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References

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Bin-Nun 2005 {published data only}
  • Bin-Nun A, Bromiker R, Wilschanski M, Kaplan M, Rudensky B, Caplan M, Hammerman C. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates. Journal of Pediatrics 2005;147:192-6.
  • Costalos 2003 {published data only}
  • Costalos C, Skouteri V, Gounaris A, Sevastiadou S, Triandafilidou A, Ekonomidou C, et al.Enteral feeding of premature infants with Saccharomyces boulardii. Early Human Development 2003;74:89-96.
  • Dani 2002 {published data only}
  • Dani C, Biadaioli R, Bertini G, Martelli E, Rubaltelli F. Probiotics feeding in prevention of urinary tract infection, bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. A prospective double-blind study. Biology of the Neonate 2002;82:103-8.
  • Kitajima 1997 {published data only}
  • Kitajima H, Sumida Y, Tanaka R, Yuki, Takayama H, Fujimura M. Early administration of Bifidobacterium breve to preterm infants: randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;76:F101-7.
  • Li 2004 {published data only}
  • Li Y, Shimizu T, Hosaka A, Kaneko N, Ohtsuka Y, Yamashiro Y. Effects of bifidobacterium breve supplementation on intestinal flora of low birth weight infants. Pediatrics International 2004;46:509-5.
  • Lin 2005 {published data only}
  • Lin HC, Su BH, Chen AC, Lin TW, Tsai CH, Yeh TF, Oh W. Oral probiotics reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2005;115:1-4.
  • Manzoni 2006 {published data only}
  • Manzoni P, Mostert M, Leonessa ML, Priolo C, Farina D, Monetti C, Latino MA, Gomirato G. Oral supplemantation with lactobacillus casei subspecies rhamnosus prevents enteric colonization by Candida species in preterm neonates: a randomized study. Clinical infectious disease 2006;15:1735-42.
  • Millar 1993 {published data only}
  • Millar MR, Bacon C, Smith SL, Walker V, Hall MA. Enteral feeding of premature infants with Lactobacillus GG. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1993;69:483-7.
  • Reuman 1986 {published data only}
  • Reuman PD, Duckworth DH, Smith KL, Kagan R, Bucciarelli RL, Ayoub EM. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus on gastrointestinal bacterial colonization in premature infants. Pediatric Infectious Disease 1986;5:663-8.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Agarwal 2003 {published data only}
  • Agarwal R, Sharma N, Chaudhry R, Deorari A, Paul VK, Gewolb IH, Panigrahi P. Effects of oral Lactobacillus GG on enteric microflora in low-birth-weight neonates. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2003;36:397-402.
  • Stansbridge 1993 {published data only}
  • Stansbridge EM, Walker V, Hall MA, Smith SL, Millar MR, Bacon C, Chen S. Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1993;69:488-92.
  • References to studies awaiting assessment
  • Uhlemann 1999 {published data only}
  • Uhlemann M, Heine W, Mohr C, Plath C, Pap S. Effects of oral administration of bifidobacteria on intestinal microflora in premature and newborn infants newborn infants. Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie 1999;203:213-17.
  • Additional references
  • Bell 1978
  • Bell MJ, Ternberg JL, Feigin RD, Keating JP, Marshall R, Barton L, Brotherton T. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Therapeutic decisions based upon clinical staging. Annals of Surgery 1978;187:1-7. [MEDLINE: 44]
  • Bisquera 2002
  • Bisquera JA, Cooper TR, Berseth CL. Impact of necrotizing enterocolitis on length of stay and hospital charges in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2002;109:423-8. [MEDLINE: 24]
  • Butel 1998
  • Butel MJ, Roland N, Hibert A, Popot F, Favre A, Tessedre AC, et al.Clostridial pathogenicity in experimental necrotising enterocolitis in gnotobiotic quails and protective role of bifidobacteria. Journal of Medical Microbiology 1998;47:391-9. [MEDLINE: 42]
  • Caplan 1999
  • Caplan MS, Miller-Catchpole R, Kaup S, Russell T, Lickerman M, Amer M, et al.Bifidobacterial supplementation reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in a neonatal rat model. Gastroenterology 1999;117:577-83. [MEDLINE: 41]
  • Caplan 2001
  • Caplan MS, Jilling T. New concepts in necrotizing enterocolitis. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2001;13:111-5. [MEDLINE: 20]
  • Duffy 2000
  • Duffy LC. Interactions mediating bacterial translocation in the immature intestine. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130:432S-36S. [MEDLINE: 39]
  • Gewolb 1999
  • Gewolb IH, Schwalbe RS, Taciak VL, Harrison TS, Panigrahi P. Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition 1999;80:F167-73. [MEDLINE: 34]
  • Goldmann 1978
  • Goldmann DA, Leclair J, Macone A. Bacterial colonization of neonates admitted to an intensive care environment. Journal of Pediatrics 1978;93:288-93. [MEDLINE: 33]
  • Harmsen 2000
  • Harmsen HJ, Wildeboer-Veloo AC, Raangs GC, Wagendorp AA, Klijn N, Bindels JG, Welling GW. Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;30:61-7. [MEDLINE: 32]
  • Holman 1997
  • Holman RC, Stoll BJ, Clarke MJ, Glass RI. The epidemiology of necrotizing enterocolitis infant mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87:2026-31. [MEDLINE: 21]
  • Kafetzis 2003
  • Kafetzis DA, Skevaki C, Costalos C. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: an overview. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2003;16:349-55. [MEDLINE: 19]
  • Kosloske 1984
  • Kosloske AM. Pathogenesis and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis: a hypothesis based on personal observation and a review of the literature. Pediatrics 1984;74:1086-92. [MEDLINE: 27]
  • Kosloske 1990
  • Kosloske AM. A unifying hypothesis for pathogenesis and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Journal of Pediatrics 1990;117:S68-S74. [MEDLINE: 30]
  • Kosloske 1994
  • Kosloske AM. Epidemiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. Acta Paediatrica Suppl 1994;396:2-7.
