SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Dietcher 2004 {published data only}
  • * Deitcher SR, Fraschini G, Himmelfarb J, Schuman E, Smith TJ, Schulz GA, et al.Dose-ranging trial with a recombinant urokinase for occluded central venous catheters in oncology patients. Journal of Vascular Interventional Radiology 2004;15:575-9. [PUBMED: 15178717]
  • Fink 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fink JM, Capozzi D, Shermock KM, Militello MA, Huston T, Kalaycio M, et al.Alteplase for central catheter clearance: does 1mg/ml versus 2mg/2ml. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2004;38:351. [PUBMED: 14742778]
  • Haire 1994 {published and unpublished data}
  • Haire WD, Atkinson JB, Stephens LC, Kotulak GD. Urokinase versus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in thrombosed central venous catheters:a double-blinded, randomized trial. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1994;72(4):543-7. [PUBMED: 7878629]
  • Haire 2004 {published data only}
  • Haire WD, Deitcher SR, Mullane KM, Jaff MR, Firszt CM, Schulz GA, et al.Recombinant urokinase for restoration of patency in occluded central venous access devices: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2004;92:575-82. [PUBMED: 15351854]
  • Horne III 1997 {published data only}
  • Horne MK III, Mayo DJ. Low-dose urokinase infusions to treat fibrinous obstruction of venous access devices in cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology July;15(7):2709-14. [PUBMED: 9215844]
  • Moll 2006 {published data only}
  • Moll S, Kenyon P, Bertoli L, De Maio J, Homesley, Deitcher SR. Phase II trial of alfimeprase, a novel-acting fibrin degradation agent, for occluded central venous access devices. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006;24(19):3056-60. [PUBMED: 16809729]
  • Ponec 2001 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • * Ponec D, Irwin D, Haire WD, Hill PA, Li X, McCluskey ER. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) for restoration of flow in occluded central venous access devices: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial - the cardiovascular thrombolytic to open occluded lines (COOL) efficacy trial. Journal of Vascular Interventional Radiology 2001;12:951-5. [PUBMED: 11487675]
  • Semba CP, Deitcher SR, Li X, Resnansky L, Tu T, McCluskey ER, Cardiovascular Thrombolytic to Open Occluded Lines Investigators. Treatment of occluded central venous catheters with alteplase: results in 1,064. Journal of Interventional Radiology 2002;13:1199-205. [PUBMED: 12471182]
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Barrett 1990 {published data only}
  • Barrett PJ, Lester RL. Heparin versus saline flushing solutions in a small community hospital. Hospital Pharmacy 1990;25:115-9. [PUBMED: 10103699]
  • Lawson 1982 {published data only}
  • Lawson M, Bottino JC, Hurtubise MR, McCredie KB. The use of urokinase to restore the patency of occluded central venous catheters. The American Journal of Intravenous Therapy & Clinical Nutrition 1982;9(9):29-32.
  • Molinari 2004 {published data only}
  • Molinari AC, Haupt R, Saracco P, Di Marco M, Castagnola E, Fratino G. Urokinase for restoring patency of malfunctioning or blocked central venous catheters in children with hemato-oncological diseases. Supportive Cancer Care 2004;12:840-3. [PUBMED: 15365798]
  • Ng 2004 {published data only}
  • Ng R, Li X, Tu T, Semba C. Alteplase for treatment of occluded peripherally inserted central catheters: safety and efficacy in 240 patients. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2004;15:45-9. [PUBMED: 14709686]
  • Owens 2002 {published data only}
  • Owens L. Reteplase for clearance of occluded venous catheters. American Journal of Health System Pharmacy 2002;59:1638-40. [PUBMED: 12224345]
  • Study 1974 {published data only}
  • No authors listed. Urokinase-streptokinase embolism trial: phase 2 results. A cooperative study. JAMA 1974;229(12):1606-13. [PUBMED: 4408392]
  • Svoboda 1990 {published data only}
  • Svoboda P, Barton RP, Barbarash OL, Butylin AA, Jacobs BR, Lata J, et al.Recombinant urokinase is safe and effective in restoring patency to occluded central venous access devices: A multiple-centre international trial. Critical Care Medical 2004;32(10):1990-6. [PUBMED: 15483405]
  • Zeitler 1976 {published data only}
  • Zeitler E. The action of various drugs in the prevention of re-occlusion following Dotter's catheter disobliteration [Wirkung verschiedener Medikamente zur Verhütung des Reverschlusses nach Katheter-Desobliteration nach Dotter]. Die Medizinische Welt 1976;27(28):1377-80. [PUBMED: 785147]
  • References to studies awaiting assessment
  • Gabrail 2010 {published data only}
  • * Gabrail N, Sandler E, Charu V, Anas N, Lim E, Blaney M, et al.TROPICS 1: a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional catheters. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology December 2010;21(12):1852-8.
