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REFERENCES

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Nachemson 1995 {published data only}
  • Danielsson AJ, Hasserius R, Ohlin A, Nachemson AL. A prospective study of brace treatment versus observation alone in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A follow-up of 16 years after maturity. Spine 2007;32(20):2198207.
  • Nachemson AL, Peterson LE. Effectiveness of treatment with a brace in girls who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective, controlled study based on data from the Brace Study of the Scoliosis Research Society. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. American Version 1995;77(6):81522.
  • Wong 2008 {published data only}
  • Wong MS, Cheng JC, Lam TP, Ng BK, Sin SW, Lee-Shum SL, et al.The effect of rigid versus flexible spinal orthosis on the clinical efficacy and acceptance of the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2008;33(12):13605.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Allington 1996 {published data only}
  • * Allington NJ, Bowen JR. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: treatment with the Wilmington brace. A comparison of full-time and part-time use. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1996;78(7):105662.
  • Andersen 2006 {published data only}
  • Andersen MO, Christensen SB, Thomsen K. Outcome at 10 years after treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2006;31(3):3504.
  • Avellanet 2006 {published data only}
  • Avellanet M, Gonzalez VMA, Saenz A, Hijos M-E. Is it too late start orthopedic treatment for idiopathic scoliosis with Risser scores of 4?. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 2006;49(9):65962.
  • Basset 1986 {published data only}
  • Bassett GS, Bunnell WP, MacEwen GD. Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with the Wilmington brace. Results in patients with a twenty to thirty-nine-degree curve. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1986;68(4):6025.
  • Basset 1987 {published data only}
  • Bassett GS, Bunnell WP. Influence of the Wilmington brace on spinal decompensation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1987;223:1649.
  • Becchetti 1990 {published data only}
  • Becchetti S, Senes FM, Pinelli G. Maguelone plaster braces for the reduction of scoliotic curves: methods and results. Italian Journal of Orthopaedics & Traumatology 1990;16(1):5360.
  • Bernard 2005 {published data only}
  • Bernard JC, Jemni S, Schneider M, Boussard D, Saillard V, Bard R, et al.Evaluation of the efficacy of a carbon brace (“Corset monocoque carbone respectant la respiration” [CMCR]) preserving lung capacity to treat idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents: a retrospective study of 115 patients. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 2005;48(9):63749.
  • Bowen 2001 {published data only}
  • Bowen JR, Keeler KA, Pelegie S. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis managed by a nighttime bending brace. Orthopedics 2001;24(10):96770.
  • Bullmann 2004 {published data only}
  • Bullmann V, Halm HF, Lerner T, Lepsien U, Hackenberg L, Liljenqvist U. Prospective evaluation of braces as treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete 2004;142(4):4039.
  • Bunge 2007 {published data only}
  • Bunge EM, Juttmann RE, De Kleuver M, Van Biezen FC, de Koning HJ, NESCIO group. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after treatment: short-term effects after brace or surgical treatment. European Spine Journal 2007;16(1):839.
  • Bunnell 1980 {published data only}
  • Bunnell WP, MacEwen GD, Jayakumar S. The use of plastic jackets in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Preliminary report. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1980;62(1):318.
  • Carman 1985 {published data only}
  • Carman D, Roach JW, Speck G, Wenger DR, Herring JA. Role of exercises in the Milwaukee brace treatment of scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1985;5(1):658.
  • Carr 1980 {published data only}
  • Carr WA, Moe JH, Winter RB, Lonstein JE. Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in the Milwaukee brace. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1980;62(4):599612.
  • Cassella 1991 {published data only}
  • Cassella MC, Hall JE. Current treatment approaches in the nonoperative and operative management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Physical Therapy 1991;71(12):897909.
  • Castro 2003 {published data only}
  • Castro FP, Jr. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, bracing, and the Hueter-Volkmann principle. Spine Journal 2003;3(3):1805.
  • Charlopain 1998 {published data only}
  • Charlopain P, Biot B, Fauchet R. Lyonnais orthopedic treatment: Long-term results (237 patients). Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 1998;41(3):14753.
  • Cheung 2007 {published data only}
  • Cheung KMC, Cheng EYL, Chan SCW, Yeung KWK, Luk KDK. Outcome assessment of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by the use of the SRS-22 questionnaire. International Orthopaedics 2007;31(4):50711.
