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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Alexandrov 1988 {published data only}
  • * Alexandrov AA, Isakova G, Maslennikova GY. Prevention of atherosclerosis among 11-year old school children in two Moscow administrative districts. Health Psychology 1988;7(Supplement):247-52.
  • Bayne-Smith 2004 {published data only}
  • * Bayne-Smith M, Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel J, Schmitz KH, Agin D. Improvements in heart health behaviors and reduction in coronary artery disease risk factors in urban teenaged girls through a school-based intervention: the PATH program. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(9):1538-43.
  • Berenson 1993 {published data only}
  • Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, Webber LS, et al.The Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion: behavior correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(1):18-32.
  • * Berenson GS. Prevention of heart disease beginning in childhood through comprehensive school health: the Heart Smart Program. Preventive Medicine 1993;22(4):507-12.
  • Butcher AH, Frank GC, Harsha DW, Serpas DC, Little SD, Nicklas TA, et al.Heart Smart: a school health program meeting the 1990 objectives for the nation. Health Education Quarterly 1988;5(1):17-34.
  • Burke 1998 {published data only}
  • * Burke V, Milligan RA, Thompson C, Taggart AC, Dunbar DL, Spencer MJ, et al.A controlled trial of health promotion programs in 11-year-olds using physical activity "enrichment" for higher risk children. Journal of Pediatrics 1998;132(5):840-8.
  • Bush 1989 {published data only}
  • * Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, et al.Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: two-year results of the "Know Your Body" program. American Journal of Epidemiology 1989;129(3):466-82.
  • Taggart VS, Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE. A process evaluation of the District of Columbia "Know Your Body" project. Journal of School Health 1990;60(2):60-6.
  • Carrel 2005 {published data only}
  • * Carrel AL, Clark R, Peterson SE, Nemeth BA, Sullivan J, Allen DB. Improvement of fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children in a school-based exercise program - a randomized, controlled study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2005;159(10):963-8.
  • Eliakim 1996 {published data only}
  • * Eliakim A, Barstow TJ, Brasel JA, Ajie H, Lee WN, Renslo R, et al.Effect of exercise training on energy expenditure, muscle volume, and maximal oxygen uptake in female adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;129(4):537-43.
  • Ewart 1998 {published data only}
  • Ewart CK, Loftus KS, Hagberg JM. School-based exercise to lower blood pressure in high-risk African American girls: project design and baseline findings. Journal of Health Education 1995;26(2):S99-105.
  • * Ewart CK, Young DR, Hagberg JM. Effects of school-based aerobic exercise on blood pressure in adolescent girls at risk for hypertension. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(6):949-51.
  • Fardy 1996 {published data only}
  • Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel JR, Pitsikoulis C. Effects of school-based health promotion on obesity: the Path program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(5 Supplement):S68.
  • Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel JR, White RE, Schmitz MK, Agin D, et al.Gender and ethnic differences in health behaviors and risk factors for coronary disease among urban teenagers: the PATH program. Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine 2000;3(2):59-68.
  • * Fardy PS, White RE, Haltiwanger-Schmitz K, Magel JR, McDermott KJ, Clark LT, et al.Coronary disease risk factor reduction and behavior modification in minority adolescents: the PATH program. Journal of Adolescent Health 1996;18(4):217-53.
  • Graf 2005 {published data only}
  • * Graf C, Rost SV, Koch B, Heinen S, Falkowski G, Dordel S, et al.Data from the StEP TWO programme showing the effect on blood pressure and different parameters for obesity in overweight and obese primary school children. Cardiology in the Young 2005;15(3):291-8.
  • Haerens 2006 {published data only}
  • Haerens L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Maes L, Cardon G, Deforche B. School-based randomized controlled trial of a physical activity intervention among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2007;40(3):258-65.
  • * Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Cardon G, Stevens V, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Evaluation of a 2-year physical activity and healthy eating intervention in middle school children. Health Education Research 2006;2(6):911-21.
  • Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Stevens V, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Body mass effects of a physical activity and healthy food intervention in middle schools. Obesity 2006;14(5):847-54.
  • Klepp 1994 {published data only}
  • * Klepp KI, Oygard L, Tell Grethe S, Vellar Odd D. Twelve year follow-up of a school-based health education programme. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:195-200.
  • Tell GS, Vellar OD. Physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:12-24.
  • Lionis 1991 {published data only}
  • * Lionis C, Kafatos A, Vlachonikolis J, Vakaki M, Tzortzi M, Petraki A. The effects of a health education intervention program among Cretan adolescents. Preventive Medicine 1991;20(6):685-99.
  • Luepker 1996 {published data only}
  • Belcher JD, Ellison RC, Shepard WE, Bigelow C, Webber LS, Wilmore JH, et a, Lipid and lipoprotein distributions in children by ethnic group, gender, and geographic location--preliminary findings of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Preventive Medicine 1993;22(2):143-53.
  • Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, Elder J, Perry CL, Johnson CC, et al.The effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior.. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:442-54.
  • Edmundson EW, Luton SC, McGraw SA, Kelder SH, Layman AK, Smyth M, et al.CATCH: classroom process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl 2:S27-50.
  • Elder JP, McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Reed DB, Harsha DW, Greene T, et al.CATCH: process evaluation of environmental factors and programs. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl. 2:S107-27.
  • Hoelscher DM, Feldman HA, Johnson CC, Lytle LA. Osganian SK, Parcel GS, et al.School-based health education programs can be maintained over time: results from the CATCH institution study. Preventive Medicine 2004;38:594-606.
  • Johnson CC, Osganian SK, Budman SB, Lytle LA, Barrera EP, Bonura SR, et al.CATCH: family process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl. 2:S91-106.
  • * Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, Nader PR, Parcel GS, Stone EJ, et al.Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) collaborative group. JAMA 1996;275(10):768-76.
  • Lytle LA, Ward J, Nader PR, Pedersen SA, Williston BJ. Maintenance of a health promotion program in elementary schools: results from the CATCH-ON study key informant interviews. Health Education and Behavior 2003;30(4):503-18.
  • Lytle LA. Lessons from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): interventions with children.. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1998;9(1):29-33.
  • McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Osganian SK, Elder JP, Perry CL, Johnson CC, et al.Design of process evaluation within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl. 2:S5-26.
  • McKenzie TL, Li D, Derby CA, Webber LS, Luepker LRV, Cribb P. Maintenance of effects of the CATCH physical education program: results from the CATCH-on study. Health Education & Behavior 2003;30(4):447-62.
  • McKenzie TL, Nader PR, Strikmiller PK, et al.School physical education: effect of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):423-31.
  • McKenzie TL, Stone EJ, Feldman HA, Epping JN, Yang M, Strikmiller PK, et al.Effects of the CATCH physical education intervention: teacher type and lesson location. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001;21(2):101-9.
  • McKenzie TLF, Li D, Derby C, Webber LS, Luepker LRV, Cribb P. Sustainability of a health-related physical education intervention in 76 elementary schools: CATCH.. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2002;34(5):301.
  • Nader PR, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Cook KC, et al.The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to imorive children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH).. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:455-64.
  • Nader PR, Stone EJ, Lytle LA, Perry CL, Osganian SK, Kelder S, et al.Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(7):695-704.
  • Perry CL, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Pedersen SA, Bachman KJ, Parcel GS, et al.The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): intervention, implementation, and feasibility for elementary schools in the United States. Health Education and Behavior 1997;24(6):716-35.
  • Perry CL, Stone EJ, Parcel GS, Ellison RC, Nader PR, Webber LS, et al.School-based cardiovascular health promotion: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of School Health 1990;60:406-13.
  • Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, Wu MC, Webber LS, Luepker RV, et al.Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):384-99.
  • Webber LS, Osganian SK, Feldman HA, Wu M, McKenzie TL, Nichaman M, et al.Cardiovascular risk factors among children after a 2 1/2-year intervention: the CATCH study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):432-41.
  • Manios 1999 {published data only}
  • Kafatos A, Manios Y, Moschandreas J. Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: follow-up changes in body mass index and overweight status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(9):1090-2.
  • Kafatos I, Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education program in primary schools of Crete: changes in blood pressure over 10 years. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;61(7):837-45.
  • Manios Y, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in elementary schools: changes in health knowledge, nutrient intakes and physical activity over a six year period. Public Health Nutrition 1999;23(3A):445-8.
  • Manios Y, Kafatos I, Kafatos A. Ten-year follow-up of the Cretan Health and Nutrition Education Program on children's physical activity levels. Preventive Medicine 2006;43(6):442-6.
  • * Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Evaluation of a health and nutrition education program in primary school children of Crete over a three-year period. Preventive Medicine 1999;28(2):149-59.
  • Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: changes in chronic disease risk factors following a 6-year intervention programme. British Journal of Nutrition 2002;88(3):315-24.
  • Marcus 1987 {published data only}
  • * Marcus AC, Wheeler RC, Cullen JW, C. Quasi-experimental evaluation of the Los Angeles Know Your Body program: knowledge, beliefs, and self-reported behaviors.. Preventive Medicine 1987;16(6):803-15.
