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References

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Al-Tawil 2012 {published data only}
  • Al-Tawil MM, Abdel-Aal MR, Kaddah MA. A randomized controlled trial on delayed cord clamping and iron status at 3-5 months in term neonates held at the level of maternal pelvis. Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine 2012;5(4):319-26.
  • Andersson 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Andersson O, Domellöf M, Andersson D, Hellström-Westas L. Effect of delayed cord clamping on neurodevelopment and infection at four months of age: a randomised trial. Acta Paediatrica 2013;102:525-31.
  • Andersson O, Hellstrom-Westas D, Claussen J, Domellof M. Effects of early vs. delayed umbilical cord clamping on cord blood sampling and maternal postpartum hemorrhage a randomized trial. Pediatric Academic Societies and Asian Society for Pediatric Research Joint Meeting; 2011 April 30-May 3; Denver, Colorado, USA. 2011:3535.1.
  • Andersson O, Hellstrom-Westas L, Andersson D, Domellof M. Early versus late cord clamping: neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months in Swedish infants. Pediatric Academic Societies' 2010 Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1-4; Vancouver, Canada. 2010.
  • * Andersson O, Hellstrom-Westas L, Andersson D, Domellof M. Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011;343:d7157.
  • Andersson O, Hellström-Westas L, Andersson D, Clausen J, Domellöf M. Effects of delayed compared with early umbilical cord clamping on maternal postpartum haemorrhage and cord blood gas sampling: a randomized trial. Acta Obstetrica et Gynelogica Scandinavica 2013;92(5):567-74.
  • Cernadas 2006 {published data only}
  • Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Otano L, Pellegrini L, Mariani GL, Ferreira M, et al.Effect of timing of cord clamping on postnatal hematocrit values and clinical outcome in term infants. A randomized controlled trial [abstract]. Pediatric Research 2004;55 Suppl:67.
  • Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, Ferreira M, Ricci C, Casas O, et al.The effect of early and delayed umbilical cord clamping on ferritin levels in term infants at six months of life: a randomized, controlled trial. Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria 2010;108(3):201-8.
  • * Ceriani Cernadas JM, Carroli G, Pellegrini L, Otano L, Ferreira M, Ricci C, et al.The effect of timing of cord clamping on neonatal venous hematocrit values and clinical outcome at term: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006;117:779-86.
  • Ceriani J, Ricci C, Ferreira M. Effect of timing of cord clamping on postnatal hematocrit values and clinical outcome in term infants. A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatric Research 2005;57(6):922.
  • Chaparro 2006 {published data only}
  • Chaparro CM, Fornes R, Neufeld LM, Alavez GT, Cedillo RE, Dewey KG. Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure. Journal of Pediatrics 2007;151:506-12.
  • * Chaparro CM, Neufeld LM, Alavez GT, Cedillo RE-L, Dewey KG. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367:1997-2004.
  • Emhamed 2004 {published data only}
  • Emhamed MO, van Rheenen P, Brabin BJ. The early effects of delayed cord clamping in term infants born to Libyan mothers. Tropical Doctor 2004;34:218-22.
  • Geethanath 1997 {published data only}
  • Geethanath RM, Ramji S, Thirupuram S, Rao YN. Effect of timing of cord clamping on the iron status of infants at 3 months. Indian Pediatrics 1997;34(2):103-6.
  • Gupta 2002 {published data only}
  • Gupta R, Ramji S. Effect of delayed cord clamping on iron stores in infants born to anemic mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Indian Pediatrics 2002;39(2):130-5.
  • Jahazi 2008 {published data only}
  • Jahazi A, Kordi M, Mirbehbahani NB, Mazloom SR. The effect of early and late umbilical cord clamping on neonatal hematocrit. Journal of Perinatology 2008;28(8):523-5.
  • McDonald 1996 {published and unpublished data}
  • McDonald S. Timing of interventions in the third stage of labour. International Confederation of Midwives 24th Triennial Congress; 1996 May 26-31; Oslo, Norway. 1996:143.
  • McDonald S. Timing of interventions in the third stage of labour. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society in conjunction with the New Zealand Perinatal Society; 1996 March 24-27; Adelaide, Australia. 1996:A23.
