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References

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Akbar 1991 {published data only}
  • Akbar M, Baker K, Aziz M, Khan W, Salim A. A randomised double-blind clinical trial of a maltodextrin containing oral rehydration solution in acute infantile diarrhoea. Journal of Diarrheal Disease Research 1991;9(1):33-7.
  • Alam 1987 {published data only}
  • * Alam A, Sarker S, Molla A, Rahaman M, Greenhough W. Hydrolyzed wheat based oral rehydration solution for acute diarrhea. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1987;62(5):440-4.
  • Alam 1987, rice {published data only}
  • Alam 1987 results for those given rice ORS.
  • Alam 1987, wheat {published data only}
  • Alam 1987 results for those given wheat ORS.
  • Alam 1992 {published data only}
  • Alam NH, Ahmed T, Kharun M, Molla A. Effects of food with two oral rehydration therapies: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Gut 1992;33(4):560-2.
  • Bernal 2005 {published data only}
  • Bernal C, Alcaraz G, Bolero J. Oral rehydration with a plaintain flour-based solution precooked with standardized electrolytes [Hidratacion oral con una solucion a based de harina de platano precocida con electrolitos estandrarizados]. Biomedica 2000;25(1):11-21.
  • Bhan 1987 {published data only}
  • * Bhan MK, Ghai OP, Khoshoo V, Vasudev A, Bhatnagar S, Arora N, et al.Efficacy of mung bean (lentil) and pop rice based rehydration solutions in comparison with standard glucose electrolyte solution. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1987;6(3):392-9.
  • Bhan 1987, mung bean {published data only}
  • Bhan 1987 results for those given mung bean ORS.
  • Bhan 1987, rice {published data only}
  • Bhan 1987 results for those given rice ORS.
  • Bhattacharya 1998 {published data only}
  • Bhattacharya M, Bhattacharya S, Dutta D, Deb A, Deb M, Dutta A, et al.Efficacy of oral hypoosmolar glucose-based and rice-based oral rehydration salt solutions in the treatment of cholera in adults. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 1998;33(2):159-63.
  • Dutta 1988 {published data only}
  • Dutta P, Dutta S, Bhattacharya M, Bhattacharya S, Sinha A, Mondal B, et al.Comparative efficacy of three different oral rehydration solutions for treatment of dehydrating diarrhoea in children. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1988;87:229-33.
  • Dutta 1998 {published data only}
  • * Dutta D, Bhattacharya A, Deb A, Chowdhury A, Nair G, Ramakrishna B, et al.Uncooked rice powder in oral rehydration solution: an alternative to glucose or cooked rice powder. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1998;107:257-62.
  • Dutta 1998, adults {published data only}
  • Dutta 1998 results for adults.
  • Dutta 1998, children {published data only}
  • Dutta 1998 results for children.
  • Dutta 2000 {published data only}
  • Dutta D, Bhattacharya MK, Deb A, Sarkar D, Chatterjee A, Biswas A, et al.Evaluation of oral hypo-osmolar glucose-based and rice-based oral rehydration solutions in the treatment of cholera in children. Acta Paediatrica 2000;89(7):787-90.
  • El-Mougi 1988 {published data only}
  • El-Mougi M, Hegazi E, Galal O, El Akkad N, El-Abhar A, Nour N, et al.Controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of rice powder-based oral rehydration solution on the outcome of acute diarrhea in infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1988;7(4):572-6.
  • El-Mougi 1996 {published data only}
  • El-Mougi M, Hendawi A, Koura H, Hegazi E, Fontaine O, Pierce N. Efficacy of standard glucose-based and reduced osmolarity maltodextrin-based oral rehydration solutions: effect of sugar malabsorption. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1996;74(5):471-7.
  • Faruque 1997 {published data only}
  • Faruque ASG, Hoque SS, Fuchs GJ, Mahalanabis D. Randomized controlled clinical trial of rice versus glucose oral rehydration solutions in infants and young children with acute watery diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica 1997;86(12):1308-11.