  • Coillard 1999 {published data only}
  • Coillard C, Leroux MA, Zabjek KF, Rivard CH. The reducibility of idiopathic scoliosis during non-operative treatment. Annales de Chirurgie 1999;53(8):78191.
  • Coillard 2003 {published data only}
  • Coillard C, Leroux MA, Zabjek KF, Rivard CH. SpineCor - A non-rigid brace for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Post-treatment results. European Spine Journal 2003;12(2):1418.
  • Coillard 2007 {published data only}
  • Coillard C, Vachon V, Circo AB, Beausejour M, Rivard CH. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2007;27(4):3759.
  • Cottalorda 2005 {published data only}
  • Cottalorda J, Kohler R, Garin C, Genevois P, Lecante C, Berge B. Orthoses for mild scoliosis: A prospective study comparing traditional plaster mold manufacturing with fast, non-contact, 3-dimensional acquisition. Spine 2005;30(4):399405.
  • D'Amato 2001 {published data only}
  • d'Amato CR, Griggs S, McCoy B. Nighttime bracing with the Providence brace in adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2001;26(18):200612.
  • Danielsson 2001 {published data only}
  • Danielsson AJ, Wiklund I, Pehrsson K, Nachemson AL. Health-related quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a matched follow-up at least 20 years after treatment with brace or surgery. European Spine Journal 2001;10(4):27888.
  • Danielsson 2001a {published data only}
  • Danielsson AJ, Nachemson AL. Radiologic findings and curve progression 22 years after treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: comparison of brace and surgical treatment with matching control group of straight individuals. Spine 2001;26(5):51625.
  • Danielsson 2006 {published data only}
  • Danielsson AJ, Romberg K, Nachemson AL. Spinal range of motion, muscle endurance, and back pain and function at least 20 years after fusion or brace treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study. Spine 2006;31(3):27583.
  • Den Boer 1999 {published data only}
  • Den Boer WA, Anderson PG, Limbeek J, Kooijman MA. Treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with side-shift therapy: an initial comparison with a brace treatment historical cohort. European Spine Journal 1999;8(5):40610.
  • Dickson 1999 {published data only}
  • Dickson RA. Spinal deformity - Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Nonoperative treatment. Spine 1999;24(24):26016.
  • Dobosiewicz 2006 {published data only}
  • Dobosiewicz K, Durmala J, Czernicki K, Piotrowski J. Radiological results of Dobosiewicz method of three-dimensional treatment of progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2006;123:26772.
  • Durham 1990 {published data only}
  • Durham JW, Moskowitz A, Whitney J. Surface electrical stimulation versus brace in treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1990;15(9):88892.
  • Dziri 1991 {published data only}
  • Dziri C, Delarque A, Conil JL, Kraenzler R, Costes O, Bardot P. Results of short-term treatment with CTM braces in a series of 25 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 1991;34(1):416.
  • Ebenbichler 1994 {published data only}
  • Ebenbichler G, Liederer A, Lack W. Idiopathic scoliosis and non-operative scoliosis therapy. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1994;144(24):593604.
  • Edmosson 1977 {published data only}
  • Edmonsson AS, Morris JT. Follow-up study of Milwaukee brace treatment in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1977;126:5861.
  • El Sayyad 1994 {published data only}
  • El Sayyad M, Conine TA. Effect of exercise, bracing and electrical surface stimulation on idiopathic scoliosis: a preliminary study. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 1994;17(1):704.
  • Emans 1986 {published data only}
  • Emans JB, Kaelin A, Bancel P, Hall JE, Miller ME. The Boston bracing system for idiopathic scoliosis. Follow-up results in 295 patients. Spine 1986;11(8):792801.
  • Feise 2005 {published data only}
  • Feise RJ, Donaldson S, Crowther ER, Menke JM, Wright JG. Construction and validation of the scoliosis quality of life index in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2005;30(11):13105.
  • Fernandez-Feliberti 1995 {published data only}
  • Fernandez-Feliberti R, Flynn J, Ramirez N, Trautmann M, Alegria M. Effectiveness of TLSO bracing in the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1995;15(2):17681.
