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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Beidel 2007 {published data only}
  • * Beidel DC, Turner SM, Sallee FR, Ammerman RT, Crosby LA, Pathak S. SET-C versus fluoxetine in the treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry  2007;46(12):1622-32.
  • Birmaher 2003 {published data only}
  • * Birmaher B, Axelson DA, Monk K, Kalas C, Clark DB, Ehmann M, Bridge J, Heo J, Brent DA. Fluoxetine for the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(4):415-24.
  • Black 1994 {published data only}
  • * Black B, Uhde TW. Treatment of elective mutism with fluoxetine: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1994;33(7):1000-6.
  • DeVeaugh-Geiss 1992 {published data only}
  • * DeVeaugh-Geiss J, Moroz G, Biederman J, Cantwell D, Fontaine R, Greist JH, Reichler R, Katz R, Landau P. Clomipramine hydrochloride in childhood and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder - a multicenter trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1992;31(1):45-9.
  • Flament 1985 {published data only}
  • * Flament MF, Rapoport JL, Berg CJ, Sceery W, Kilts C, Mellstrom B, Linnoila M. Clomipramine treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 1985;42:977-83.
  • Geller 2001a {published data only}
  • * Geller DA, Hoog SL, Heiligenstein JH, Ricardi Rk, Tamura R, Kluszynski S, Jacobson JG, FPOCDST. Fluoxetine treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: A placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2001;40(7):773-9.
  • Geller 2001b {published data only}
  • * Geller DA, Biederman J, Stewart SE, Mullin B, Farrell C, Wagner KD, Emslie G, Carpenter D. Impact of comorbidity on treatment response to paroxetine in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: Is the use of exclusion criteria empirically supported in randomized clinical trials?. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2003;13(Suppl 1):S19-29.
  • Geller 2004 {published data only}
  • * Geller DA, Wagner KD, Emslie G, Murphy T, Carpenter DJ, Wetherhold E, Perera P, Machin A, Gardiner C. Paroxetine treatment in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2004;43(11):1387-96.
  • Graae 1994 {published data only}
  • * Graae F, Milner J, Rizzotto L, Klein RG. Clonazepam in childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1994;33(3):372-6.
  • Liebowitz 2002 {published data only}
  • * Liebowitz MR, Turner SM, Piacentini J, Beidel DC, Clarvit SR, Davies SO, Graae F, Jaffer M, Lin S, Sallee FR, Schmidt AB, Simpson HB. Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with OCD: A placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;41(12):1431-8.
  • March 1998 {published data only}
  • Cook EH, Wagner KD, March JS, Biederman J, Landau P, Wolkow R, Messig M. Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40(10):1175-81.
  • * March JS, Biederman J, Wolkow R, Safferman A, Mardekian J, Cook EH, Cutler NR, Dominguez R, Ferguson J, Muller B, Riesenberg R, Rosenthal M, Sallee FR, Steiner H, Wagner KD. Sertraline in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998;280(20):1752-6.
  • Wagner KD, Cook EH, Chung H, Messig M. Remission status after long-term sertraline treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2003;13(Suppl. 1):S53-60.
  • March 2007 {published data only}
  • * March JS, Entusah RA, Rynn M, Albano AM, Tourian KA. A randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine ER versus placebo in pediatric social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry 2007;62(10):1149-54.
  • POTS 2004 {published data only}
  • * The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) team. Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004;292(16):1969-76.
  • Rapoport 1980 {published data only}
  • * Rapoport J, Elkins R, Mikkelsen E. Clinical controlled trial of chlorimipramine in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1980;16(3):61-3.
  • Riddle 1992 {published data only}
  • * Riddle MA, Scahill L, King RA, Hardin MT, Anderson GM, Ort SI, Smith JC, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ. Double-blind, crossover trial of fluoxetine and placebo in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1992;31(6):1062-9.
  • Riddle 2001 {published data only}
  • * Riddle MA, Reeve EA, Yaryura-Tobias JA, Yang HM, Claghorn JL, Gaffney G, Greist JH, Holland D, McConville BJ, Pigott T, Walkup JT. Fluvoxamine for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2001;40(2):222-9.
  • RUPPASG 2001 {published data only}
  • Ginsburg GS, Riddle MA, Davies M. Somatic symptoms in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2006;45(10):1179-87.