  • Petchers 1988 {published data only}
  • * Petchers MK, Hirsch EZ, Bloch BA. A longitudinal study of the impact of a school heart health curriculum. Journal of Community Health 1988;13(2):85-94.
  • Plotnikoff 1999 {published data only}
  • * Plotnikoff R, Williams P, Fein A. Effects of a school capacity-building intervention on children's heart health: evaluation of the Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat School Project in New South Wales, Australia. Health Education Journal 1999;58(4):389-400.
  • Robinson 1999 {published data only}
  • * Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999;282(16):1561-7.
  • Robinson TN, James KS. Can a school-based intervention to reduce television use decrease adiposity in children in grades 3 and 4?. The Western Journal of Medicine 2000;173(1):40.
  • Sallis 1997 {published data only}
  • Marcoux MF, Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Marshall S, Armstrong CA, Goggin KJ. Process evaluation of a physical activity self-management program for children: SPARK.. Psychology and Health 1999;14:659-77. 1999;14:659-77.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Alcaraz J, Roby J, Kolody B. Effects of a two-year health-related curriculum on the physical fitness of children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1993;25(5 Suppl.):S147.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Faucette N, Roby JJ, Kolody B. Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(2):178.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Kolody B, Faucette FN. Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1997;68(4):280-91.
  • * Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87(8):1328-34.
  • Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Hovell MF, Nader PR. Project SPARK: Effects of physical education on adiposity in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1993;29:127-36.
  • Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Kolody B, Lewis M, Marshall S, Rosengard P. Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1999;70(2):127-34.
  • Simon 2004 {published data only}
  • * Simon C, Wagner A, DiVita C, Rauscher E, Klein-Platat C, Arveiler D, et al.Intervention centred on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behaviour (ICAPS): concept and 6-month results. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 2004;28(Suppl. 3):S96-103.
  • Simon C, Wagner A, Platat C, Arveiler D, Schweitzer B, Schlienger JL, et al.ICAPS: a multilevel program to improve physical activity in adolescents. Diabetes & Metabolism 2006;32(1):41-9.
  • Stephens 1998 {published data only}
  • * Stephens M, Wentz S. Supplemental fitness activities and fitness in urban elementary school classrooms. Family Medicine 1998;30(3):220-3.
  • Stone 2003 {published data only}
  • Caballero B, Clay T, Davis SM, Ethelbah B, Rock BH, Lohman T, et al.Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian school children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(5):1030-8.
  • Caballero B, Clay TE, Davis SM, Ethelbah R, Holyrock B, Lohman TG, et al.The Pathways obesity prevention study: overview of design and measurements. FASEB Journal 2001;15(5):A1091.
  • Caballero B, Davis SM, Davis CE, Ethelbah R, Evans MA, Lohman TG, et al.Pathways: a school-based program for the primary prevention of obesity in American Indian children. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 1998;9(9):535-43.
  • Davis CE, Hunsberger S, Murray DM, Fabsitz RR, Himes JH, Stephenson LK, et al.Design and statistical analysis for the Pathways study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(4 SUPPL.):S760-3.
  • Davis SM. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 Pt 2):S24-34.
  • Steckler A, Ethelbah B, Martin CJ, Stewart D, Pardilla M, Gittelsohn J, et al.Pathways process evaluation results: a school-based prevention trial to promote healthful diet and physical activity in American Indian third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 part 2):S80-90.
  • Stevens J. The impact of the Pathways intervention on psychosocial variables related to diet and physical activity in American Indian school children. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 Pt 2):S70-9.
  • * Stone EJ, Norman JE, Davis SM, Stewart D, Clay TE, Caballero B, et al.Design, implementation, and quality control in the Pathways American-Indian multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(Suppl.):S13-23.
  • Teufel N, Perry CL, Story M, Flint-Wagner HG, Levin S, Clay TE, et al.Pathways family intervention for third-grade American Indian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(4 SUPPL.):S803-9.
  • Trevino 2004 {published data only}
  • * Trevino RP, Yin Z, Hernandez A, Hale DE, Garcia OA, Mobley C. Impact of the Bienestar school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on fasting capillary glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004;158(9):911-7.
  • Verstraete 2006 {published data only}
  • * Verstraete SJ, Cardon GM, De Clercq DL, De Bourdeaudhuij IMM. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment. European Journal of Public Health 2006;16(4):415-9.
  • Walter 1988 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, Connelly PA, Kost KL, Walk EH, et al.Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomized intervention trial. In: HetzelB, BerensonGS ED(s). Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division), 1987:161-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: one-year results of a randomized intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1986;2(4):239-45.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;122(5):772-81.
  • * Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-1100.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development implementation evaluation and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: the "know your body" studies. Preventive Medicine 1989;18(1):59-71.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Abbott 1989 {published data only}
  • * Abbott J, Farrell J. A health-related exercise project in primary schools. Education and Health 1989;7(2):33-7.
  • Adeniran 1988 {published data only}
  • * Adeniran SA, Toriola AL. Effects of continuous and interval running programmes on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in schoolgirls aged 13 to 17 years. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1988;28(3):260-6.
  • Adeniran SA, Toriola AL. Effects of different running programmes on body fat and blood pressure in schoolboys aged 13-17 years.. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1988;28(3):267-73.
  • Aganovic 2002 {published data only}
  • Aganovic I, Jovanovic Z, Crncevic-Orlic Z, Dordevic V, Gosev M, Nagy L, et al.The effect of weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors: "Healthy Weight Loss School". International Journal of Obesity 2002;26(Supplement 1):S200.
  • Agron 2002 {published data only}
  • Agron P, Takada E, Purcell A. California project LEAN's food on the run program: an evaluation of a high school-based student advocacy nutrition and physical activity program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(3 Suppl):S103-5.
  • Alexandrov 1992 {published data only}
  • Alexandrov AA, Maslennikova GY, Kulikov SM, Propirnij GA, Perova NV. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: 3-year intervention results in boys of 12 years of age. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(1):53-62.
  • Allensworth 1997 {published data only}
  • Allensworth D. Improving the health of youth through a coordinated school health programme. Promotion & Education 1997;4(4):42-7.
  • Allison 1999 {published data only}
  • Allison KR, Dwyer JJM, Makin S. Self-efficacy and participation in vigorous physical activity by high school students. Health Education and Behavior 1999;26(1):12-24.
  • Andersen 1998 {published data only}
  • Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998;279(12):938-42.
  • Anderson 1999 {published data only}
  • Anderson S, Gauvin L, Potvin L, Paradis G. Longitudinal impact of family support and access to community facilities on children's physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(5 SUPPL.):S272.
  • Arborelius 1988 {published data only}
  • Arborelius E, Bremberg S. It is your decision. Behavioral effects of a student-centered health education model at school for adolescents. Journal of Adolescence 1988;11(4):287-98.
  • Babin 2001 {published data only}
  • Babin J, Katic R, Ropac D, Bonacin D. Effect of specially programmed physical and health education on motor fitness of seven-year-old school children. Collegium Antropologicum 2001;25(1):153-65.
  • Bal 1990 {published data only}
  • Bal LV, Shugaeva EN, Deev AA, Maslova AR, Aleksandrov AA. Results of a three-year trial of arterial hypertension prevention in a population of children aged 11-15 years by overweight control. Cor et Vasa 1990;32(6):448-56.
  • Baquet 2001 {published data only}
  • * Baquet G, Berthoin S, Gerbeaux M, Van Praagh E. High-intensity aerobic training during a 10 week one-hour physical education cycle: effects on physical fitness of adolescents aged 11 to 16. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2001;22(4):295-300.
  • Baquet 2002 {published data only}
  • Baquet G, Berthoin S, Van Praagh E. Are intensified physical education sessions able to elicit heart rate at a sufficient level to promote aerobic fitness in adolescents?. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2002;73(3):282-8.
  • Barthold 1993 {published data only}
  • Barthold J, Pearson J, Ellsworth A, Mason C, Hohensee T, McLaud B, et al.A cardiovascular health education program for rural schools. Journal of School Health 1993;63(7):298-301.
  • Baxter 1997 {published data only}
  • Baxter AP, Milner PC, Hawkins S, Leaf M, Simpson C, Wilson KV, et al.The impact of heart health promotion on coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors in schoolchildren: lessons learnt from a community-based project. Public Health 1997;111(4):231-7.
  • Belansky 2006 {published data only}
  • Belansky ES, Romaniello C, Morin C, Uyeki T, Sawyer RL, Scarbro S, et al.Adapting and implementing a long-term nutrition and physical activity curriculum to a rural, low-income, biethnic community. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2006;38(2):106-13.
  • Berenson 1993 {published data only}
  • Berenson GS, Schnakenberg D, Harsha DW, Webber LS, Johnson CC, Nicklas TA. Fort Polk Heart Smart Program. Part I: background design and significance. Military Medicine 1993;158(5):304-8.
  • Berenson 2001 {published data only}
  • Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR. Emergence of obesity and cardiovascular risk for coronary artery disease: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Preventive Cardiology 2001;4(3):116-21.
  • Berg-Kelly 1997 {published data only}
  • Berg-Kelly K, Alven B, Erdes L, Erneholm T, Johannisson I, Mattsson-Elofson E. Health habits and risk behavior among youth in three communities with different public health approach. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 1997;25(3):149-55.