  • Fisher 1987 {published data only}
  • Fisher DA, Rapp GF, Emkes M. Idiopathic scoliosis: transcutaneous muscle stimulation versus the Milwaukee brace. Spine 1987;12(10):98791.
  • Fällström 1986 {published data only}
  • Fällström K, Cochran T, Nachemson A. Long-term effects on personality development in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Influence of type of treatment. Spine 1986;11(7):7568.
  • Gabos 2004 {published data only}
  • Gabos PG, Bojescul JA, Bowen JR, Keeler K, Rich L. Long-term follow-up of female patients with idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Wilmington orthosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2004;86(9):18919.
  • Geissele 1991 {published data only}
  • Geissele AE, Kransdorf MJ, Geyer CA, Jelinek JS, Van Dam BE. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1991;16(7):7613.
  • Gepstein 2002 {published data only}
  • Gepstein R, Leitner Y, Zohar E, Angel I, Shabat S, Pekarsky I, et al.Effectiveness of the Charleston bending brace in the treatment of single-curve idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2002;22(1):847.
  • Goldberg 1981 {published data only}
  • Goldberg C, Dowling F, Blake NS, Regan BF. A retrospective study of Cotrel dynamic spinal traction in the conservative management of scoliosis. Irish Medical Journal 1981;74(12):3635.
  • Gore 1981 {published data only}
  • Gore DR, Passehl R, Sepic S, Dalton A. Scoliosis screening: Results of a community project. Pediatrics 1981;67(2):196200.
  • Green 1986 {published data only}
  • Green NE. Part-time bracing of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1986;68(5):73842.
  • Griffet 1996 {published data only}
  • Griffet J, Thevenot J, Barral F. GTB orthoses in the treatment by lumbar hyperlordosis of idiopathic scoliosis. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 1996;39(2):11722.
  • Griffet 2000 {published data only}
  • Griffet J, Leroux MA, Badeaux J, Coillard C, Zabjek KF, Rivard CH. Relationship between gibbosity and Cobb angle during treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with the SpineCor brace. European Spine Journal 2000;9(6):51622.
  • Grivas 2003 {published data only}
  • Grivas TB, Vasiliadis E, Chatziargiropoulos T, Polyzois VD, Gatos K. The effect of a modified Boston brace with anti-rotatory blades on the progression of curves in idiopathic scoliosis: aetiologic implications. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2003;6(3-4):23742.
  • Haefeli 2006 {published data only}
  • Haefeli M, Elfering A, Kilian R, Min K, Boos N. Nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 10- to 60-year follow-up with special reference to health-related quality of life. Spine 2006;31(3):35566.
  • Hanks 1998 {published data only}
  • Hanks GA, Zimmer B, Nogi J. TLSO treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. An analysis of the Wilmington jacket. Spine 1988;13(6):6269.
  • Hassan 1983 {published data only}
  • Hassan I, Bjerkreim I. Progression in idiopathic scoliosis after conservative treatment. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1983;54(1):8890.
  • Hensinger 2007 {published data only}
  • Hensinger RN, Thompson GH. Orthotic management in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: leveling the playing field. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2007;27(4):3678.
  • Hopf 1985 {published data only}
  • Hopf C, Heine J. Long-term results of conservative treatment of scoliosis with the Cheneau brace. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1985;123(3):31222.
  • Howard 1998 {published data only}
  • Howard A, Wright JG, Hedden D. A comparative study of TLSO, Charleston, and Milwaukee braces for idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1998;23(22):240411.
  • Janicki 2007 {published data only}
  • Janicki JA, Poe-Kochert C, Armstrong DG, Thompson GH. A comparison of the thoracolumbosacral orthoses and providence orthosis in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results using the new SRS inclusion and assessment criteria for bracing studies. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2007;27(4):36974.
  • Kahanovitz 1982 {published data only}
  • Kahanovitz N, Levine DB, Lardone J. The part-time Milwaukee brace treatment of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. Long-term follow-up. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1982;167:14551.
  • Karol 2001 {published data only}
  • Karol LA. Effectiveness of bracing in male patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2001;26(18):20015.
  • Katz 1997 {published data only}
  • Katz DE, Richards BS, Browne RH, Herring JA. A comparison between the Boston brace and the Charleston bending brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1997;22(12):130212.