  • * The Research Unit on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group. Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344(17):1279-85.
  • Walkup JT, Labellarte MJ, Riddle MA, Pine D, Greenhill L, Klein R, Davies M, Sweeney M, Fu C, Abikoff H, Hack S, Klee B, McCracken J, Bergman L, Piacentini J, March J, Compton S, Robinson J, O'Hara T, Baker S, Vitiello B, Ritz L, Roper M, Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group. Searching for moderators and mediators of pharmacological treatment effects in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(1):13-21.
  • Rynn 2001 {published data only}
  • * Rynn MA, Siqueland L, Rickels K. Placebo-controlled trial of sertraline in the treatment of children with generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 2001;158(12):2008-14.
  • Rynn 2007 {published data only}
  • Kunz NR, Khan A,  Lamm LW,  Nicolacopoulos E,  Jenkins L. Efficacy and safety of venlafaxine extended release in children and adolescents with generalised anxiety disorder. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2002;12(3):358.
  • * Rynn MA, Riddle MA, Yeung PP, Kunz NR. Efficacy and safety of extended-release venlafaxine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents: Two placebo-controlled trials. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164(2):290-300.
  • Simeon 1992 {published data only}
  • * Simeon JG, Ferguson B, Knott V, Roberts N, Gauthier B, Dubois C, Wiggins D. Clinical, cognitive, and neurophysiological effects of alprazolam in children and adolescents with overanxious and avoidant disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1992;31(1):29-33.
  • Wagner 2004 {published data only}
  • * Wagner KD, Berard R, Stein MB, Wetherhold E, Carpenter DJ, Perera P, Gee M, Davy K, Machin A. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 2004;61:1153-62.
  • Walkup 2008 {published data only}
  • * Walkup JT, Albano AM, Piacentini J, Birmaher B, Compton SN, Sherrill JT, Ginsburg GS, Rynn MA, McCracken J, Waslick B, Iyengar S, March JS, Kendall PC. Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;359(26):2753-66.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Abikoff 2005 {published data only}
  • * Abikoff H, McGough J, Vitiello B, McCracken J, Davies M, Walkup J, Riddle M, Oatis M, Greenhill L, Skrobala A, March J, Gammon P, Robinson J, Lazell R, McMahon DJ, Ritz L. Sequential pharmacotherapy for children with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity and anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(5):418-27.
  • Alibeu 1990 {published data only}
  • * Alibeu JP, Jobert J. Aconite in homeopathic relief of post-operative pain and agitation in children. Pediatrie 1990;45(7-8):465-6.
  • Asbahr 2005 {published data only}
  • * Asbahr FR, Castillo AR, Ito LM, Latorre MR, Moreira MN, Lotufo-Neto F. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy versus sertraline for the treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(11):1128-36.
  • Berney 1981 {published data only}
  • * Berney T, Kolvin I, Bhate SR, Garside RF, Jeans J, Kay B, Scarth L. School phobia: A therapeutic trial with clomipramine and short term outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry 1981;138:110-18.
  • Bernstein 1990 {published data only}
  • * Bernstein G, Garfinkel BD, Borchardt CM. Comparative studies of pharmacotherapy for school refusal. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1990;29(5):773-81.
  • Bernstein 2000 {published data only}
  • * Bernstein GA, Borchardt CM, Perwien AR, Crosby RD, Kushner MG, Thuras PD, Last CG. Imipramine plus cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of school refusal. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2000;39(3):276-83.
  • Cohen 2007 {published data only}
  • * Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Perel JM, Staron V. A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;46(7):811-9.
  • Cremonesi 1974 {published data only}
  • * Cremonesi E, Silva LF, da, Curras JS, Atunes AH, Moraes R, Sartoretto JN. Evaluation of lorazepam as an oral preanaesthetic medication: A comparative double-blind study with diazepam and placebo. Current Medical Research and Opinion 1974;2(4):244-8.
  • Dahlstrom 1973 {published data only}
  • * Dahlstrom H, Fedor Freybergh P, Kareland H, Vahlne L. Benzoctamine and medazepam in treatment of anxiety of children and adolescents: A comparative study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1973;49(6):735-43.
  • de Haan 1998 {published data only}
  • * de Haan E, Hoogduin KA, Buitelaar JK, Keijsers GP. Behavior therapy versus clomipramine for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37(10):1022-9.