  • Bernadet 1991 {published data only}
  • Bernadet P, Lacroix E. Track and field athletics: From school practice to "one after school". 1991;232:13-6.
  • Bindler 2000 {published data only}
  • Bindler RM, Short RA, Cooney SK, Domitor P, Garabedian H, Hain R, et al.Interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children: the Northwest Pediatric Heart project. National Academies of Practice Forum: Issues in Interdisciplinary Care 2000;2(1):43-8.
  • Bischoff 1987 {published data only}
  • Bischoff JA, Lewis KA. A cross-sectional study of fitness levels in a movement education program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1987;58(3):348-53.
  • Blank Sherman 1992 {published data only}
  • Blank Sherman J, Alexander MA, Gomez D, Kim M, Marole P. Intervention program for obese children. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1992;9:183-90.
  • Blessing 1994 {published data only}
  • Blessing DL, Williford HN, Barksdale J, Wang N, Teel S. Effects of a 15-wk school physical fitness program on blood lipids and lipoprotein in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1994;26(5 SUPPL.):S149.
  • Bonhauser 2005 {published data only}
  • Bonhauser M, Fernandez G, Puschel K, Yanez F, Montero J, Thompson B, et al.Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial. Health Promotion International 2005;20(2):113-22.
  • Boyd 1997 {published data only}
  • * Boyd KR, Hrycaiko DW. The effect of a physical activity intervention package on the self-esteem of pre-adolescent and adolescent females. Adolescence 1997;32(127):693-708.
  • Brown 2004 {published data only}
  • Brown SJ, Schoenly L. Test of an educational intervention for osteoporosis prevention with U.S. adolescents. Orthopaedic Nursing 2004;23(4):245-51.
  • Brownell 1982 {published data only}
  • Brownell KD, Kaye FS. A school-based behavior modification, nutrition education, and physical activity program for obese children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35(2):277-83.
  • Bungum 1997 {published data only}
  • Bungum TJ, Vincent ML. Determinants of physical activity among female adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1997;13(2):115-22.
  • Calfas 1991 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Nader PR. The development of scales to measure knowledege and preference for diet and physical activity behavior in 4- to 8-year old children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1991;12(3):185-90.
  • Calfas 1994 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Taylor WC. Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 1994;6:406-23.
  • Caravella 1996 {published data only}
  • Caravella T, Pretasky BJ, Detert RA, Oganowski JL. The Wisconsin Elementary Health Education Pilot Project: years one and two diffusion activities. Journal of Health Education 1996;27(3):170-7.
  • Carrel 2005 {published data only}
  • Carrel A, Meinen A, Garry C, Storandt R. Effects of nutrition education and exercise in obese children: the Ho-Chunk Youth Fitness Program. WMJ 2005;104(5):44-7.
  • Cass 2006 {published data only}
  • Cass Y, Price P. Moorefit -- increasing physical activity in adolescent girls using the Health Promoting Schools framework. Education and Health 2006;24(1):3-7.
  • Chad 1999 {published data only}
  • Chad KE, Humbert ML, Jackson PL. The effectiveness of the Canadian Quality Daily Physical Education program on school physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1999;70(1):55-64.
  • Challener 1990 {published data only}
  • Challener J. Health education in secondary schools--is it working? A study of 1,418 Cambridgeshire pupils. Public Health 1990;104(3):195-205.
  • Chomitz 2003 {published data only}
  • Chomitz VR, Collins J, Kim J, Kramer E, McGowan R. Promoting healthy weight among elementary school children via a health report card approach. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157(8):765-72.
  • Choudhuri 2002 {published data only}
  • Choudhuri D, Choudhuri S, Kulkarni VA. Physical fitness: a comparative study between students of residential (Sainik) and non-residential schools (aged 12-14 years). Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 2002;46(3):328-32.
  • Coe 2005 {published data only}
  • Coe DP, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, Reeves MJ, Malina RM. Effect of physical education class enrollment and seasonality on physical activity levels in middle school children. Pediatric Exercise Science 2005;17(1):93-4.
  • Cohen 1991 {published data only}
  • Cohen CJ, McMilan CS, Samuelson DR. Long-term effects of lifestyle modification exercise program on the fitness of sedentary obese children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1991;31:183-8.
  • Colchico 2000 {published data only}
  • Colchico K, Zybert P, Basch CE. Effects of after-school physical activity on fitness, fatness, and cognitive felf-perceptions: a pilot study among urban, minority adolescent girls. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(6):977-8.
  • Collins 1988 {published data only}
  • Collins ME. Education for healthy body weight: Helping adolescents balance the cultural pressure for thinness. Journal of School Health 1988;58(6):227-31.
  • Collins 1995 {published data only}
  • Collins JL, Small ML, Kann L, Pateman BC, Gold RS, Kolbe LJ. School health education. Journal of School Health 1995;65(8):302-11.
  • Connor 1986 {published data only}
  • * Connor MK, Smith LG, Fryer A, Erickson S, Fryer S, Drake J. Future Fit: a cardiovascular health education and fitness project in an after-school setting. Journal of School Health 1986;56(8):329-33.
  • Cornelius 1991 {published data only}
  • Cornelius LJ. Health habits of school-age children. Journal of Health Care 1991;2(3):374-95.
  • Cottrell 2005 {published data only}
  • Cottrell L, Spangler-Murphy E, Minor V, Downes A, Nicholson P, Neal WA. A kindergarten cardiovascular risk surveillance study: CARDIAC-Kinder. American Journal of Health Behavior 2005;29(6):595-606.
  • Crawford 1997 {published data only}
  • Crawford PB, O'Neill KJ, Wolfe T, Obarzanek E. An approach to providing dietary and physical-activity dairy instruction to adolescent girls enrolled in a longitudinal study: The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(4 SUPPL.):S1297-8.
  • Dale 2000 {published data only}
  • * Dale D, Corbin CB. Physical activity participation of high school graduates following exposure to conceptual or traditional physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2000;71(1):61-8.
  • Dale D, Corbin CB, Cuddihy TF. Can conceptual physical education promote physically active lifestyles?. Pediatric Exercise Science 1998;10:97-109.
  • Davis 1995 {published data only}
  • Davis K, Christoffel KK, Vespa H, Pierleoni MP, Papanastassiou R. Early frequent treatment in prevention of childhood obesity: how we do it.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;699:260-1.
  • Davis K, Christoffel KK. Obesity in preschool and school-age children: treatment early and often may be best.. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1994;148(12):1257-61.
  • * Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest cardiovascular curriculum project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. Journal of Health Education 1995;26(2):81.
  • DeBar 2006 {published data only}
  • DeBar LL, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, Orwoll E, Elliot D, Dickerson J, et al.YOUTH: a health plan-based lifestyle intervention increases bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2006;160(12):1269-76.
  • Deforche 2004 {published data only}
  • Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Tanghe A, Hills AP, Bode PD. Changes in physical activity and psychosocial determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents treated for obesity. Patient Education and Counseling 2004;55(3):407-15.
  • Dehar 1991 {published data only}
  • Dehar M, Duignan P, Casswell S. Evaluation of Heartbeat New Zealand. Health Promotion International 1991;6(1):13-9.
  • Del Ben 1991 {published data only}
  • Del Ben M, Angelico F, Fabiani L. Management of childhood obesity through a school-based programme of general health and nutrition education. Public Health 1991;105(393):398.
  • Dellinger 2002 {published data only}
  • Dellinger AM. Barriers to children walking and biking to school--United States, 1999. JAMA 2002;288(11):1343-4.
  • DeMarco 1989 {published data only}
  • DeMarco T, Sidney K. Enhancing children's participation in physical activity. Journal of School Health 1989;59(8):337-40.
  • Dempsey 1993 {published data only}
  • Dempsey J.M, Kimiecik JC, Horn TS. Parental influence on children's moderate to vigorous physical activity participation: an expectancy-value approach. Pediatric Exercise Science 1993;5:151-67.
  • Dennison 2004 {published data only}
  • Dennison BA, Russo TJ, Burdick PA, Jenkins PL. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Archive of Prediatric Adolescent Medicine 2004;158:170-6.
  • Derri 2004 {published data only}
  • Derri V, Aggeloussis N, Petraki C. Health-related fitness and nutritional practices: can they be enhanced in upper elementary school students?. Physical Educator 2004;61(1):35.
  • Devis 1992 {published data only}
  • Devis J, Peiro C. Exercise and health in a Spanish PE curriculum: a modified programme of 'the exercise challenge'. In: TWilliams, LAlmond, ASparkes ED(s). Sport & physical activity: Moving towards excellence. Spon, London: E & FN, 1992:418-28.
  • Diaz 1997 {published data only}
  • Diaz FJ, Garcia R, Melchor T, Montano G, Moreno F. The effect of diet and exercise upon cardiovascular risk factor in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997;29(5 SUPPL.):S237.
  • Diehl 1998 {published data only}
  • Diehl HA. Coronary risk reduction through intensive community-based lifestyle intervention: the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) experience. American Journal of Cardiology 1998;82(10B):T83-7.