  • Levine R {unpublished data only}
  • Levine R. A study of tenecteplase for restoration of function in dysfunctional central venous catheters. ClinicalTrials.gov Nov 2006.
  • Muller 2010 {published data only}
  • Muller C, Jacquier A, Varoquaux A, Cohen F, Louis G, Gaubert JY, et al.Urokinase in the management of occluded PICC lines. Journal of Radiologie March 2010;3 C1:287-91. [PUBMED: 20508559]
  • NCT00073515 {unpublished data only}
  • Authors not reported. Trial of a novel fibrinolytic (alfimeprase) to clear thrombosed vascular access devices. ClinicalTrials.gov 21st November 2003.
  • Additional references
  • 1970
  • [No authors listed] 1970. Urokinase Pulmonary Embolism Trial: Phase I Results. JAMA 1974;229(12):1606. [PUBMED: 5536580]
  • Atkinson 1989
  • Atkinson JB, Bagnall HA, Gomperts E. Investigational use of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for occluded central venous catheters. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1989;14(3):310-11. [PUBMED: 2112648]
  • Barnacle 2007
  • Barnacle A, Arthurs OJ, Roebuck D, Hiorns MP. Malfunctioning central venous catheters in children: a diagnostic approach. Pediatric Radiology 2007;38(4):363-78. [PUBMED: 2292495]
  • Bertina 1997
  • Bertina RM. Introduction: hypercoagulable states. Seminars in Hematology 1997;34(3):167-9. [PUBMED: 9241703]
  • Blaney 2006
  • Blaney M, Shen V, Kerner JA, Jacobs BR, Gray S, Armfield J, Semba CP. Alteplase for the treatment of central venous catheter occlusion in children: results of a prospective, open label, single arm study (the cathflo activase pediatric study). Journal of Vascular Interventional Radiology 2006;17:1745-51. [DOI: 10.1097/01.RVI.0000241542.71063.83]
  • BMA 2002
  • British Medical Association. In: Michael Peters editor(s). The British Medical Dictionary. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2002. [: ISBN 0-7513-3383-2]
  • Bouza 1999
  • Bouza E, Perez-Molina J, Munoz P (ESGNI) obotCGotESGoNI. Report of ESGNI-001 and ESGNI-002 studies. Bloodstream infections in Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 1999;5:2S1-2S12. [DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.1999.tb00536.x]
  • Breux 1987
  • Breux CW, Duke D, Georgeson KE, Mestre JR. Calcium phosphate crystal occlusion of central venous catheters used for total parenteral nutrition in infants and children prevention and treatment. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 1987;22(9):829-32. [DOI: 10.1016/s0022-3468(87)80648-6]
  • Bussieres 2001
  • Busseires JF, Therrien R, David M, Leclair JP, Harel F. Efficacy of urokinase and alteplase to reopen occluded central venous catheters in children. Journal of Pharmacology Technology 2001;17:95-97.