  • Fayad 1993 {published data only}
  • Fayad IM, Hasham M, Duggan C, Refat M, Bakir M, Fontaine O, et al.Comparative efficacy of rice-based and glucose-based oral rehydration salts plus early introduction of food. Lancet 1993;342(8874):772-5.
  • Guiraldes 1995a {published data only}
  • Guiraldes E, Trivino X, Figueroa G, Parker M, Gutierrez C, Vasquez A, et al.Comparison of an oral rice-based electrolyte solution and a glucose-based electrolyte solution in hospitalized infants with diarrheal dehydration. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1995;20(4):417-24.
  • Guiraldes 1995b {published data only}
  • Guiraldes E, Trivino X, Hodgson M, Quintana J, Quintana C. Treatment of acute infantile diarrhoea with a commercial rice-based oral rehydration solution. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research 1995;13(4):207-11.
  • Hossain 2003 {published data only}
  • Hossain M, Salam M, Rabbani G, Kahir I, Biswas R, Mahalanabis D. Rice-ORS versus glucose-ORS in management of severe cholera due to Vibrio cholerae 0139 Bengal: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2003;21(4):325-31.
  • Islam 1994 {published data only}
  • Islam A, Molla A, Ahmed M, Yameen A, Thara R, Molla A, et al.Is rice based oral rehydration therapy effective in young infants?. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1994;71(1):19-23.
  • Iyngkaran 1998 {published data only}
  • Iyngkaran N, Yadev M. Rice-starch oral rehydration therapy in neonates and young infants. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1998;44(4):199-203.
  • Maulen-Radovan 1994 {published data only}
  • Maulen-Radovan I, Fernandez-Varela H, Acosta-Bastidas M, Frenk S. Safety and efficacy of a rice-based oral rehydration salt solution in the treatment of diarrhea in infants less than 6 months of age. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1994;19(1):78-82.
  • Maulen-Radovan 2004 {published data only}
  • Maulen-Radovan I, Gutierrez-Castrellon P, Hashem M, Neylan M, Braggs G, Zaldo R, et al.Safety and efficacy of a premixed rice-based oral rehydration solution. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004;38(2):159-63.
  • Mohan 1988 {published data only}
  • Mohan M, Antony T, Malik S, Mathur M. Rice powder oral rehydration solution as an alternative to glucose electrolyte solution. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1988;87:234-9.
  • Molla 1985 {published data only}
  • * Molla A, Ahmed S, Greenough W. Rice-based oral rehydration solution decreases the stool volume in acute diarrhoea. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1985;63(4):751-6.
  • Molla 1985, adults {published data only}
  • Molla 1985 results for adults.
  • Molla 1985, children {published data only}
  • Molla 1985 results for children.
  • Molla 1989a {published data only}
  • Molla A, Molla A, Rohde J, Greenough W. Turning off the diarrhea: the role of food and ORS. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1989;8(1):81-4.
  • Molla 1989b {published data only}
  • * Molla A, Molla A, Nath S, Khatun M. Food-based oral rehydration salt solution for acute childhood diarrhoea. Lancet 1989;2(8660):429-31.
  • Molla 1989b, rice {published data only}
  • Molla 1989b results for those given rice ORS.
  • Molla 1989b, sorghum {published data only}
  • Molla 1989b results for those given sorghum ORS.
  • Molla 1989b, wheat {published data only}
  • Molla 1989b results for those given wheat ORS.
  • Mustafa 1995 {published data only}
  • * Mustafa S, Karrar Z, Suliman J. Cereal-based oral rehydration solutions in Sudanese children with diarrhoea: a comparative clinical trial of rice-based and sorghum-based oral rehydration solutions. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1995;15(4):313-9.
  • Mustafa 1995, rice {published data only}
  • Mustafa 1995 results for those given rice ORS.