  • Dishman 2005 {published data only}
  • Dishman RK, Motl RW, Saunders R, Felton G, Ward DS, Dowda M, et al.Enjoyment mediates effects of a school-based physical-activity intervention. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2005;37(3):478-87.
  • Donnelly 1996 {published data only}
  • * Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Whatley JE, Hill JO, Swift LL, Cherrington A, et al.Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Obesity Research 1996;4(3):229-43.
  • Dowda 2001 {published data only}
  • Dowda M, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL, Saunders RP, Riner W. Environmental influences, physical activity, and weight status in 8- to 16-year-olds. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2001;155(6):711-7.
  • Dunbar 1998 {published data only}
  • Dunbar JA, Vincent DS, Dunbar AP, Glass W. Implementing the North Karelia project in Scotland. Scottish Medical Journal 1998;43(4):99-101.
  • Duncan 1983 {published data only}
  • Duncan B, Boyce WT, Itami R, Puffenbarger N. A controlled trial of a physical fitness program for fifth grade students. Journal of School Health 1983;53(8):467-71.
  • Dunn 2006 {published data only}
  • Dunn C, Thomas C, Ward D, Pegram L, Webber K, Cullitan C. Design and implementation of a nutrition and physical activiey curriculum for child care settings. Preventing Chronic Disease 2006;3(2):1-8.
  • DuShaw 1984 {published data only}
  • DuShaw ML. A comparative study of three model comprehensive elementary school health education programs. Journal of School Health 1984;54:397-400.
  • Dwyer 1991 {published data only}
  • Dwyer T, Viney R, Jones M. Assessing school health education programs. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 1991;7(3):286-95.
  • Dyson 1998 {published data only}
  • Dyson B, O'Sullivan M. Innovation in two alternative elementary school programs: why it works. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1998;69(3):242-53.
  • Dzewaltowski 2002 {published data only}
  • Dzewaltowski DA, Estabrooks PA, Johnston JA. Healthy youth places promoting nutrition and physical activity. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):541-51.
  • Edwards 2005 {published data only}
  • Edwards B. Childhood obesity: a school-based approach to increase nutritional knowledge and activity levels. Nursing Clinics of North America 2005;40:661-9.
  • Eliakim 1997 {published data only}
  • Eliakim A, Raisz LG, Brasel JA, Cooper DM. Evidence for increased bone formation following a brief endurance-type training intervention in adolescent males. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 1997;12(10):1708-13.
  • Epstein 2000 {published data only}
  • * Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Gordy CC, Dorn J. Decreasing sedentary behaviors in treating pediatric obesity. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2000;154(3):220-226.
  • Epstein LH, Saelens BE, Meyers MD, Vito D. Effects of decreasing sedentary behaviours on acitivity choice in obese children. Health Psychology 1997;16:107-113.
  • Epstein LH, Valoski AM, Vara LS, McCurley J, Wisniewski L, Kalarchian MA, Klein KR, Shrager LR. Effects of decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing actvity on weight change in obese children. Health Psychology 1995;14(2):109-115.
  • Ernst 1999 {published data only}
  • * Ernst MP, Pangrazi RP. Effects of a physical activity program on children's activity levels and attraction to physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science 1999;11(4):393-405.
  • Ernst 2003 {published data only}
  • Ernst M. Examination of physical activity during a physical activity intervention and recess. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport. 2003;74(1 Suppl):A43.
  • Errecart 1991 {published data only}
  • Errecart MT, Walberg HJ, Ross JG, Gold RS, Fiedler JL, Kolbe LJ. Effectiveness of teenage health teaching modules. Journal of School Health 1991;61(1):26-30.
  • Everhart 2002 {published data only}
  • Everhart B, Harshaw C, Everhart B, Kermodie M, Stubblefield E. Multimedia software's effects on high school physical education students' fitness patterns. Physical Educator 2002;59(3):151-7.
  • Ewart 1998 {published data only}
  • Ewart CK, Young DR, Hagberg JM. Effects of school-based aerobic exercise on blood pressure in adolescent girls at risk for hypertension. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(6):949-951.
  • Fairclough 2002 {published data only}
  • Fairclough S. Promoting lifetime physical activity through physical education. Are we providing the right opportunities?. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education 2002;32(2):38-42.
  • Fairclough 2005 {published data only}
  • Fairclough S, Stratton G. ''Physical education makes you fit and healthy''. Physical education's contribution to young people''s physical activity levels. Health Education Research. 2005;20(1):14-23.
  • Faludi 1999 {published data only}
  • Faludi J, Farkas A, Zsidegh M, Petrekanits M, Pavlik G. Characteristics influencing changes in aerobic performance of children aged 7-9. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 1999;86(3-4):229-235.
  • Fleming 2000 {published data only}
  • Fleming TL, Green JL, Martin JC, Wicks MW. Effectiveness of a cardiovascular health promotion education intervention on the attitudes of urban African American school-age children. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2000;17(1):49-60.
  • Flores 1995 {published data only}
  • * Flores R. Dance for health: Improving fitness in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Public Health Reports 1995;110(2):189-193.
  • Foster 1985 {published data only}
  • Foster GD, Wadden TA, Brownell KD. Peer-led program for the treatment and prevention of obesity in the schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1985;53(4):538-540.
  • Frauhiger 2002 {published data only}
  • Frauhiger L. The effects of daily physical activity on student academic achievement and physical health. (Thesis) 2002.
  • Fuchs 2002 {published data only}
  • Fuchs RK, Bauer JJ, Snow CM. Jumping improves hip and lumbar spine bone mass in prepubescent children: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 2001;16(1):148-56.
  • * Fuchs RK, Snow CM. Gains in hip bone mass from high-impact training are maintained: a randomized controlled trial in children. Journal of Pediatrics 2002;141:357-62.
  • Goldfine 1993 {published data only}
  • * Goldfine BD, Nahas MV. Incorporating health-fitness concepts in secondary physical education curricula. Journal of School Health 1993;63(3):142-6.
  • Goran 1999 {published data only}
  • Goran MI, Reynolds KD, Lindquist CH. Role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999;23(Suppl 3):S18-S33.
  • Goran 2005 {published data only}
  • Goran MI, Reynolds K. Interactive multimedia for promoting physical activity (IMPACT) in children. Obesity Research 2005;13(4):762-71.
  • Gore 1996 {published data only}
  • Gore CJ, Owen N, Pederson D, Clarke A. Educational and environmental interventions for cardiovascular health promotion in socially disadvantaged primary schools. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1996;20(2):188-94.
  • Gortmaker 1999a {published data only}
  • * Gortmaker SL, Cheung LWY, Peterson KE, Chomitz G, Cradle JH, Dart H, et al.Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children: Eat well and keep moving. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(9):975-83.
  • Gortmaker 1999b {published data only}
  • * Gortmaker SL, Peterson KE, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, et al.Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(4):409-18.
  • Kerr CM. A school based, interdisciplinary curriculum in grades 6 and 7 reduced obesity in girls. Evidence-Based Nursing 2000;3(1):13.
  • Grafner 1987 {published data only}
  • * Grafner L, Heinrich J, Knappe J, Holtz H. Atherosclerosis precursors in schoolchildren: results of a two-year intervention study. Cor Vasa 1987;29(8):421-7.
  • Greene 1995 {published data only}
  • Greene JC, Ignico AA. The effect of a ten-week physical fitness program on fitness profiles, self-concept, and body-esteem in children. Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance 1995;31(4):42-7.
  • Grey 2004 {published data only}
  • Grey M, Berry D, Davidson M, Galasso P, Gustafson E, Melkus G. Preliminary testing of a program to prevent type 2 diabetes among high-risk youth. Journal of School Health 2004;74(1):10-5.
  • Grund 2001 {published data only}
  • Grund A, Krause H, Siewers M, Rieckert H, Muller MJ. Is TV viewing an index of physical activity and fitness in overweight and normal weight children?. Public Health Nutrition 2001;4(6):1245-51.
  • Gutin 1993 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Manos TM. Physical activity in the prevention of childhood obesity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;699:115-26.
  • Gutin 1995 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Cucuzzo N, Islam S, Smith C, Moffatt R, Pargman D. Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7- to 11-year-old girls. Obesity Research 1995;3(4):305-12.
  • Gutin 1999 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Ramsey L, Barbeau P, Cannady W, Ferguson M, Litaker M, et al.Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-month periods with and without physical training. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(3):388-94.
  • Gutin 2002 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Barbeau P, Owens ST, Lemmon CR, Bauman M, Allison J, et al.Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75(5):818-26.
  • Halfon 1988 {published data only}
  • Halfon ST, Bronner S. The influence of a physical ability intervention program on improved running time and increased sport motivation among Jerusalem schoolchildren. Adolescence 1988;23(90):405-16.
  • Hansen 1991 {published data only}
  • Hansen HS, Froberg K, Hyldebrandt N, Nielsen JR. A controlled study of eight months of physical training and reduction of blood pressure in children: the Odense schoolchild study. BMJ 1991;303(6804):682-5.