  • Keiser 1976 {published data only}
  • Keiser RP, Shufflebarger HL. The Milwaukee brace in idiopathic scoliosis: evaluation of 123 completed cases. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1976;118:1924.
  • Kohashi 1996 {published data only}
  • Kohashi Y, Oga M, Sugioka Y. A new method using top views of the spine to predict the progression of curves in idiopathic scoliosis during growth. Spine 1996;21(2):2127.
  • Korovessis 2000 {published data only}
  • Korovessis P, Kyrkos C, Piperos G, Soucacos PN. Effects of thoracolumbosacral orthosis on spinal deformities, trunk asymmetry, and frontal lower rib cage in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2000;25(16):206471.
  • Kotwicki 2002 {published data only}
  • Kotwicki T, Pietrzak S, Szulc A. Three-dimensional action of Chêneau brace on thoracolumbar scoliosis. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2002;88:2269.
  • Kumano 1992 {published data only}
  • Kumano K, Maruyama T, Kojima T, Kondoh Y, Shimode M. Results of wearing Milwaukee brace at night for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of the Western Pacific Orthopaedic Association 1992;29(2):537.
  • Little 2000 {published data only}
  • Little DG, Song KM, Katz D, Herring JA. Relationship of peak height velocity to other maturity indicators in idiopathic scoliosis in girls. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 2000;82(5):68593.
  • Lonstein 1994 {published data only}
  • Lonstein JE, Winter RB. The Milwaukee brace for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A review of one thousand and twenty patients. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1994;76(8):120721.
  • Lou 2004 {published data only}
  • Lou E, Raso JV, Hill DL, Mahood JK, Moreau MJ. Correlation between quantity and quality of orthosis wear and treatment outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prosthetics and Orthotics International 2004;28(1):4954.
  • Lou 2005 {published data only}
  • Lou E, Hill DL, Raso JV, Moreau MJ, Mahood JK. Smart orthosis for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 2005;43(6):74650.
  • Mellencamp 1977 {published data only}
  • Mellencamp DD, Blount WP, Anderson AJ. Milwaukee brace treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: late results. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1977;126:4757.
  • Miller 1984 {published data only}
  • Miller JA, Nachemson AL, Schultz AB. Effectiveness of braces in mild idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1984;9(6):6325.
  • Minami 1982 {published data only}
  • Minami S. Results of brace treatment in idiopathic scoliosis--evaluation of the patients treated for over 2 years or those who completed the treatment. Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association 1982;56(6):47185.
  • Miyasaki 1980 {published data only}
  • Miyasaki RA. Immediate influence of the thoracic flexion exercise on vertebral position in Milwaukee brace wearers. Physical Therapy 1980;68(8):10059.
  • Moe 1970 {published data only}
  • Moe JH, Kettleson DN. Idiopathic scoliosis. Analysis of curve patterns and the preliminary results of Milwaukee-brace treatment in one hundred sixty-nine patients. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1970;52(8):150933.
  • Mollon 1984 {published data only}
  • Mollon G, Ollier M. Orthopedic treatment from Lyon: Ortheses and kinesitherapy. Cahiers de Kinesitherapie 1984;106:4558.
  • Montgomery 1989 {published data only}
  • Montgomery F, Willner S. Prognosis of brace-treated scoliosis. Comparison of the Boston and Milwaukee methods in 244 girls. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1989;60(4):3835.
  • Montgomery 1990 {published data only}
  • Montgomery F, Willner S, Appelgren G. Long-term follow-up of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated conservatively: an analysis of the clinical value of progression. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1990;10(1):4852.
  • Mouilleseaux 1984 {published data only}
  • Mouilleseaux B, Pallandre B, Picault C. A gauze corset from Saint-Etienne for the early treatment of lumbar scoliosis. Cahiers de Kinesitherapie 1984;106:318.
  • Mounier 1984 {published data only}
  • Mounier C. The Milwaukee brace. Cahiers de Kinesitherapie 1984;105:6574.
  • Negrini 2007 {published data only}
  • Negrini S, Marchini G. Efficacy of the symmetric, patient-oriented, rigid, three-dimensional, active (SPoRT) concept of bracing for scoliosis: a prospective study of the Sforzesco versus Lyon brace. Europa Medicophysica 2007;43(2):17181.