  • La Gamma 1994
  • La Gamma EF, Browne LE. Feeding practices for infants weighing less than 1500 G at birth and the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Clinics in Perinatology 1994;21:271-306. [MEDLINE: 29]
  • Lee 2003
  • Lee JS, Polin RA. Treatment and prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. Seminars in Neonatology 2003;8:449-59. [MEDLINE: 22]
  • Link-Amster 1994
  • Link-Amster H, Rochat F, Saudan KY, Mignot O, Aeschlimann JM. Modulation of a specific humoral immune response and changes in intestinal flora mediated through fermented milk intake. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 1994;10:55-63. [MEDLINE: 40]
  • Mattar 2001
  • Mattar AF, Drongowski RA, Coran AG, Harmon CM. Effect of probiotics on enterocyte bacterial translocation in vitro. Pediatric Surgery International 2001;17:265-8. [MEDLINE: 37]
  • Millar 2003
  • Millar M, Wilks M, Costeloe K. Probiotics for preterm infants?. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2003;88:F354-8. [MEDLINE: 35]
  • Musemeche 1986
  • Musemeche CA, Kosloske AM, Bartow SA, Umland ET. Comparative effects of ischemia, bacteria, and substrate on the pathogenesis of intestinal necrosis. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 1986;21:536-8. [MEDLINE: 31]
  • Neu 1996
  • Neu J. Necrotizing enterocolitis: the search for a unifying pathogenic theory leading to prevention. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1996;43:409-32. [MEDLINE: 26]
  • Orrhage 1999
  • Orrhage K, Nord CE. Factors controlling the bacterial colonization of the intestine in breastfed infants. Acta Paediatrica Suppl 1999;88:47-57. [MEDLINE: 36]
  • Reid 2001
  • Reid G, Howard J, Gan BS. Can bacterial interference prevent infection?. Trends in Microbiology 2001;9:424-8. [MEDLINE: 38]
  • Richard 1988
  • Richard V, Van der Auwera AP, Snoeck R, Daneau D, Meunier F. Nosocomial bacteremia caused by Bacillus species. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1988;7:783-5. [MEDLINE: 43]
  • Ricketts 1994
  • Ricketts RR. Surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis and the short bowel syndrome. Clinics in Perinatology 1994;21:365-87. [MEDLINE: 23]
  • Stoll 1996
  • Stoll BJ, Gordon T, Korones SB, Shankaran S, Tyson JE, Bauer CR, et al.Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: a report from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;129:63-71. [MEDLINE: 28]
  • Stoll 2002a
  • Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, Wright LL, Carlo WA, Ehrenkranz RA, et al.Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight neonates: the experience of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Pediatrics 2002;110(2 Pt 1):285-91.
  • Stoll 2002b
  • Stoll BJ, Hansen N, Fanaroff AA, Wright LL, Carlo WA, Ehrenkranz RA, et al.Changes in pathogens causing early-onset sepsis in very-low-birth-weight infants. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;347:240-7.
  • Stoll 2004
  • Stoll BJ, Hansen NI, ms-Chapman I, Fanaroff AA, Hintz SR, Vohr B, Higgins RD. Neurodevelopmental and growth impairment among extremely low-birth-weight infants with neonatal infection. JAMA 2004;292:2357-65. [MEDLINE: 25]
  • Walsh 1986
  • Walsh MC, Kliegman RM. Necrotizing enterocolitis: treatment based on staging criteria. Pediatric Clinics of North America 1986;33:179-201. [MEDLINE: 45]