  • Hansen 2005 {published data only}
  • Hansen SE, Hasselstrom H, Gronfeldt V, Froberg K, Andersen L. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 6-7-year-old Danish children: the Copenhagen school child intervention study. Preventive Medicine 2005;40(6):740-6.
  • Harrell 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, Gansky SA, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Bradley CB. School-based interventions improve heart health in children with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Pediatrics 1998;102(2 Pt 1):371-80.
  • Harris 1998 {published data only}
  • Harris KJ, Richter KP, Schultz J, Johnston J. Formative, process, and intermediate outcome evaluation of a pilot school-based 5-a-day for Better Health Project. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998;12(6):378-81.
  • Hart 2003 {published data only}
  • Hart KH, Herriot A, Bishop JA, Truby H. Promoting healthy diet and exercise patterns amongst primary school children: a qualitative investigation of parental perspectives. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics 2003;16(2):89-96.
  • Hipsky 2002 {published data only}
  • Hipsky J, Kirk S. HealthWorks! Weight management program for children and adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(3 Suppl):S64-7.
  • Holcomb 1998 {published data only}
  • * Holcomb JD, Lira J, Kingery PM, Smith DW, Lane D, Goodway J. Evaluation of Jump Into Action: aprogram to reduce the risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in school children on the Texas-Mexico border. Journal of School Health 1998;68(7):282-8.
  • Hopper 1992 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, Herb RA. Effect of including parents in a school-based exercise and nutrition program for children. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1992;63(3):315-21.
  • Hopper 1996 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, MacConnie SE. School-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition programs with parent participation. Journal of Health Education 1996;27(5 Suppl):S32-9.
  • * Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB, MacConnie SE, Schonfeldt B, Shunk T. A school-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition program with parent participation: a evaluation study. Children's Health Care 1996;25(3):221-35.
  • Hopper 2001 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, MacConnie SE, Pfingston YM, Nguyen K. Relationship of blood cholesterol to body composition, physical fitness, and dietary intake measures in third-grade children and their parents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2001;72(2):182-8.
  • Hopper 2005 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB, Nguyen KP. The effects of a family fitness program on the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of third-grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2005;76(2):130-9.
  • Howard 1996 {published data only}
  • * Howard JK, Bindler RM, Synoground G, Van Gemert FC. A cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. Journal of School Nursing 1996;12(4):4-11.
  • Howe 2003 {published data only}
  • Howe C, Gutin B, Litaker M, Barbeau P. Effect of a physical activity intervention on heart rate variability in black girls: relative changes in fitness and fatness. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2003;35(5 Supplement):S70.
  • Huguet 1997 {published data only}
  • Huguet G, Touitou Y, Reinberg A. Morning versus afternoon gymnastic time and diurnal and seasonal changes in psychophysiological variables of school children. Chronobiology International 1997;14(4):371-84.
  • Jackson 2001 {published data only}
  • Jackson DM, Williamson A, Grant S, Paton JY, Reilly JJ. Effects of a physical activity programme on activity and motor skills in young children: a controlled trial. FASEB Journal 2001;15(5):A951.
  • Jamner 2004 {published data only}
  • Jamner MS, Spruijt-Metz D, Bassin S, Cooper DM. A controlled evaluation of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity among sedentary adolescent females: Project FAB. Journal of Adolescent Health 2004;34(4):279-89.
  • Janz 2002 {published data only}
  • Janz KF, Dawson JD, Mahoney LT. Increases in physical fitness during childhood improve cardiovascular health during adolescence: the Muscatine Study. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;23 Suppl 1:S15-21.
  • Johnson-Down 1997 {published data only}
  • Johnson-Down L, O'Loughlin J, Koski KG, Gray-Donald K. High prevalence of obesity in low income and multiethnic schoolchildren: a diet and physical activity assessment. Journal of Nutrition 1997;127(12):2310-5.
  • Jones 1988 {published data only}
  • Jones T, Kozinetz C, Bermudez A, Mazur L, Kaplowitz H. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in children. An efficacy school-based randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;128(4):898-9.
  • Jordan 1995 {published data only}
  • Jordan MC. A comparison of intermittent exercise and relaxation versus steady state exercise on fitness levels and attitudes in seventh grade girls. Brigham Young University (Thesis) 1995.
  • Jurg 2006 {published data only}
  • Jurg ME, Kremers SPJ, Candel MJJ, Van der Wal MF, Meij JSB. A controlled trial of a school-based environmental intervention to improve physical activity in Dutch children: JUMP-in, kids in motion. Health Promotion International 2006;21(4):320-30.
  • Kaplan 1996 {published data only}
  • Kaplan TA, Campbell MH, Moccia-Loos G. Effects of a 3-month exercise and nutrition program for childhood obesity on anthropometrics, physical fitness, and serum lipids. International Pediatrics 1996;11(1):31-7.
  • Karabourniotis 2002 {published data only}
  • Karabourniotis D, Evaggelinou C, Tzetzis G, Kourtessis T. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece. Perceptual & Motor Skills 2002;94(3 Pt 2):1259-70.
  • Kawabe 2000 {published data only}
  • Kawabe H, Murata K, Shibata H, Hirose H, Tsujioka M, et al.Participation in school sports clubs and related effects on cardiovascular risk factors in young males. Hypertension Research. 2000;23(3):227-32.
  • Keays 1995 {published data only}
  • Keays JJ, Allison KR. The effects of regular moderate to vigorous physical activity on student outcomes: a review. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1995;86(1):62-5.
  • Kelder 1995a {published data only}
  • Kelder SH, Perry CL, Lytle LL, Klepp KI. Gender differences in the class of 1989 study: the school component of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Health Education 1995;26:S36-S44.
  • Killen 1989 {published data only}
  • * Killen JD, Robinson TN, Telch MJ, Saylor KE, Maron DJ, Rich T, et al.The Stanford Adolescent Heart Health Program. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):263-83.
  • Killen JD, Taylor CB, Hammer LD, Litt I, Wilson DM, Rich T, et al.An attempt to modify unhealthful eating attitudes and weight regulation practices of young adolescent girls.. International Journal of Eating Disorders 1993;13(4):369-84.
  • Killen JD, Telch MJ, Robinson TN, Maccoby N, Taylor CB, et al.Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders. a multiple-factor school-based approach. Journal of the American Medical Association 1988;260(12):1728-33.
  • Kimm 1997 {published data only}
  • Kimm SYS, Glynn NW, Similo S, Kriska A, Fitzgerald S, Aaron DJ, et al.Longitudinal assessment of physical activity (PA) in young girls. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997;145(11 SUPPL.):S25.
  • Kirkcaldy 2002 {published data only}
  • Kirkcaldy BD, Shephard RJ, Siefen RG. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2002;37(11):544-50.
  • Kolbe 1995 {published data only}
  • Kolbe LJ, Kann L, Collins JL, Small ML, Pateman BC, Warren CW. The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS): context, methods, general findings, and future efforts. Journal of School Health 1995;65(8):339-43.
  • Koutedakis 2003 {published data only}
  • Koutedakis Y, Bouziotas C. National physical education curriculum: motor and cardiovascular health related fitness in Greek adolescents. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;37(4):311-4.
  • Lal 1991 {published data only}
  • Lal S, Saini RK, Khanna P, Malik JS. Empowering young girls for health and development. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1991;58(3):357-62.
  • LeMura 2000 {published data only}
  • LeMura LM, Andreacci J, Carlonas R, Klebez JM, Chelland S. Evaluation of physical activity measured via accelerometry in rural fourth-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2000;90(1):329-37.
  • Levin 2002 {published data only}
  • Levin S, Martin MW, McKenzie TL, DeLouise AC. Assessment of a pilot video's effect on physical activity and heart health for young children. Family and Community Health 2002;25(3):10-7.
  • Liskova 2002 {published data only}
  • Liskova S, Moravcova A, Kytnarova J, Hosek P. Long-term effectiveness of obesity intervention program in children. International Journal of Obesity 2002;26(Supplement 1):S10.
  • Lubans 2006 {published data only}
  • Lubans D, Sylva K. Controlled evaluation of a physical activity intervention for senior school students: effects of the lifetime activity program. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2006;28(3):252-68.
  • Ludwig 2004 {published data only}
  • Ludwig A, Doyle-Baker PK. Assessment of Calgary elementary physical education programs. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 2004;29(Suppl.):S63.
  • Luepker 1999 {published data only}
  • Luepker RV. How physically active are American children and what can we do about it?. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999;23(Suppl 2):S12-7.
  • Lungo 1994 {published data only}
  • Lungo D. The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I and percent body fat in adolescent females. Brigham Young University 1994.
  • Macaulay 1997 {published data only}
  • Macaulay AC, Paradis G, Potvin L, Cross EJ, Saad-Haddad C, McComber A, et al.The Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project: intervention, evaluation, and baseline results of a diabetes primary prevention program with a native community in Canada. Preventive Medicine 1997;26(6):779-90.
  • MacConnie 1991 {published data only}
  • MacConnie SE, Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB. The effect of parental inclusion in an exercise and nutrition intervention program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1991;23(4 SUPPL):S30.