  • Noonan 1996 {published data only}
  • Noonan KJ, Weinstein SL, Jacobson WC, Dolan LA. Use of the Milwaukee brace for progressive idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1996;78(4):55767.
  • O'Donnel 1988 {published data only}
  • O'Donnell CS, Bunnell WP, Betz RR, Bowen JR, Tipping CR. Electrical stimulation in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1988;229:10713.
  • O'Neill 2005 {published data only}
  • O'Neill PJ, Karol LA, Shindle MK, Elerson EE, BrintzenhofeSzoc KM, Katz DE, Farmer KW, Sponseller PD. Decreased orthotic effectiveness in overweight patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2005;87(5):106974.
  • Park 1977 {published data only}
  • Park J, Houtkin S, Grossman J, Levine DB. A modified brace (Prenyl) for scoliosis. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1977;126:6773.
  • Peltonen 1988 {published data only}
  • Peltonen J, Poussa M, Ylikoski M. Three-year results of bracing in scoliosis. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1988;59(5):48790.
  • Peterson 1995 {published data only}
  • Peterson LE, Nachemson AL. Prediction of progression of the curve in girls who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of moderate severity. Logistic regression analysis based on data from The Brace Study of the Scoliosis Research Society. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1995;77(6):8237.
  • Pham 2007 {published data only}
  • Pham VM, Herbaux B, Schill A, Thevenon A. Evaluation of the Cheneau brace in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique 2007;50(3):12533.
  • Piazza 1990 {published data only}
  • Piazza MR, Bassett GS. Curve progression after treatment with the Wilmington brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1990;10(1):3943.
  • Price 1990 {published data only}
  • Price CT, Scott DS, Reed FE Jr, Riddick MF. Nighttime bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the Charleston bending brace. Preliminary report. Spine 1990;15(12):12949.
  • Price 1997 {published data only}
  • Price CT, Scott DS, Reed FR Jr, Sproul JT, Riddick MF. Nighttime bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with the Charleston Bending Brace: long-term follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1997;17(6):7037.
  • Rahman 2005 {published data only}
  • Rahman T, Bowen JR, Takemitsu M, Scott C. The association between brace compliance and outcome for patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2005;25(4):4202.
  • Rigo 2003 {published data only}
  • Rigo M, Reiter C, Weiss HR. Effect of conservative management on the prevalence of surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2003;6(3-4):20914.
  • Roach 1998 {published data only}
  • Roach CJ, Andrish JT. Preliminary results of part-time bracing for the management of idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics 1998;10(3):716.
  • Robinson 1999 {published data only}
  • Robinson CM, McMaster MJ. Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. Curve patterns and prognosis in one hundred and nine patients. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1996;78(8):11408.
  • Rosso 1998 {published data only}
  • Rosso V, Trucchi F, Collo GL, Marmotti AG. Early treatment of a juvenile idiopathic scoliosis. Charleston Bending orthosis and Olympe orthosis: Results after 4 years in 117 cases. Minerva Ortopedica e Traumatologica 1998;49(9):31723.
  • Rowe 1997 {published data only}
  • Rowe DE, Bernstein SM, Riddick MF, Adler F, Emans JB, Gardner-Bonneau D. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of non-operative treatments for idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1997;75(9):66474.
  • Schmitt 1987 {published data only}
  • Schmitt O, Jacob S. Development of idiopathic scoliosis in electrostimulation treatment with an implantable system. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1987;125(5):51825.
  • Schraudebach 1974 {published data only}
  • Schraudebach T, Rossler H, Dennert R. Experience with the Milwaukee brace in an out-patient department for scoliosis. Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Ihre Grenzgebiete 1974;112(6):126574.
  • Scoloveno 1990 {published data only}
  • Scoloveno MA, Yarcheski A, Mahon NE. Scoliosis treatment effects on selected variables among adolescents. Western Journal of Nursing Research 1990;12(5):60115.
  • Shirado 1995 {published data only}
  • Shirado O, Ito T, Kaneda K, Strax TE. Kinesiologic analysis of dynamic side-shift in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1995;76(7):6216.
  • Skaggs 1996 {published data only}
  • Skaggs DL. Effectiveness of treatment with a brace in girl who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective, controlled study based on data from the brace study of the scoliosis research society. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1996;78(1):151.