  • Mustafa 1995, sorghum {published data only}
  • Mustafa 1995 results for those given sorghum ORS.
  • Nanulescu 1999 {published data only}
  • Nanulescu M, Popa M, Panta P, Butanariu A, Muresan M, Gocan S, et al.The efficacy of an oral-rice based electrolyte solution in infants with acute diarrhea as compared to a glucose-based electrolyte solution. Romanian Journal of Gastroenterology 1999;8(3):177-82.
  • Patra 1982 {published data only}
  • Patra FC, Mahalanabis D, Jalan K, Sen A, Banerjee P. Is oral rice electrolyte solution superior to glucose electrolyte solution in infantile diarrhoea?. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1982;57(12):910-2.
  • Ramakrishna 2000 {published data only}
  • * Ramakrishna B, Venkataraman S, Srinivasan P, Dash P, Young G, Binder H. Amylase-resistant starch plus oral rehydration solution for cholera. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(5):308-13.
  • Ramakrishna 2000, amylase {published data only}
  • Ramakrishna 2000 results for those given amylase resistant starch.
  • Ramakrishna 2000, rice {published data only}
  • Ramakrishna 2000 results for those given rice ORS.
  • Ramakrishna 2008 {published data only}
  • Ramakrishna B, Subramanian V, Mohan V, Sebastian B, Young G, Farthing M, et al.A randomized controlled trial of glucose versus amylase resistant starch hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution for adult acute dehydrating diarrhea. PLoS ONE 2008;3(2):e1587.
  • Razafindrakoto 1993 {published data only}
  • Razafindrakoto O, Ravelomanana N, Randriamiharisoa F, Rasoarivao V, Ramialimanana V, Rakotoarimanana D, et al.Rice-based rehydration solution: an alternative to glucose-based solutions in acute diarrhea in malnourished children [La solution de rehydration orale (SRO) a base de riz, alternative de la SRO de l'OMS dans la diarrhee aigue des malnutris]. Archives Francaises de Pediatrie 1993;50(2):101-5.
  • Santos Ocampo 1993 {published data only}
  • Santos Ocampo P, Bravo L, Rogacion J, Battad G. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of a maltodextrin-containing oral rehydration solution in acute infantile diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1993;16(1):23-8.
  • Sharma 1998 {published data only}
  • Sharma A, Pradhan R. Comparative study of rice-based oral rehydration salt solution versus glucose-based oral rehydration salt solution (WHO) in children with acute dehydrating diarrhoea. Journal of Indian Medical Association 1998;96(12):367-8.
  • Wall 1997 {published data only}
  • Wall C, Swanson C, Cleghorn G. A controlled trial comparing the efficacy of rice-based and hypotonic glucose oral rehydration solutions in infants and young children with gastroenteritis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1997;12(1):24-8.
  • Zaman 2001 {published data only}
  • Zaman K, Yunus M, Rahman A, Chowdhury H, Sack D. Efficacy of a packaged rice oral rehydration solution among children with cholera and cholera-like illness. Acta Paediatrica 2001;90(5):505-10.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Agustina 2007 {published data only}
  • Agustina R, Lukito W, Suhardjo H, Murniati D, Bindels J. The effect of nutritional supplementation with a mixture of probiotic, prebiotic, fiber and micronutrients in infants with acute diarrhoea in Indonesia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;16:435-42.
  • Alam 2008 {published data only}
  • Alam N, Ashraf H, Sarker S, Olesen M, Troup J, Salam M, et al.Efficacy of partially hydrolyzed guar gum added oral rehydration solution in the treatment of severe cholera in adults. Digestion 2008;4:24-9.
  • Ansaldi 1990 {published data only}
  • Ansaldi N, Dell'olio D, Poli E, Grandi G. Oral rehydration therapy in acute diarrhea in infancy. Comparison between two rehydration solutions [Importanza della reidratzaione orale nelle diarree acute infantili]. Minerva Pediatrica 1990;42(1-2):9-14.