  • Macdonald 1999 {published data only}
  • Macdonald SA. The Cardiovascular Health Education Program: assessing the impact on rural and urban adolescents' health knowledge. Applied Nursing Research 1999;12(2):86-90.
  • Macdonald 2007 {published data only}
  • Macdonald HM, Kontuainen SA, Khan KM, McKay HA. Is a school-based physical activity intervention effective for increading tibial bone strength in boys and girls?. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 2007;22:434-46.
  • MacKelvie 2001 {published data only}
  • MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Khan KM, Crocker PRE. A school-based exercise intervention augments bone mineral accrual in early pubertal girls. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139:501-8.
  • MacKelvie 2002 {published data only}
  • MacKelvie KJ, McKay HA, Petit MA, Moran O, Khan KM. Bone mineral response to a 7-month randomized controlled, school-based jumping intervention in 121 prepubertal boys: associations with ethnicity and body mass index. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research. 2002;17(5):834-44.
  • MacKelvie 2004 {published data only}
  • MacKelvie KJ, Petit MA, Khan KM, Beck TJ, McKay HA. Bone mass and structure are enhanced following a 2-year randomized controlled trial of exercise in prepubertal boys. Bone 2004;34(4):755-64.
  • MacLean 2003 {published data only}
  • * MacLean LB. Bounce at the bell: the effects of a 7-month intervention of brief bouts of moderate intensity exercise on bone mass, bone structure, and bone strength in children. 2003.
  • McKay HA, MacLean L, Petit M, Kelvie-O''Brien K, Janssen P, Beck T, et al.Bounce at the Bell: a novel program of short bouts of exercise improves proximal femur bone mass in early pubertal children.. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;39(8):521-6.
  • McKay HA, Petit MA, Schutz RW, Prior JC, Barr SI, Khan KM. Augmented trochanteric bone mineral density after modified physical education classes: a randomized school-based exercise intervention study in prepubescent and early pubescent children. Journal of Pediatrics 2000;136(2):156-62.. Journal of Pediatrics 2000;136(2):156-62.
  • Mahar 2006 {published data only}
  • Mahar MT, Murphy SK, Rowe DA, Golden J, Shields AT, Raedeke TD. Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2006;38(12):2086-94.
  • Mahon 1993 {published data only}
  • * Mahon AD, Ignico AA, Marsh ML. The effects of daily physical education on health related physical fitness in first-grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;March Supplement:A-43.
  • Mandigo 2003 {published data only}
  • Mandigo JL, Thompson LP, Spence J, Melnychuk N, Schwartz M, Causgrove-Dunn J, et al.Physical activites available at Alberta schools. 2003.
  • Matsudo 1999 {published data only}
  • Matsudo V, Andrade D, Matsudo S, Aramjo T, Andrade E, Figueira A, et al.Impact of a community - school intervention program on physical activity behavior of male and female adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(5 SUPPL.):S272.
  • McKay 2003 {published data only}
  • McKay HA. Lessons learned from school-based intervention trials: UBC Healthy Bones Studies. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 2003;3(4):341-4.
  • McKenzie 1993 {published data only}
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Faucette FN, Roby J, Kolody B. Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(2):178-87.
  • McKenzie 2002 {published data only}
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Conway TL, Marshall SJ, Rosengard P. Evaluation of a two-year middle-school physical education intervention: M-SPAN. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2004;36(8):1382-8.
  • McManus 2005 {published data only}
  • McManus AM, Cheng CH, Leung MP, Yung TC, Macfarlane DJ. Improving aerobic power in primary school boys: a comparison of continuous and interval training. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;26(9):781-6.
  • McMurray 2002 {published data only}
  • * McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Bangdiwala SI, Bradley CB, Deng S, Levine A. A school-based intervention can reduce body fat and blood pressure in young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2002;31(2):125-32.
  • Mecredy 1993 {published data only}
  • Mecredy D, Panaro L. Efficacy and community development: heart health interventions and adolescents. Public Health and Epidemiology Report Ontario 1993;4(1):16-9.
  • Meininger 2000 {published data only}
  • Meininger JC. School-based interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence of effects for minority populations. Annual Review of Nursing Research 2000;18:219-44.
  • Mellin 1987 {published data only}
  • Mellin LM, Slinkard LA, Irwin CE. Adolescent obesity intervention: validation of the SHAPEDOWN program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1987;87(3):333-8.
  • Melnyk 1994 {published data only}
  • Melnyk MG, Weinstein E. Preventing obesity in black women by targeting adolescents: a literature review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1994;94(5):536-40.
  • Meredith 1991 {published data only}
  • Meredith CN, Dwyer JT. Nurtition and exercise: effects on adolescent health. Annual Review of Public Health 1991;12:309-33.
  • Mettler 2000 {published data only}
  • Mettler MM, Stone WJ, Herrick AB, Klein DA. Evaluation of a community-based physical activity campaign via the transtheoretical model. Health Promotion Practice 2000;1(4):351-9.
  • Metzker 2000 {published data only}
  • Metzker AL. The effects of a transtheoretical model physical activity intervention program on the physical activity behavior of female adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2000;71(1):A-78.
  • Meunnich Cowell 1989 {published data only}
  • Meunnich Cowell J, Montgomery AC, Talashek ML. Cardiovascular risk assessment in school-age children: a school and community partnership in health promotion. Public Health Nursing 1989;6(2):67-73.
  • Mier 2002 {published data only}
  • Mier CM, Dunning D. Gender differences in the effects of physical education on fitness components in middle-school children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(5 Supplement):S142.
  • Missouri 2003 {published data only}
  • Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services BoCDPCHP. Home to School: using handheld palm computers to gather information on environmental factors affecting walking to school among elementary school children. Health Education and Behavior 2003;4:405-6.
  • Mo-suwan 1998 {published data only}
  • Mo-suwan L, Pongprapai S, Junjana C, Puetpaiboon A. Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(5):1006-11.
  • Moberg 1990 {published data only}
  • Moberg DP, Piper DL. An outcome evaluation of project model health: a middle school health promotion program. Health Education Quarterly 1990;17(1):37-51.
  • Moon 1999 {published data only}
  • * Moon AM, Mullee MA, Rogers L, Thompson RL, Speller V, Roderick P. Helping schools to become health-promoting environments: an evaluation of the Wessex Healthy Schools Award. Health Promotion International 1999;14(2):111-22.
  • Morris 1997 {published data only}
  • Morris FL, Naughton GA, Gibbs JL, Carlson JS, Wark JD. Prospective ten-month exercise intervention in premenarcheal girls: positive effects on bone and lean mass. Journal of Bone & Mineral Research 1997;12(9):1453-62.
  • Mott 1991 {published data only}
  • Mott DS, Virgilio SJ, Warren BL, Berenson GS. Effectiveness of a personalized fitness module on knowledge, attitude, and cardiovascular endurance of fifth-grade students: "Hear Smart". Perceptual Motor Skills 1991;73:847-58.
  • Muller 2001 {published data only}
  • Muller MJ, Asbeck I, Mast M, Langnase K, Grund A. Prevention of obesity more than an intention: concept and first results of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). International Journal of Obesity 2001;25(Suppl. 1):S66-74.
  • Mummery 1995 {published data only}
  • Mummery K. Physical activity in the school system: the effects of the Canadian Active Living Challenge Program on attitudes toward physical activity, sport and exercise in elementary school children. 1995.
  • Mummery 1996 {published data only}
  • Mummery WK, Hudec JC, van Ingen C. Organized sport and regular physical activity participation in a sample of Canadian students. Alberta Centre for Well-Being, 1996.
  • Nabipour 2004 {published data only}
  • Nabipour I, Imami SR, Mohammadi MM, Heidari G, Bahramian F, Azizi F, et al.A school-based intervention to teach 3-4 grades children about healthy heart; the Persian Gulf healthy heart project. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 2004;58(7):289-96.
  • Nader 1992 {published data only}
  • Madsen J, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Senn KL, Patterson TL, Atkins CJ, Nader PR. Process variables as predictors of risk factor changes in a family health behavior change program. Health Education Research 1993;8(2):193-204.
  • Madsen J, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Senn KL, Patterson TL, Atkins CJ, Nader PR. Relationship between self-monitoring of diet and exercise change and subsequent risk factor changes in children and adults. Patient Education and Counseling 1993;21(1-2):61-9.
  • * Nader PR, Sallis JF, Abramson IS, Broyles SL, Patterson TL, Senn KL, et al.Family-based cardiovascular risk reduction education among Mexican- and Anglo-Americans and Europeans. Family and Community Health 1992;15:57-74.
  • Nader PR, Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Abramson IS, Rupp JW, Senn KL, et al.A family approach to cardiovascular risk reduction: results from the San Diego Family Health Project. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):229-44.
  • Nader PR, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Atkins CJ, Patterson TL, Abramson IS. San Diego Family Health Project: reaching families through the schools. Journal of School Health 1986;56(6):227-31.
  • Patterson TL, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Rupp JW, McKenzie TL, Roppe BE, et al.Direct observation of physical activity and dietary behaviors in a structured environment: effects of a family-based health promotion program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1988;11(5):447-58.
  • Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Buona JJ, Nader PR. Relation of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127:933-46.
  • Naylor 2006 {published data only}
  • Naylor PJ, Macdonald HM, Zebedee JA, Reed KE, McKay HA. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC--an ''active school'' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 2006;9(5):413-23.
  • NCCDP 1997 {published data only}
  • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion CfDCaP. Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. Journal of School Health 1997;67(6):202-19.
  • NeumarkSztainer 2003 {published data only}
  • * Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Rex J. New Moves: a school-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(1):41-51.
  • NHLBI 2000 {published data only}
  • McKenzie TL, Catellier DJ, Conway T, Lytle LA, Grieser M, Webber LA, et al.Girls' activity levels and lesson contexts in middle school PE: TAAG baseline. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2006;37(7):1229-35.
  • * National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institution. Trial of activity for adolescent girls (TAAG). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institution 2000.
  • Stevens J, Murray DM, Catellier DJ, Hannan PJ, Lytle L.A, Elder JP, et al.Design of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Contemporary Clinical Trials 2005;26(2):223-33.
  • O'Loughlin 1999 {published data only}
  • O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Kishchuk N, Barnett T, Renaud L. Prevalence and correlates of physical activity behaviors among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low income, inner-city neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Annals of Epidemiology 1999;9(7):397-407.
  • Owen 1995 {published data only}
  • Owen N, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Oldenburg B, Magnus P. Serial mass-media campaigns to promote physical activity: reinforcing or redundant?. American Journal of Public Health 1995;85(2):244-8.
  • Oxizoglou 2005 {published data only}
  • Oxizoglou N, Kanioglou A, Rizos S. A comparative study of a handball program and a physical education curriculum and their influence on the anthropometric characteristics formation of pupils aged 12-14. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education 2005;3(2):123-30.
  • Palmer 2005 {published data only}
  • Palmer S, Graham G, Elliott E. Effects of a web-based health program on fifth grade children''s physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behavior. American Journal of Health Education 2005;36(2):86-93.
  • Parcel 1989 {published data only}
  • Parcel GS, Simons-Morton BG, O''Hara NM, Baranowski T, Wilson B. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):181-99.
  • Parlee-Hirth 2002 {published data only}
  • Parlee-Hirth M. California children's 5 a day - power play! campaign. American Journal of Health Promotion 2002;16(6):371-2.
  • Pate 1987 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Corbin CB, Simons-Morton BG, Ross JG. Physical education and its role in school health promotion. Journal of School Health 1987;57(10):445-50.
  • Pate 1994 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Matthews C, Alpert BS, Strong WB, DuRant RH. Systolic blood pressure to exercise in black and while preadolescent and early adolescent boys. Archive of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1994;148(10):1027-31.
  • Pate 1995a {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995;273:402-7.
  • Pate 1995b {published data only}
  • Pate R, Small ML, Ross JG, Young JC, Flint KH, Warren CW. School physical education. Journal of School Health 1995;65(8):312-8.
  • Pate 1996 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviours in a representative sample of US adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(11):1577-81.
  • Pate 2003 {published data only}
  • Pate R, Saunders RP, Ward DS, Felton G, Trost SG, Dowda M. Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical activity in youth: lessons from Active Winners. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003;17(3):171-82.
  • Pena 2004 {published data only}
  • Peña E. The effects of a school-based intervention on the physical activity behaviors of Latino high school students. ACSM (Thesis). Indianapolis, 2004.
  • Perry 1987 {published data only}
  • Perry CL, Klepp KI, Halper A, Dudovitz BS, Golden D, Griffin G, et al.Promoting healthy eating and physical activity patterns among adolescents: a pilot study of 'Slice of Life'. Health Education Research 1987;2(2):93-103.
  • Petkevicius 1985 {published data only}
  • Petkevicius RV, Grinkeviciene OK, Bojarskas JL, Sackute A A, Zaborskis A A. Preventive study of atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease risk factors among Kaunas school-children. Cor Vasa 1985;27(4):229-35.
  • Phillipp 1989 {published data only}
  • * Phillipp A, Piland NF, Seidenwurm J, Smith HL. Improving physical fitness in high school students: Implications from an experimental course. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 1989;9(1):58-73.
  • Piper 1993 {published data only}
  • Piper DL, King MJ, Moberg DP. Implementing a middle school health promotion research project: lessons our textbook didn't teach us. Evaluation and Program Planning 1993;16(3):171-80.
  • Pollatschek 1989 {published data only}
  • Pollatschek JL, O'Hagan FJO. An investigation of the psycho-physical influences of a quality physical education programme. Health Education Research, Theory and Practice 1989;4(3):341-50.
  • Reinhardt 2002 {published data only}
  • Reinhardt WC, Brevard PB. Integrating the Food Guide Pyramid and Physical Activity Pyramid for positive dietary and physical activity behaviors in adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(3 Suppl):S96-9.
  • Renaud 1997 {published data only}
  • Renaud L, Chevalier S, Dufour R, O'Loughlin J, Beaudet N, Bourgeois A, et al.Evaluation of the implementation of an educational curriculum: optimal interventions for the adoption of an educational program of health in elementary schools. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1997;88:351-3.
  • Resnicow 1992 {published data only}
  • * Resnicow KA, Cohn L, Reinhardt J, Cross D, Futterman R, Kirschner E, et al.A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Education Quarterly 1992;19(4):463-80.
  • Resnicow 1993 {published data only}
  • Resnicow K. School-based obesity prevention. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;699:154-66.
  • Resnicow 1996 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Allensworth D. Conducting a comprehensive school health program. Journal of School Health 1996;66(2):59-63.
  • Resnicow 1997 {published data only}
  • Resnicow K, Robinson TN. School-based cardiovasular disease prevention studies: review and synthesis. Annals of Epidemiology 1997;7:S14-S31.
  • Resnicow 2000 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Yaroch AL, Davis A, Wang DT, Carter S, Slaughter L, et al.GO GIRLS!: results from a nutrition and physical activity program for low-income, overweight African American adolescent females. Health Education and Behavior 2000;27(5):616-31.
  • Resnicow 2002 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Jackson A, Braithwaite R, DiIorio C, Blisset D, Rahotep S, et al.Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit: a church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):562-73.
  • Reybrouck 1990 {published data only}
  • Reybrouck T, Vinckx J, Van De Berghe G, Vanderschueren-Lodeweyckx M. Exercise therapy and hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obese children and adolescents. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1990;79:84-9.
  • Rimmer 1997 {published data only}
  • Rimmer JH, Looney MA. Effects of an aerobic activity program on the cholesterol levels of adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1997;68(1):74-9.
  • Robinson 1999 {published data only}
  • Robinson TN. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999;282(16):1561-7.
  • Robinson 2003 {published data only}
  • Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, Thompson DI, Nicklas TA, Zakeri IE, et al.The Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study.. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;12(1 Suppl 1):S30-9.
  • Kumanyika SK, Obarzanek E, Robinson TN, Beech BM. Phase 1 of the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): conclusion. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S88-S91.
  • Kumanyika SK, Story M, Beech BM, Sherwood NE, Baranowski JC, Powell TM, et al.Collaborative planning for formative assessment and cultural appropriateness in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): a retrospection. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S15-S29.
  • Obarzanek E, Pratt CA. Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): new approaches to obesity prevention among young African-American girls. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S1-S5.
  • * Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, et al.Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S65-S77.
  • Rochon J, Klesges RC, Story M, Robinson TN, Baranowski T, Obarzanek E, et al.Common design elements of the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS). Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S6-14.
  • Story M, Sherwood NE, Himes JH, Davis M, Jacobs DR, Cartwright Y, et al.An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: the Minnesota GEMS pilot study.. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S54-S64.
  • Treuth MS, Sherwood NE, Baranowski T, Butte NF, Jacobs DR, McClanahan B, et al.Physical activity self-report and accelerometry measures from the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site studies.. Preventive Medicine 2004;38:S43-9.
  • Rosenbaum 2007 {published data only}
  • Rosenbaum M, Nonas C, Weil R, Horlick M, Fennoy I, Vargas I, et al.School-based intervention acutely improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammatory markers and body fatness in junior high school students. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2007;92(2):504-8.
  • Rowland 1991 {published data only}
  • Rowland TW, Varzeas MR, Walsh CA. Aerobic responses to walking training in sedentary adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 1991;12(1):30-4.
  • Saakslahti 2004 {published data only}
  • Saakslahti A, Numminen P, Salo P, Tuominen J, Helenius H, Valimaki I. Effects of a three-year intervention on children's physical activity from age 4 to 7. Pediatric Exercise Science 2004;16(2):167-80.
  • Sacher 2003 {published data only}
  • Sacher P, Hogan L, Chadwick P, Lawson M. An integrated programme of nutrition, exercise and behavioural modification in a small group of obese 7-11-year-old children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2003;62(OCA-B):3A.
  • Sadowsky 1999 {published data only}
  • * Sadowsky HS, Sawdon JM, Scheiner ME, Sticklin AM. Eight week moderate intensity exercise intervention elicits body composition change in adolescents. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal 1999;10(2):38-44.