  • Spoonamore 2004 {published data only}
  • Spoonamore MJ, Dolan LA, Weinstein SL. Use of the Rosenberger brace in the treatment of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2004;29(13):145864.
  • Tonseth 2005 {published data only}
  • Tonseth KA, Wever DJ. Brace treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 2005;125(2):1702.
  • Trivedi 2001 {published data only}
  • Trivedi JM, Thomson JD. Results of Charleston bracing in skeletally immature patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 2001;21(3):27780.
  • Upadhyay 1995 {published data only}
  • Upadhyay SS, Nelson IW, Ho EK, Hsu LC, Leong JC. New prognostic factors to predict the final outcome of brace treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1995;20(5):53745.
  • Van Rhijn 2002 {published data only}
  • Van Rhijn LW, Plasmans CMT, Veraart BEEM. Changes in curve pattern after brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 2002;73(3):27781.
  • Van Rhijn 2003 {published data only}
  • Van Rhijn LW, Veraart BE, Plasmans CM. Application of a lumbar brace for thoracic and double thoracic lumbar scoliosis: a comparative study. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2003;12(3):17882.
  • Veldhuizen 2001 {published data only}
  • Veldhuizen AG, Cheung J, Bulthuis GJ, Nijenbanning G. A new orthotic device in the non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Medical Engineering and Physics 2002;24(3):20918.
  • Vijermans 2004 {published data only}
  • Vijvermans V, Fabry G, Nijs J. Factors determining the final outcome of treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with the Boston brace: a longitudinal study. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2004;13(3):1439.
  • Watanabe 2005 {published data only}
  • Watanabe K, Hasegawa K, Hirano T, Uchiyama S, Endo N. Use of the scoliosis research society outcomes instrument to evaluate patient outcome in untreated idiopathic scoliosis patients in Japan: Part I: comparison with non-scoliosis group: preliminary/limited review in a Japanese population. Spine 2005;30(10):1197201.
  • Weigert 2006 {published data only}
  • Weigert KP, Nygaard LM, Christensen FB, Hansen ES, Bunger C. Outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis after brace treatment and surgery assessed by means of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument 24. European Spine Journal 2006;15(7):110817.
  • Weiss 2003 {published data only}
  • Weiss HR, Weiss G, Schaar HJ. Incidence of surgery in conservatively treated patients with scoliosis. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2003;6(2):1118.
  • Weiss 2005 {published data only}
  • Weiss H, Weiss GM. Brace treatment during pubertal growth spurt in girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS): a prospective trial comparing two different concepts. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2005;8(3):199206.
  • Weiss 2006 {published data only}
  • Weiss H, Klein R. Improving excellence in scoliosis rehabilitation: a controlled study of matched pairs. Pediatric Rehabilitation 2006;9(3):190200.
  • Wever 2002 {published data only}
  • Wever DJ, Tonseth KA, Veldhuizen AG. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2002;91:38792.
  • Wiley 2000 {published data only}
  • Wiley JW, Thomson JD, Mitchell TM, Smith BG, Banta JV. Effectiveness of the Boston brace in treatment of large curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 2000;25(18):232632.
  • Willers 1993 {published data only}
  • Willers U, Normelli H, Aaro S, Svensson O, Hedlund R. Long-term results of Boston brace treatment on vertebral rotation in idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1993;18(4):4325.
  • Yamouchi 1986 {published data only}
  • Yamauchi Y, Asaka Y, Chen WS, Tsuji T, Yamaguchi T, Tsuruoka H. Follow-up results of brace treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association 1986;60(11):107985.
  • Ylikoski 1989 {published data only}
  • Ylikoski M, Peltonen J, Poussa M. Biological factors and predictability of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 1989;9(6):6803.
  • Yrjonen 2006 {published data only}
  • Yrjonen T, Ylikoski M, Schlenzka D, Kinnunen R, Poussa M. Effectiveness of the Providence nighttime bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A comparative study of 36 female patients. European Spine Journal 2006;15(7):113943.
  • References to ongoing studies
  • Bunge 2008 {published data only}
  • Bunge EM, de Koning HJ, Brace trial group. Bracing Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Design of the Dutch Randomized Controlled Treatment Trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2008;9:5763.
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