  • Chaiyakunapruk 2002
  • Chaiyakunapruk N, Veenstra D, Lipsky B, Saint S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidine-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: A meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;136(11):792-801. [PUBMED: 12044127]
  • Chesler 2002
  • Chesler L, Feusner JH. Use of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in young children with cancer and dysfunctional central venous catheters. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 2002;24(8):653--56. [PUBMED: 12439038]
  • Choi 2001
  • Choi M, Masicotte P, Marzinotto V, Chan AK, Holmes JL, Andrew M. The use of alteplase to restore patency of central venous lines in pediatric patients: a cohort study. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:152-6. [DOI: 10.1067/mpd.2001.115019]
  • Cook 1997
  • Cook D, Randolph A, Kernerman P, Cupido C, King D, Soukup C, Brun-Buisson C. Central venous catheter replacement strategies: A systematic review of the literature. Critical Care Medical 1997;25(8):1417-24. [PUBMED: 9267959]
  • Deitcher 2002
  • Deitcher SR, Fesen MR, Kiproff PM, Hill PA, Li X, McCluskey ER, Semba CP. Safety and efficacy of alteplase for restoring function in occluded central venous catheters: results of the cardiovascular thrombolytic to open occluded lines trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20(1):317-24. [PUBMED: 11773185]
  • Duffy 1989
  • Duffy LF, Kerzner B, Gebus V, Dice J. Treatment of central venous catheter occlusions with hydrochloric acid. Journal of Pediatrics 1989;114(6):1002-4. [PUBMED: 2498489]
  • Elliot 1993
  • Elliot TS. Line-associated bacteraemias. Communicable Disease Report. CDR review 1993;3:R91-6. [PUBMED: 7693163]
  • Goodwin 1991
  • Goodwin ML. Using sodium bicarbonate to clear a medication precipitate from a central venous catheter. Journal of Vascular Access Networks 1991;1:23.
  • Guyatt 2008
  • Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Vist GE, Falck-Ytter Y, Schunemann HJ. What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians?. BMJ 2008;336:995-8. [PUBMED: 18456631]
  • Hadaway 1998
  • Hadaway L. Major thrombotic and nonthrombotic complications. Journal of Intravenous Nursing 1998;21(5):s143-59. [PUBMED: 9814289]
  • Hamilton 1993
  • Hamilton H. Care improves whilst costs reduce. The clinical nurse specialist in total parenteral nutrition. Professional Nurse 1993;8(6):592-8. [PUBMED: 8511159]
  • Hardy 2005
  • Hardy G, Ball P. Clogbusting: time for a concerted approach to catheter occlusions?. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2005;8(3):277-83. [PUBMED: 15809530]
  • Hardy 2006
  • Hardy G, Ball P. Avoiding catheter complications with lipid containing parenteral nutrition. British Journal of Intensive Care 2006;16(2):64-7.
  • Herbst 1998
  • Herbst S, Kaplan LK, McKinnon BT. Vascular access devices: managing related complications in home infusion. Infusion 1998;4 Suppl:1-32.
  • Higgins 2003
  • Higgins JP, Thompson S, Deeks J, Altman D. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327:557-60. [PUBMED: 12958120]
  • Higgins 2011a
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG (editors). Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
  • Higgins 2011b
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG (editors). Chapter 16: Special topics in statistics. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [Updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
  • Hockenhull 2008
  • Hockenhull JC, Dwan K, Boland A, Smith G, Bagust A, Dundar Y, et al.The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of central venous catheters treated with anti-infective agents in preventing bloodstream infections: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2008;12(12):1-151. [PUBMED: 18405471]
  • Jacobs 2001
  • Jacobs BR, Haygood M, Hingl J. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in the treatment of central venous catheter occlusion in children. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:593-6. [PUBMED: 11598611]
  • Jacobs 2003
  • Jacobs BR. Central venous catheter occlusion and thrombosis. Critical Care Clinical 2003;19:489-514. [PUBMED: 12848317 ]
  • Juni 2001
  • Juni P, Altman DG, Egger M. Systematic reviews in health care: Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials. BMJ 2001;323(7303):42-6. [PUBMED: 11440947]
  • Liu 2004