  • Barclay 1995 {published data only}
  • Barclay D, Gil-Ramos J, Mora J, Dirren H. A packaged rice-based oral rehydration solution for acute diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1995;20(4):408-16.
  • Barragan-Guzman 1998 {published data only}
  • Barragan-Guzman B, Orozco-Alatorre L, Mariscal-Zuno S. Corn meal solution compared to oral saline solution in the treatment of children with acute diarrhea and high fecal output [Atole de maiz comparado con Vida Suero Oral en el tratamiento de ninos con diarrea aguda de gasto fecal alto]. Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico 1998;55(2):65-8.
  • Bhandari 2008 {published data only}
  • Bhandari N, Mazumder S, Taneja S, Dube B, Agarwal R, Mahalanabis D, et al.Effectiveness of zinc supplementation plus oral rehydration salts compared with oral rehydration salts alone as a treatment for acute diarrhoea in a primary care setting: a cluster randomised trial. Pediatrics 2008;121:e1279-85.
  • Cohen 1995 {published data only}
  • Cohen M, Mezoff A, Laney W, Bezerra J, Beane B, Drazner D, et al.Use of a single solution for oral rehydration and maintenance therapy of infants with diarrhea and mild to moderate dehydration. Pediatrics 1995;95(5):639-45.
  • Gutierrez 2007 {published data only}
  • Gutierrez C, Villa S, Mota F, Calva J. Does an L-glutamine containing glucose free oral rehydration solution reduce stool output and time to rehydrate in children with acute diarrhea? A double blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2008;25:278-84.
  • Hoekstra 2004 {published data only}
  • Hoekstra J, Szajewska H, Abu Zikri M, Micetic-Turk D, Weizman Z, Papadopoulou A, et al.Oral rehydration solution containing a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates in the treatment of acute diarrhea: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled study on behalf of the ESPGHAN working group on intestinal infections. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2004;39(3):239-45.
  • Jirapinyo 1996 {published data only}
  • Jirapinyo P, Moran J. Comparison of oral rehydration solutions made with rice syrup solids or glucose in the treatment of acute diarrhea in infants. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 1996;79(3):154-60.
  • Kassaye 1994 {published data only}
  • Kassaye M, Larson C, Carlson D. A randomized community trial of prepackaged and homemade oral rehydration therapies. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1994;148(12):1288-92.
  • Kenya 1989 {published data only}
  • Kenya P, Odongo H, Oundo G, Waswa K, Muttunga J, Molla A, et al.Cereal based oral rehydration solutions. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1989;47(4):226-9.
  • Lebenthal 1995 {published data only}
  • Lebenthal E, Khin-Maung-U, Khin-Myat-Tun, Tin-Nu-Swe, Thein-Thein-Myint, Jirapinyo P, et al.High-calorie, rice-derived, short-chain, glucose polymer-based oral rehydration solution in acute watery diarrhea. Acta Paediatrica 1995;84(2):165-72.
  • Molina 1995 {published data only}
  • Molina S, Vettorazzi C, Peerson J, Solomons N, Brown K. Clinical trial of glucose-oral rehydration solution, rice dextrin-ORS and rice flour-ORS for the management of children with acute diarrhea and mild or moderate dehydration. Pediatrics 1995;95(2):191-7.
  • Molla 1982 {published data only}
  • Molla A, Sarker S, Hossain M, Molla A, Greenough W. Rice-powder electrolyte solution as oral-therapy in diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. Lancet 1982;1(8285):1317-9.
  • Molla 2000 {published data only}
  • Molla A, Bari A, Greenough W, Molla A, Budhiraja P, Sharma P. Bangladeshi rural mothers prepare safer rice oral rehydration solutions. Acta Paediatrica 2000;89(7):791-4.