  • Diamond 1999 {published data only}
  • * Diamond IR, Tannock R, Schachar RJ. Response to methylphenidate in children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1999;38(4):402-9.
  • Fatovich 1995 {published data only}
  • * Fatovich DM, Jacobs IG. A randomized, controlled trial of oral midazolam and buffered lidocaine for suturing lacerations in children (the SLIC Trial). Annals of Emergency Medicine 1995;25:209-14.
  • Feld 1989 {published data only}
  • * Feld LH, Champeau MW, Van Steennis CA, Scott JC. Preanesthetic medication in children: A comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate versus placebo. Anesthesiology 1989;71:374-7.
  • Gadow 2002 {published data only}
  • * Gadow KD, Nolan EE, Sverd J, Sprafkin J, Schwartz J. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2002;22(3):267-74.
  • Gittelman-Klein 1971 {published data only}
  • * Gittelman-Klein R, Klein DF, Oaks G. Controlled imipramine treatment of school phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry 1971;25:204-7.
  • Hennes 1990 {published data only}
  • * Hennes HM, Wagner V, Bonadio WA, Glaeser PW, Losek JD, Walsh-Kelly CM, Smith DS. The effect of oral midazolam on anxiety of preschool children during laceration repair. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1990;19(9):1006-9.
  • Hollander 2003 {published data only}
  • * Hollander E, Allen A, Steiner M, Wheadon DE, Oakes R, Burnham DB. Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2003;64(9):113-21.
  • Kain 1999 {published data only}
  • * Kain ZN, Mayes LC, Wang SM, Hofstadter MB. Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: Effects of sedative premedication. Anesthesiology 1999;90(3):758-65.
  • Klein 1992 {published data only}
  • * Klein RG, Koplewicz HS, Kanner A. Imipramine treatment of children with separation anxiety disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1992;31(1):21-8.
  • Kurlan 1993 {published data only}
  • * Kurlan R, Como PG, Deeley C, McDermott M, McDermott MP. A pilot controlled study of fluoxetine for obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children with Tourette's syndrome. Clinical Neuropharmacology 1993;16(2):167-72.
  • Lader 1970 {published data only}
  • * Lader MH, Mathews AM. Comparison of methods of relaxation using physiological measures. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1970;8(4):331-7.
  • Lal 2001 {published data only}
  • * Lal MK, McClelland J, Phillips J, Taub NA, Beattie RM. Comparison of EMLA cream versus placebo in children receiving distraction therapy for venepuncture. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90(2):154-9.
  • Layne 2003 {published data only}
  • * Layne AE, Bernstein GA, Egan EA, Kushner MG. Predictors of treatment response in anxious-depressed adolescents with school refusal. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(3):319-26.
  • Leonard 1989 {published data only}
  • * Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Rapoport JL, Koby EV, Lenane MC, Cheslow DL, Hamburger SD. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder with clomipramine and desipramine in children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry 1989;46:1088-92.
  • Leonard 1991 {published data only}
  • * Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Lenane MC, Rettew DC, Cheslow DL, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL. A double-blind desipramine substitution during long-term clomipramine treatment in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 1991;48:922-7.
  • Liacouras 1998 {published data only}
  • * Liacouras CA, Mascarenhas M, Poon C, Wenner WJ. Placebo-controlled trial assessing the use of oral midazolam as a premedication to conscious sedation for pediatric endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 1998;47(6):455-60.
  • Lindsay 1985 {published data only}
  • * Lindsay SJ, Yates JA. The effectiveness of oral diazepam in anxious child dental patients. British Dental Journal 1985;159(5):149-53.
  • Ljungman 2000 {published data only}
  • * Ljungman G, Kreuger A, Andreasson S, Gordh T, Sorensen S. Midazolam nasal spray reduces procedural anxiety in children. Pediatrics 2000;105(1):73-8.
  • Lustig 2002 {published data only}
  • * Lustig SL, Botelho C, Lynch L, Nelson SV, Eichelberger WJ, Vaughan BL. Implementing a randomized clinical trial on a pediatric psychiatric inpatient unit at a children's hospital: The case of clonidine for post-traumatic stress. General Hospital Psychiatry 2002;24(6):422-9.