  • * McDonald SJ. Management in the third stage of labour [dissertation]. Perth: University of Western Australia, 1996.
  • Nelson 1980 {published data only}
  • Nelson NM, Enkin MW, Saigal S, Bennett KJ, Milner R, Sackett DL. A randomized clinical trial of the Leboyer approach to childbirth. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;302(12):655-60.
  • Saigal S, Nelson NM, Bennett KJ, Enkin MW. Observations on the behavioral state of newborn infants during the first hour of life. A comparison of infants delivered by the Leboyer and conventional methods. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1981;139(6):715-9.
  • Oxford Midwives 1991 {published data only}
  • Oxford Midwives Research Group. A study of the relationship between the delivery to cord clamping interval and the time of cord separation. Midwifery 1991;7:167-76.
  • Philip 1973 {published data only}
  • Philip AGS. Further observations on placental transfusion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1973;42(3):334-43.
  • Saigal 1972 {published data only}
  • * Saigal S, O'Neill A, Surainder Y, Chua LB, Usher R. Placental transfusion and hyperbilirubinemia in the premature. Pediatrics 1972;49:406-19.
  • Saigal S, Usher RH. Symptomatic neonatal plethora. Biology of the Neonate 1977;32:62-72.
  • Spears 1966 {published data only}
  • Spears RL, Anderson GV, Brotman S, Farrier J, Kwan J, Masto A, et al.The effect of early vs late cord clamping on signs of respiratory distress. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1966;95:564-8.
  • van Rheenen 2007 {published data only}
  • van Rheenen P, de Moor L, Eschbach S, de Grooth H, Brabin B. Delayed cord clamping and haemoglobin levels in infancy: a randomised controlled trial in term babies. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2007;12(5):603-15.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Abdel Aziz 1999 {published data only}
  • Abdel Aziz SF, Shaheen MY, Hussein S, Suliman MS. Early cord clamping and its effect on some haematological determinants of blood viscosity in neonates. www.obgyn.net/pb/articles/cordclamping_aziz_0699.htm (accessed May 2007).
  • Begley 1990 {published data only}
  • Begley CM. A comparison of 'active' and 'physiological' management of the third stage of labour. Midwifery 1990;6(1):3-17.
  • Botha 1968 {published data only}
  • Botha MC. The management of the umbilical cord in labour. South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1968;6:30-3.
  • Buckels 1965 {published data only}
  • Buckels LJ, Usher R. Cardiopulmonary effects of placental transfusion. Journal of Pediatrics 1965;67:239-46.
  • Colozzi 1954 {published data only}
  • Colozzi AE. Clamping of the umbilical cord; its effect on the placental transfusion. New England Journal of Medicine 1954;250(15):629-32.
  • Daily 1970 {published data only}
  • Daily W, Olsson T, Victorin L. Transthoracic impedance: V. Effects of early and late clamping of the umbilical cord with special reference to the ratio air-to-blood during respiration. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1970;207(Suppl):57-72.
  • De Paco 2011 {published data only}
  • De Paco C, Florido J, Garrido MC, Prados S, Navarrete L. Umbilical cord blood acid-base and gas analysis after early versus delayed cord clamping in neonates at term. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2011;283(5):1011-4.
  • Duckman 1953 {published data only}
  • Duckman S, Merk H, Lehmann WX, Regan E. The importance of gravity in delayed ligation of the umbilical cord. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1953;66(6):1214-33.
  • Dunn 1966 {published data only}
  • Dunn PM, Fraser ID, Raper AB. Influence of early cord ligation on the transplacental passage of foetal cells. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1966;73:757-60.
  • Emmanouilides 1971 {published data only}
  • Emmanouilides GC, Moss AJ. Respiratory distress in the newborn: effect of cord clamping before and after onset of respiration. Biology of the Neonate 1971;18(5):363-8.
  • Erickson-Owens 2012 {published data only}
  • Erickson-Owens DA. Milking the umbilical cord at term cesarean section: effect on hemoglobin levels in the first 48 hours of life. Pediatric Academic Societies' 2010 Annual Meeting; 2010 May 1-4; Vancouver, Canada. 2010.