  • Liu CY, Jain V, Shields AF, Heilbrun LK. Efficacy and safety of reteplase for central venous catheter occlusion in patients with cancer. Journal of Vascular Interventional Radiology 2004;15:39-44. [DOI: 10.1097/01.RVI.0000106385.63463.EC]
  • Mammen 1992
  • Mammen EF. Pathogenisis of venous thrombosis. Chest 1992;102(6):640s-4s. [PUBMED: 1451539]
  • McKinnon 1996
  • McKinnon BT. Techniques and Procedures FDA Safety Alert: Hazards of precipitation associated with parenteral nutrition. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 1996;11(3):59-65. [PUBMED: 8788339]
  • Moureau 2002
  • Moureau N, Poole S, Murdock MA, Gray SM, Semba CP. Central venous catheters in home infusion care: Outcomes analysis in 50,470 patients. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology 2002;10(13):1009-16. [PUBMED: 12397122]
  • Nazario 2002
  • Nazario R, Delorenzo LJ, McGuire GP. Treatment of venous thromboembolism. Cardiology in Review 2002;10(4):249-59. [PUBMED: 12144736]
  • RevMan 5.1
  • Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
  • Sando 1997
  • Sando K, Fujii K, Tanaka K, Chen H, Yoshida Y, Iiboshi R, et al.Lock method using sodium hydroxide solution to clear occluded central venous access devices. Clinical Nutrition 1997;16:185-8. [PUBMED: 16844597]
  • Schindler 1999
  • Schindler J, Bona RD, Chen HH, Feingold JM, Edwards RL, Tutschka PJ, Bilgrami S. Regional thrombolysis with urokinase for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with autologous blood stem cell rescue. Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 1999;5(1):25-9. [PUBMED: 10725979]
  • Schultz 2010
  • Schultz KF, Altman DG, Moher D for the CONSORT Group. CONSORT 2010 Statetment: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2010;152(11):1-8. [PUBMED: 20335313]
  • Shen 2003
  • Shen V, Li X, Murdock M, Resnansky L, McClusky ER, Semba CP. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase) for restoration of function to occluded central venous catheters in pediatric patients. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 2003;25(1):38-45. [PUBMED: 12544772]
  • Shulman 1988
  • Shulman RJ, Reed T, Pitre D. Use of hydrochloric acid to clear obstructed central venous catheters. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1988;12:510. [PUBMED: 3184423]
  • Simon 2008
  • Simon A, Bode U, Leiber K, Beutel K, Fleischhack G. Review and update of the use of urokinase in the prevention and management of CVAD-related complications in pediatric oncology patients. American Journal of Infection Control 2008;36:54-8. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2007.02.007]
  • Stephens 1995
  • Stephens LC, Haire WD, Kotulak GD. Are clinical signs accurate indicators of the cause of central venous catheter occlusion?. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1995;19(1):75-79. [PUBMED: 7658605]
  • Wachs 1990
  • Wachs T. Urokinase administration in pediatric patients with occluded central venous catheters. Journal of Intravenous Nursing 1990;13(2):100-2. [PUBMED: 2313458]
  • Walshe 2002
  • Walshe L, Malak S, Eagan J, Sepkowitz K. Complication rates amongst cancer patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20:3276-81. [PUBMED: 12149302]
  • Websters New World Medical Dictionary 2009
  • Authors unknown. Websters New World Medical Dictionary. 3rd Edition. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc, 2009. [: 9780470189283]
  • Werlin 1995
  • Werlin SL, Lausten T, Jessen S, Toy L, Norton A, Dallman L, et al.Treatment of central venous catheter occlusions with ethanol and hydrochloric acid. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1995;5:416-8. [PUBMED: 8577023]
  • Wheeler 1997
  • Wheeler S, Maki S, Stolz S, Mermal LA. Prevention of central venous catheter related blood stream infection by use of an antiseptic-impregnated. A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;127(4):257-6. [MEDLINE: 9265424]
  • Whigham 2002
  • Whigham CJ, Lindsey JI, Goodman CJ, Fisher RG. Venous port salvage utilizing low dose tPA. Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology 2002;25:513-6. [DOI: 10.1007/s00270-002-2615-4]
  • Wingerter 2003
  • Wingerter L. Vascular access device thrombosis. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 2003;7(3):345-8. [PUBMED: 12793345]
  • Yacopetti 2008
  • Yacopetti N. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis: A systematic review. Journal of Infusion Nursing 2008;31(4):241-8. [PUBMED: 18641488]