RJ, Pakarinen MP. A single-blinded, randomized comparison of laparoscopic versus open hernia repair in children. Pediatrics 2009;123(1):332-7.
  • Leclair 2007 {published data only}
  • Leclair MD, Plattner V, Mirallie E, Lejus C, Nguyen JM, Podevin G, et al.Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 2007;42(4):692-8.
  • Li 2007 {published data only}
  • Li HCW, Lopez V, Lee TLI. Effects of preoperative therapeutic play on outcomes of school-age children undergoing day surgery. Research in Nursing & Health 2007;30(3):320-32.
  • Ludington-Hoe 2005 {published data only}
  • Ludington-Hoe SM, Hosseini R, Torowicz DL. Skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) analgesia for preterm infant heel stick. AACN Clinical Issues 2005;16(3):373-87.
  • MacLaren 2005 {published data only}
  • MacLaren JE, Cohen LL. A comparison of distraction strategies for venipuncture distress in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2005;30(5):387-96.
  • Manne 1990 {published data only}
  • Manne SL, Redd WH, Jacobsen PB, Gorfinkle K, Schorr O, Rapkin B. Behavioral intervention to reduce child and parent distress during venipuncture. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 1990;58(5):565-72.
  • Marchisotti 2007 {published data only}
  • Marchisotti FG, Carvalho LR, Berger K, Arnhold IJ, Mendonca BB. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency treatment in children: comparison between uses of pen versus bottles/syringes on GH administration. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia 2007;51(7):1093-6.
  • Marec-Berard 2009 {published data only}
  • Marec-Berard P, Bissery A, Kebaili K, Schell M, Aubert F, Gaillard S, et al.A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Cancer 2009;9:21. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-21]
  • Marin Gabriel 2010 {published data only}
  • Marin Gabriel MA, Llana Martin I, Lopez Escobar A, Fernandez Villalba E, Romero Blanco I, Touza Pol P. Randomized controlled trial of early skin-to-skin contact: effects on the mother and the newborn. Acta Paediatrica 2010;99:1630-4.
  • McCarthy 2010 {published data only}
  • McCarthy A, Lieiber C, Hanrahan K, Zimmerman B, Westhus N, Allen S. Impact of parent-provided distraction on child responses to an IV insertion. Children's Health Care 2010;39:125-41.
  • Michel 2008 {published data only}
  • Michel RG, Weinstock BI, Tsau K. Safety and efficacy of pressure-assisted tissue-welding tonsillectomy: a preliminary evaluation. Ear, Nose & Throat Journal 2008;87(2):100-12.
  • Morelius 2009 {published data only}
  • Morelius E, Theodorsson E, Nelson N. Stress at three-month immunization: parents' and infants' salivary cortisol response in relation to the use of pacifier and oral glucose. European Journal of Pain 2009;13(2):202-8.
  • Mucignat 2004 {published data only}
  • Mucignat V, Ducrocq S, Lebas F, Mochel F, Baudon JJ, Gold F. Analgesic effects of Emla cream and saccharose solution for subcutaneous injections in preterm newborns: a prospective study of 265 injections. Archives de Pediatrie 2004;11(8):921-5.
  • Okan 2010 {published data only}
  • Okan F, Ozdil A, Bulbul A, Yapici Z, Nuhoglu A. Analgesic effects of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding in procedural pain in healthy term neonates. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 2010;30:119-28.
  • Ozdogan 2010 {published data only}
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