  • * Erickson-Owens DA, Mercer JS, Oh W. Umbilical cord milking in term infants delivered by cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Perinatology 2012;32(8):580-4.
  • Erkkola 1984 {published data only}
  • Erkkola R, Kero P, Kanto J, Korvenranta H, Nanto V, Peltonen T. Delayed cord clamping in cesarean section with general anesthesia. American Journal of Perinatology 1984;1(2):165-9.
  • Grajeda 1997 {published data only}
  • Grajeda R, Perez-Escamilla R, Dewey K. Delayed clamping of the umbilical cord improves hematologic status of Guatemalan infants at 2 mo of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65:425-31.
  • Greenberg 1967 {published data only}
  • Greenberg M, Vuorenkoski V, Partanen TJ, Lind J. Behavior and cry patterns in the first two hours of life in early and late clamped newborn. Annales Paediatriae Fenniae 1967;13(2):64-70.
  • Johansen 1971 {published data only}
  • Johansen JK, Schacke E, Sturup AG. Feto-maternal transfusion and free bleeding from the umbilical cord. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1971;50:193-5.
  • Kemp 1971 {published data only}
  • Kemp J. A review of cord traction in the third stage of labour from 1963 to 1969. Medical Journal of Australia 1971;1(17):899-903.
  • Khan 1997 {published data only}
  • Khan GQ, John IS, Wani S, Doherty T, Sibai BM. Controlled cord traction versus minimal intervention techniques in delivery of the placenta: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;177(4):770-4.
  • Kliot 1984 {published data only}
  • Kliot D, Silverstein L. Changing maternal and newborn care. A study of the Leboyer approach to childbirth management. New York State Journal of Medicine 1984;84:169-74.
  • Lanzkowsky 1960 {published data only}
  • Lanzkowsky P. Effects of early and late clamping of umbilical cord on infant's haemoglobin level. BMJ 1960;2:1777-82.
  • Linderkamp 1992 {published data only}
  • * Linderkamp O, Nelle M, Kraus M, Zilow EP. The effect of early and late cord-clamping on blood viscosity and other hemorheological parameters in full-term neonates. Acta Paediatrica 1992;81(10):745-50.
  • Nelle M, Zilow EP, Kraus M, Bastert G, Linderkamp O. The effect of Leboyer delivery on blood viscosity and other hemorheologic parameters in term neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1993;169:189-93.
  • Navaneethakrishnan 2010 {published data only}
  • * Navaneethakrishnan R, Anderson A, Holding S, Atkinson C, Lindow SW. A randomised controlled trial of placental cord drainage to reduce feto-maternal transfusion. European Journal Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2010;149(1):27-30.
  • Navaneethakrishnan R, Anderson A, Holding S, Atkinson C, Lindow SW. A randomised controlled trial of placental drainage to reduce feto-maternal transfusion [abstract]. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2007;27(Suppl 1):S67.
  • Nelle 1996 {published data only}
  • * Nelle M, Kraus M, Bastert G, Linderkamp O. Effects of Leboyer childbirth on left- and right systolic time intervals in healthy term neonates. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1996;24(5):513-20.
  • Nelle M, Zilow EP, Bastert G, Linderkamp O. Effect of Leboyer childbirth on cardiac output, cerebral and gastrointestinal blood flow velocities in full-term neonates. American Journal of Perinatology 1995;12:212-6.
  • Newton 1961 {published data only}
  • Newton M, Moody AR. Fetal and maternal blood in the human placenta. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1961;18:305-8.
  • * Newton M, Mosey LM, Egli GE, Gifford WB, Hull CT. Blood loss during and immediately after delivery. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1961;17:9-18.
  • Prendiville 1988 {published data only}
  • Prendiville WJ, Harding JE, Elbourne DR, Stirrat GM. The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. BMJ 1988;297:1295-300.
  • Rogers 1998 {published data only}
  • * Rogers J, Wood J, McCandlish R, Ayers S, Truesdale A, Elbourne D. Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1998;351(9104):693-9.
  • Wood J, Rogers J, Elbourne D, McCandish R, Truesdale A. The Hinchingbrooke third stage trial. International Conferderation of Midwives 24th Triennial Congress, Oslo. 26-31 May 1996.