  • Sahota 2001a {published data only}
  • Sahota P, Rudolf MC, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001;323(7320):1029-32.
  • Sahota 2001b {published data only}
  • Sahota P, Rudolf MCJ, Hill AJ, Barth JH, Cade J. Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001;323:1027-30.
  • Saksvig 2003 {published data only}
  • Saksvig B, Gittelsohn J, Zinman B, Hanley A, Valente T, Harris S. A successful school-based diabetes prevention intervention for native Canadian children. Diabetes 2003;52(Supplement 1):A209-10.
  • Sallis 1993a {published data only}
  • Sallis JF, Condon SA, Goggin KJ, Roby JJ, Kolody RB, Alcaraz JE. The development of self-administered physical activity surveys for 4th grade students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(1):25-31.
  • Sallis 1993b {published data only}
  • Sallis JF. Epidemiology of physcial activity and fitness in children and adolescents. Critical Reviews in Food, Science and Nutrition 1993;33:403-8.
  • Salmon 2005 {published data only}
  • Salmon J, Ball K, Crawford D, Booth M, Telford A, Hume C, et al.Reducing sedentary bahaviour and increasing physical activity among 10-year-old children: overview and process evaluation of the 'Switch Play' intervention. Health Promotion International 2005;20:7-17.
  • Sasaki 1987 {published data only}
  • Sasaki J, Shindo M, Tanaka H, Ando M. A long term aerobic exercise program decreases the obesity index and increases the high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in obese children. International Journal of Obesity 1987;11:339-45.
  • Schneider 2007 {published data only}
  • Schneider M, Dunton GF, Bassin S, Graham DJ, Eliakim AF, Cooper DM. Impact of a school-based physical activity intervention on fitness and bone in adolescent females. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2007;4(1):17-29.
  • Schofield 2005 {published data only}
  • Schofield L, Mummery WK, Schofield G. Effects of a controlled pedometer-intervention trial for low-active adolescent girls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2005;37(8):1414-20.
  • Schuldheisz 1998 {published data only}
  • Schuldheisz, J. M. The effects of an interdependent group-oriented contingency on middle school students' physical activity levels during physical education. Microform Publications, 1998.
  • Scott 1988 {published data only}
  • Scott KA, Myers AM. Impact of fitness training on native adolescents' self-evaluations and substance use. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1988;79(6):424-9.
  • Shaw 1989 {published data only}
  • Shaw SM, Kemeny L. Fitness promotion for adolescent girls: the impact and effectiveness of promotional material which emphasizes the slim ideal. Adolescence 1989;24(95):677-87.
  • Shea 1996 {published data only}
  • Shea S, Basch CE, Wechsler H, Lantigua R. The Washington Heights-Inwood Healthy Heart Program: a 6-year report from a disadvantaged urban setting. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(2):166-71.
  • Shephard 1992 {published data only}
  • Shephard RJ. Effectiveness of training programmes for prepubescent children. Sports Medicine 1992;13(3):194-213.
  • Shephard 1996 {published data only}
  • Labarre R, Lavallee H, Shephard RJ, Jequier JC, Rajic M. Cohort effects: a possible limitation to the interpretation of longitudinal studies. American Journal of Human Biology 1993;5(3):305-10.
  • Shephard RJ. Long-term studies of physical activity in children: The Trois-Rivieres experience. In: BinkhorstRA, KemperHCG, SarisWHM ED(s). Children and Exercise XI. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1985:252-9.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Changes of physical performance as indicators of the response to enhanced physical education. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1994;34(4):323-35.
  • * Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Effects of enhanced physical education on lung volumes of primary school children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1996;36(3):186-94.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Enhanced physical education and body fat in the primary school child. American Journal of Human Biology 1993;5(6):697-704.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Impact of enhanced physical education in the prepubescent child: Trois Rivieres revisited. Pediatric Exercise Science 1993;5(2):177-89.
  • Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shephard RJ. A long-term follow-up of participants in the Trois-Rivieres semi-longitudinal study of growth and development. Pediatric Exercise Science 1998;10:366-77.
  • Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shephard RJ. Daily primary school physical education: Effects on physical activity during adult life. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(1):111-7.
  • Shingo 2002 {published data only}
  • Shingo N, Takeo M. The educational experiments of school health promotion for the youth in Japan: analysis of the 'sport test' over the past 34 years. Health Promotion International 2002;17(2):147-60.
  • Siegel 1984 {published data only}
  • Siegel JA, Manfredi TG. Effects of a ten-month fitness program on children. Physician and Sportsmedicine 1984;12(5):91-7.
  • Simonetti 1986 {published data only}
  • Simonetti D-A, Tarsitani G, Cairella M, Siani V, De Filippis S, Manicinelli S, et al.Prevention of obesity in elementary and nursery school children. Public Health 1986;100:166-73.
  • Singh 2007 {published data only}
  • Singh AS, Paw MJMC, Brug J, Van Mechelen W. Short-term effects of school-based weight gain prevention among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2007;161(6):565-71.
  • Skybo 2002 {published data only}
  • * Skybo TA, Ryan-Wenger N. A school-based intervention to teach third grade children about the prevention of heart disease. Pediatric Nursing 2002;28(3):223-9.
  • Slawta 2004 {published data only}
  • Slawta JN, Nalle DJ, Bentley JL, Smith J. The Be A Fit Kid Program: improving dietary and physical activity habits in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2004;36:S101-2.
  • Sobczyk 1995 {published data only}
  • Sobczyk W, Hazel N, Reed CD. Health Promotion Schools of Excellence: A model program for Kentucky and the nation. J Kentucky Medical Association 1995;93:142-7.
  • Soong 1997 {published data only}
  • Soong PX, McGill L, Yang FL. The effects of two exercise programs on VO-2max in children in Singapore. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997;29(5 SUPPL.):S14.
  • Sothern 1993 {published data only}
  • Sothern MS, von Almen TK, Schumacher HD, Zelman M, Farris RP, Carlisle L, et al.An effective multidisciplinary approach to weight reduction in youth. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;699:292-4.
  • Sothern 1999 {published data only}
  • Sothern MS, von Almen TK, Schumacher HD, Suskind RM, Blecker U. A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Delaware Medical Journal 1999;71(6):255-61.
  • Sothern 2001 {published data only}
  • Sothern MS. Exercise as a modality in the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001;48(4):995-1015.
  • Spence 1997 {published data only}
  • Spence JC, Poon P. Results from the Alberta Schools' Athletic Association Survey. Alberta Centre for Well-Being. Alberta Centre for Well-Being, 1997.
  • Spiegel 2006 {published data only}
  • Spiegel SA, Foulk D. Reducing overweight through a multidisciplinary school-based intervention. Obesity 2006;14(1):88-96.
  • Stergioulas 1998 {published data only}
  • Stergioulas A, Tripolitsioti A, Messinis D, Bouloukos A, Nounopoulos C. The effects of endurance training on selected coronary risk factors in children. Acta Paediatrica 1998;87(4):401-4.
  • Stewart 1997 {published data only}
  • Stewart KJ, Seemans CM, McFarland LD, Weinhofer JJ. Social learning versus traditional teaching in an elementary school cardiovascular health promotion program. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;11(3):194-7.
  • Stewart 2004 {published data only}
  • Stewart JA, Dennison DA, Kohl HW, Doyle JA. Exercise level and energy expenditure in the TAKE 10! in-class physical activity program. Journal of School Health 2004;74:397-400.
  • Stone 1998 {published data only}
  • Stone EJ, McKenzie TL, Welk GJ, Booth ML. Effects of physical activity interventions in youth: review and synthesis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1998;15(4):298-315.
  • Stone 1989 {published data only}
  • Stone EJ, Perry CL, Luepker RV. Synthesis of cardiovascular behavioural research for youth health promotion. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):155-69.
  • Stone 1995 {published data only}
  • Stone EJ, Baranowski T, Sallis JF, Cutler JA. Review of behavioural research for cardiopulmonary health: Emphasis on youth, gender, and ethnicity. Journal of Health Education 1995;26 (2 Suppl):S9-17.
  • Stratton 2000 {published data only}
  • * Stratton G. Promoting children's physical activity in primary school: an intervention study using playground markings. Ergonomics 2000;43(10):1538-46.
  • Strazzullo 1988 {published data only}
  • Strazzullo P, Cappuccio FP, Trevisan M, De Leo A, Krogh V, Giorgione, Mancini M. Leisure time physical activity and blood pressure in schoolchildren. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(4):726-33.
  • Tamir 1990 {published data only}
  • * Tamir D, Feurstein A, Brunner S, Halfon S, Reshef A, Palti H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in childhood: changes in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and body mass index after 2 years of intervention in Jerusalem school-children age 7-9 years. Preventive Medicine 1990;19:22-30.
  • Tavener 1993 {published data only}
  • Tavener M, Payne W. The effect of participation in a 'Health in Primary Schools Program' on the physical fitness of children. Australian Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 1993;25(3):84-8.
  • Thakor 2004 {published data only}
  • Thakor HG, Kumar P, Desai VK. Effect of physical and mental activity on blood pressure. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2004;71(4):307-12.
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