  • Mota-Hernandez 1991 {published data only}
  • Mota-Hernandez F, Bross-Soriano D, Perez-Ricardez M, Velasquez-Jones L. Rice solution and World Health Organization solution by gastric infusion for high stool output diarrhea. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood 1991;145(8):937-40.
  • Murphy 1996 {published data only}
  • Murphy H, Bari A, Molla A, Zaidi A, Hirschhorn N. A field trial of wheat-based oral rehydration solution among Afghan refugee children. Acta Paediatrica 1996;85(2):151-7.
  • Patra 1984 {published data only}
  • Patra F, Mahalanabis D, Jalan K, Sen A, Banerjee P. In search of a super solution: controlled trial of glycine-glucose oral rehydration solution in infantile diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 1984;73(1):18-21.
  • Pelleboer 1990 {published data only}
  • Pelleboer R, Felius A, Goje B, Van Gelderen H. Sorghum-based oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1990;42(1):63-8.
  • Pizarro 1991 {published data only}
  • Pizarro D, Posada G, Sandi L, Moran J. Rice-based oral electrolyte solutions for the management of infantile diarrhea. New England Journal of Medicine 1991;7(6):882-8.
  • Prasad 1993 {published data only}
  • Prasad B. Rice-based oral rehydration solution: a controlled clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1993;39(6):368-9.
  • Rabbani 2005 {published data only}
  • Rabbani G, Sack D, Ahmed S, Peterson J, Saha S, Marni F, et al.Antidiarrheal effects of L-histidine supplemented rice-based oral rehydration solution in the treatment of male adults with severe cholera in Bangladesh: a double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2005;191(9):1507-14.
  • Raghupathy 2006 {published data only}
  • Raghupathy P, Ramakrishna B, Oommen S, Ahmed M, Priyas G, Dziura J, et al.Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2006;42(4):362-8.
  • Roslund 2008 {published data only}
  • Roslund G, Hepps T, McQuillen K. The role of ondasentron in children with vomiting as a result of acute gastritis/gastroenteritis who have failed oral rehydration therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2008;52:22-9.
  • Sabchareon 1992 {published data only}
  • Sabchareon A, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Kittikoon P, Chanthavanich P. Rice-powder salt solution in the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1992;23(3):427-32.
  • Sarker 2001 {published data only}
  • Sarker S, Mahalanabis D, Alam N, Sharmin S, Khan A, Fuchs G. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for persistent diarrhea in infants: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;138(4):532-8.
  • Sirivichayakul 2000 {published data only}
  • Sirivichayakul C, Chokejindachai W, Vithayasai N, Chanthavanich P, Pengsaa K, Wisetsing P, et al.Effects of rice powder salt solution and milk-rice mixture on acute watery diarrhoea in young children. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2000;31(2):354-9.
  • Teferedegn 1993 {published data only}
  • Teferedegn B, Larson C, Carlson D. A community-based randomized trial of home-made oral rehydration therapies. International Journal of Epidemiology 1993;22(5):917-22.
  • Yang 2007 {published data only}
  • Yang D, Guo W, Tian D, Luo X, He Y, Dai Y, et al.Efficacy and safety of reduced osmolality oral rehydration salts in treatment of dehydration in children with acute diarrhea - a multicenter, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi [Chinese Medical Journal] 2007;45:252-5.
  • Yartev 1995 {published data only}
  • Yartev J, Nkrumah F, Hori H, Harrison K, Armar D. Clinical trial of fermented maize-based oral rehydration solution in the management of acute diarrhoea in children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1995;15(1):61-8.
  • Yurdakok 1995 {published data only}
  • Yurdakok K, Yalcin S. Comparative efficacy of rice-ORS and glucose-ORS in moderately dehydrated Turkish children with diarrhea. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 1995;37(4):315-21.