  • Schindler 1981 {published data only}
  • Schindler AE, Schach R. [Clamped umbilical cord. Effect on the puerperium and the newborn's hematocrit]. Fortschritte der Medizin 1981;99(44):1849-51.
  • Siddall 1953 {published data only}
  • Siddall RS, Richardson RP. Milking or stripping the umbilical cord; effect on vaginally delivered babies. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1953;1(2):230-3.
  • Sorrells-Jones 1982 {published data only}
  • Sorrell-Jones J. A comparison of the effects of the Leboyer delivery and modern 'routine' childbirth. Personal communication with the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group 1982.
  • Taylor 1963 {published data only}
  • Taylor PM, Bright NH, Birchard EL. Effect of early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord on the clinical condition of the newborn infant. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1963;86:893-8.
  • Terry 1970 {published data only}
  • Terry MF. A management of the third stage to reduce feto-maternal transfusion. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 1970;77(2):129-32.
  • Thilaganathan 1993 {published data only}
  • Thilaganathan B, Cutner A, Latimer J, Beard R. Management of the third stage of labour in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1993;48(1):19-22.
  • Walsh 1968 {published data only}
  • Walsh SZ. Maternal effects of early and late clamping of the umbilical cord. Lancet 1968;1(7550):996-7.
  • Walsh 1969 {published data only}
  • Walsh SZ. Early clamping versus stripping of cord: comparative study of electrocardiogram in neonatal period. British Heart Journal 1969;31(1):122-6.
  • Whipple 1957 {published data only}
  • Whipple GA, Thomas MD, Sisson RC, Lund CJ. Delayed ligation of the umbilical cord: its influence on the blood volume of the newborn. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1957;10(6):603-10.
  • Wu 1960 {published data only}
  • Wu PC, Ku TS. Early clamping of the umbilical cord: a study of its effect on the infant. Chinese Medical Journal 1960;80:351-5.
  • Yao 1971 {published data only}
  • Yao AC, Lind J, Vuorenkoski V. Expiratory grunting in the late clamped normal neonate. Pediatrics 1971;48(6):865-70.
  • Yao 1977 {published data only}
  • Yao AC, Lind J. Effect of early and late cord clamping on the systolic time intervals of the newborn infant. Acta Paediatricia Scandinavica 1977;66(4):489-93.
  • References to studies awaiting assessment
  • Jaleel 2009 {published data only}
  • Jaleel R, Deeba F, Khan A. Timing of umbilical cord clamping and neonatal haematological status. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 2009;59(7):468-70.
  • Li 2012 {published data only}
  • Li N, Yang LC, Wu Q, Han CC, Wang L, Rong L, et al.[The effects of iron stores and growth of delayed umbilical cord clamp timing on term breastfed infants at 4 months]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012;46(4):303-6.
  • Nardozza 2012 {published data only}
  • Nardozza LMM, Mazzola JB, Lopes CD, Meleti D, Hatanaka AR, Araujo Jnr E, et al.Evaluation of fetal red blood cells for passage of the maternal circulation during afterbirth by Kleihauer Betke test. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2012;39 Suppl:Abstract no. 187.
  • Ping 2010 {published data only}
  • Ping HS. Effect of umbilical cord clamping time on newborns. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01029496 (accessed 12 June 2010).
  • References to ongoing studies
  • Beal 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • Beal JM. Timing of cord clamping and neonatal hemoglobin. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00371228 (accessed 13 February 2008).
  • Hanson 2012 {published data only}
  • Hanson M, Morris P, Kilburn C, Lennox R, Szabo F, Bull A, et al.Effect of delayed cord clamping on the haemoglobin levels of term newborn aboriginal infants from remote aboriginal communities: A pilot randomised controlled trial. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2012;48(Suppl 1):140.
  • Additional references
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  • References to other published versions of this review
  • McDonald 2003a
  • McDonald SJ, Abbott JM. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004074]
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  • Wood 1996
  • Wood J, Rogers J, Elbourne D, McCandlish R, Truesdale A. The Hinchingbrooke third stage trial. International Confederation of Midwives 24th Triennial Congress; 1996 May 26-31; Oslo, Norway. 1996:140.