  • March 1990 {published data only}
  • * March JS, Johnston H, Jefferson JW, Kobak KA, Greist JH. Do subtle neurological impairments predict treatment resistance to clomipramine in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder?. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 1990;1(2):133-40.
  • Neziroglu 1999 {published data only}
  • * Neziroglu F, Yaryura-Tobias JA, Walz J, McKay D. The effect of fluvoxamine and behavior therapy on children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2000;10(4):295-306.
  • Procter 2001 {published data only}
  • * Procter E, McNicholas F, Baird G. Low-dose sertraline in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2001;6(4):545-50.
  • Robert 1999 {published data only}
  • * Robert R, Blakeney PE, Villarreal C, Rosenberg L, Meyer WJ 3rd. Imipramine treatment in pediatric burn patients with symptoms of acute stress disorder: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1999;38(7):873-82.
  • Roelofse 1993 {published data only}
  • * Roelofse JA, Van der Bijl P. Comparison of rectal midazolam and diazepam for premedication in pediatric dental patients. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 1993;51(5):525-9.
  • Romano 2001 {published data only}
  • * Romano S, Goodman W, Tamura R, Gonzales J, Deltito J, DuPont R, Hertzman M, Burnie G, Jenike M, Landbloom R, Pigott T, Shear K, Stahl S, Stewart R, Zajecka J. Long-term treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder after an acute response: A comparison of fluoxetine versus placebo. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2001;21(1):46-52.
  • Shane 1994 {published data only}
  • * Shane SA, Fuchs SM, Khine H. Efficacy of rectal midazolam for the sedation of preschool children undergoing laceration repair. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1994;24:1065-73.
  • Sherwin 2000 {published data only}
  • * Sherwin TS, Green SM, Khan A, Chapman DS, Dannenberg B. Does adjunctive midazolam reduce recovery agitation after ketamine sedation for pediatric procedures? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2000;35(3):229-38.
  • Steiner 2007 {published data only}
  • * Steiner H, Saxena KS, Carrion V, Khanzode LA, Silverman M, Chang K. Divalproex sodium for the treatment of PTSD and conduct disordered youth: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Child Psychiatry and Human Development 2007;38(3):183-93.
  • Tannock 1995 {published data only}
  • * Tannock R, Ickowicz A, Schachar R. Differential effects of methylphenidate on working memory in ADHD children with and without comorbid anxiety. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1995;34(7):886-96.
  • Theroux 1993 {published data only}
  • * Theroux MC, West DW, Corddry DH, Hyde PM, Bachrach SJ, Cronan KM, Kettrick RG. Efficacy of intranasal midazolam in facilitating suturing of lacerations in preschool children in the emergency department. Pediatrics 1993;91(3):624-7.
  • Walker 1996 {published data only}
  • * Walker J. The use of oral midazolam in accident and emergency to reduce anxiety in children. Accident and Emergency Nursing 1996;4(3):110-3.
  • Weir 2000 {published data only}
  • * Weir E. Treating obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000;163(1):82.
  • References to studies awaiting assessment
  • Bouvard 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Bouvard MP, Braconnier AJ, Dissoubray C. Buspirone in adolescents with anxiety disorders. APA 149th Annual Meeting. 1996.
  • Carlson 1999 {published data only}
  • * Carlson JS, Kratochwill TR, Johnston HF. Sertraline treatment of 5 children diagnosed with selective mutism: A single-case research trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 1999;9(4):293-306.
  • References to ongoing studies
  • March 2006 {unpublished data only}
  • * March JS. Child and Adolescent Anxiety Multisite Study (CAMS). CRISP (http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/CRISP_LIB.getdoc?textkey=6893719&p_grant_num=5U01MH064107-04&p_query=(anxiety+%26+children)&ticket=16509556&p_audit_session_id=77879437&p_audit_score=21&p_audit_numfound=30&p_keywords=anxiety+children). [: Grant Number: 5U01MH064107-04]
  • NCT00018057 {published data only}
  • * Detloff AM, Pine DS. Clinical Trial of Fluoxetine in Anxiety and Depression in Children, and Associated Brain Changes. www.controlled-trials.com (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00018057) 2001. [: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00018057]
  • NCT00382291 {published data only}
  • * Murphy TK. Effectiveness of Sertraline and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. www.controlled-trials.com 2006. [: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00382291]
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