  • Zaman 2007 {published data only}
  • Zaman S, Mannan J, Lange S, Lönnroth I, Hanson LA. B 221, a medical food containing antisecretory factor reduces child diarrhoea: a placebo controlled trial. Acta Paediatrica 2007;96(11):1655-9.
  • Zavaleta 2007 {published data only}
  • Zavaleta N, Figueroa D, Rivera J, Sanchez J, Alfaro S, Lonnerdal B. Efficacy of rice-based oral rehydration solution containing recombinant human lactoferrin and lysozyme in Peruvian children with acute diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2007;44(2):258-64.
  • Additional references
  • Alam 1992
  • Alam NH, Ahmed T, Khatun M, Molla AM. Effects of food with two oral rehydration therapies: a randomised controlled clinical trial [Effects of food with two oral rehydration therapies: a randomised controlled clinical tria]. Gut 1992;33(4):560-2.
  • Carpenter 1988
  • Carpenter CC, Greenough WB, Pierce NF. Oral-rehydration therapy--the role of polymeric substrates. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;319(20):1346-8.
  • Casburn-Jones 2004
  • Casburn-Jones AC, Farthing MJ. Management of infectious diarrhoea. Gut 2004;53(2):296-305.
  • Choice 2001
  • Choice Study Group. Multicenter, randomized double blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a reduced osmolality oral rehydration salts solution in children with acute watery diarrhea. Pediatrics 2001;107(4):613-8.
  • Claeson 1990
  • Claeson M, Merson MH. Global progress in the control of diarrhoeal diseases. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 1990;9(5):345-55.
  • Dagher 1996
  • Dagher PC, Egnor RW, Taglietta-Kohlbrecher A, Charney AN. Short chain fatty acids inhibit cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in rat colon. American Journal of Physiology 1996;271(6 Pt 1):1853-60.
  • Fontaine 1998
  • Fontaine O, Gore SM, Pierce NF. Rice-based oral rehydration solution for treating diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1998, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001264.pub2]
  • Hahn 2002
  • Hahn S, Kim Y, Garner P. Reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution for treating dehydration caused by acute diarrhoea in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002847]
  • Hunt 1992
  • Hunt JB, Elliott EJ, Fairclough PD, Clark ML, Farthing MJ. Water and solute absorption from hypotonic glucose-electrolyte solutions in human jejunum. Gut 1992;33(4):479-83.
  • Jüni 2001
  • Jüni P, Altman DG, Eggers M. Systematic reviews in health care: Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials. BMJ 2001;323(7303):42-6.
  • Kosek 2003
  • Kosek M, Bern C, Guerrant RL. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003;81(3):197-204.
  • Lefebvre 2008
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.0 (updated February 2008). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
  • Pizarro 1991
  • Pizarro D, Posada G, Sandi L, Moran JR. Rice-based oral electrolyte solutions for management of infantile diarrhoea. New England Journal of Medicine 1991;324(8):517-21.
  • Review Manager 5
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.0. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
  • Santosham 1991
  • Santosham M, Greenough WB 3rd. Oral rehydration therapy: a global perspective. Journal of Pediatrics 1991;118(4 (pt 2)):44-51.
  • StatsDirect
  • StatsDirect Ltd. StatsDirect. 2.6. Altrincham: StatsDirect Ltd, 1 June 2008.
  • Victora 2000
  • Victora CG, Bryce J, Fontaine O, Monasch R. Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000;78(10):1246-55.
  • WHO 2004
  • World Health Organization. Dept. of Child and Adolescent Health and Development. Clinical management of acute diarrhoea: WHO/UNICEF joint statement [WHO/FCH/CAH/04.7]. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
  • WHO/ICDDRB 1995
  • Joint WHO/ICDDR, B Consultative Meeting on ORS Formulation. 25 years of ORS: Joint WHO/ICDDR,B Consultative Meeting on ORS Formulation, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 10-12 December 1994 [CDR/CDD/95.2]. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.