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References

  • References to studies included in this review
  • Alemi 1989 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Alemi F, Cherry F, Meffert G. Rehearsing decisions may help teenagers: an evaluation of a simulation game. Computers in Biology & Medicine 1989;19(4):283-90.
  • Avina 2006 {published data only}
  • Avina C. An evaluation of a web-based sexual assault prevention program for college women. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B 2006; Vol. 67, issue 3-B:1691.
  • Bowen 2007 {published data only}
  • Bowen A, Horvath K, Williams M. A randomized control trial of Internet-delivered HIV prevention targeting rural MSM. Health Education Research 2007;22(1):120-7.
  • Davidovich 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Davidovich U, de Wit J, Stroebe W. Using the Internet to reduce risk of HIV infection in steady relationships. A randomized controlled trial of a tailored intervention for gay men (dissertation). The Netherlands: Utrecht University, 2006.
  • Di Noia 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Di Noia J, Schinke SP, Pena JB, Schwinn TM. Evaluation of a brief computer-mediated intervention to reduce HIV risk among early adolescent females. Journal of Adolescent Health 2004;35(1):62-4.
  • Downs 2004 {published data only}
  • Downs JS, Murray PJ, Bruine de Bruin, Penrose J, Palmgren C, Fischhoff B. Interactive video behavioral intervention to reduce adolescent females' STD risk: a randomized controlled trial. Social Science & Medicine 2004;59(8):1561-72.
  • Evans 2000 {published data only}
  • Evans AE, Edmundson-Drane EW, Harris KK. Computer-assisted instruction: an effective instructional method for HIV prevention education?. Journal of Adolescent Health 2000;26(4):244-51.
  • Jenkins 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Jenkins PR, Jenkins RA, Nannis ED, McKee KT, Jr, Temoshok LR. Reducing risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and human immunodeficiency virus infection in a military STD clinic: evaluation of a randomized preventive intervention trial. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;30(4):730-5.
  • Kann 1987 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Kann LK. Effects of computer-assisted instruction on selected interaction skills related to responsible sexuality. Journal of School Health 1987;57(7):282-7.
  • Kiene 2006 {published data only}
  • Kiene SM, Barta WD. A brief individualized computer-delivered sexual risk reduction intervention increases HIV/AIDS preventive behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39(3):404-10.
  • Mikolajczak 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Mikolajczak J, Kok G, Hospers HJ. Queermasters: Developing a Theory- and Evidence-Based Internet HIV-Prevention Intervention to Promote HIV-Testing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Applied Psychology 2008;57(4):681-97.
  • * Mikolajczak J, van Breukelen GJP, Kok G, Hospers HJ. Evaluating the effects of an online HIV-prevention intervention to promote HIV-testing among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) [Thesis: Promoting HIV-testing among MSM in the Netherlands: the systematic development of an online HIV-prevention intervention.]. Unpublished paper. Maastricht: Unigraphic Press, 2008; Vol. for submission.
  • Perry 1991 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Card CA, Jacobsberg LB, Moffatt M, Fishman B, Perry S. Using interactive video to supplement HIV counseling. Hospital & Community Psychiatry 1993;44(4):383-5.
  • * Perry S, Fishman B, Jacobsberg L, Young J, Frances A. Effectiveness of psychoeducational interventions in reducing emotional distress after human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing. Archives of General Psychiatry 1991;48(2):143-7.
  • Read 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Miller L, Read S. Virtual Sex: Creating Environments for Reducing Risky Sex. Virtual decisions: Digital simulations for teaching reasoning in the social sciences and humanities. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2005:137-59.
  • * Read S, Miller L, Appleby P, Nwosu M, Reynaldo S, Lauren A, et al.Socially Optimized Learning in a Virtual Environment: Reducing Risky Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex With Men. Human Communication Research 2006;32(1):1-34.
  • Roberto 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Roberto AJ, Zimmerman RS, Carlyle KE, Abner EL. A computer-based approach to preventing pregnancy, STD, and HIV in rural adolescents. Journal of Health Communication 2007;12(1):53-76.
  • Van Laar 2000 {published data only}
  • Van Laar, ST. Internet-based cognitive restructuring: Effects on adolescent girls' contraceptive beliefs (Dissertation). Arizona, USA: Arizona State University, 2000.
  • References to studies excluded from this review
  • Bull 2004 {published data only}
  • Bull SS, Lloyd L, Rietmeijer C, McFarlane M. Recruitment and retention of an online sample for an HIV prevention intervention targeting men who have sex with men: the Smart Sex Quest Project. AIDS Care 2004;16(8):931-43.
  • Kok 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kok G, Harterink P, Vriens P, de Zwart O, Hospers HJ. The Gay Cruise: developing a theory- and evidence-based internet HIV-prevention intervention. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC 2006;3(2):52-67.
  • Lightfoot 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lightfoot M, Comulada WS, Stover G. Computerized HIV preventive intervention for adolescents: indications of efficacy. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(6):1027-30.
  • Lockyer 1999 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lockyer L, Patterson J, Harper B. Measuring effectiveness of health education in a web-based learning environment: a preliminary report. Higher Education Research and Development 1999;18(2):233-46.
  • Lou 2006 {published data only}
  • Lou CH, Zhao Q, Gao ES, Shah IH. Can the Internet be used effectively to provide sex education to young people in China?. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39(5):720-8.
  • Marsch 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Marsch LA, Bickel WK. Efficacy of computer-based HIV/AIDS education for injection drug users. American Journal of Health Behavior 2004;28(4):316-27.
  • Noell 1997 {published data only}
  • Noell J, Ary D, Duncan T. Development and evaluation of a sexual decision-making and social skills program: "the choice is yours-preventing HIV/STDs". Health Education & Behavior 1997;24(1):87-101.
  • Ochs 1994 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Ochs EP, Meana M, Pare L, Mah K, Binik YM. Learning about sex outside the gutter: attitudes toward a computer sex-expert system. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 1994;20(2):86-102.
  • Pacifici 2001 {published data only}
  • Pacifici C, Stoolmiller M, Nelson C. Evaluating a prevention program for teenagers on sexual coercion: a differential effectiveness approach. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 2001;69(3):552-9.
  • Paperny 1989 {published data only}
  • Paperny DM, Starn JR. Adolescent pregnancy prevention by health education computer games: computer-assisted instruction of knowledge and attitudes. Pediatrics 1989;83(5):742-52.
  • Redding 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Redding CA, Prochaska JO, Rossi JS, Armstrong K, Coviello D, Pallonen U. Effectiveness of a randomized clinical trial of stage-matched interventions targeting condom use and smoking in urban young females (conference abstract). Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2002; Vol. 24:S061.
  • Redding 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Redding CA, Morokoff PJ, Rossi JS, Meier KS, Hoeppner BB, Mayer K. Effectiveness of a computer-delivered TTM-tailored intervention at increasing condom use in at-risk heterosexual adults:RI Project Respect (conference abstract). Annals of Behavioural Medicine. 2004; Vol. 27:S113.
  • Reis 1992 {published data only}
  • Reis J, Tymchyshyn P. A longitudinal evaluation of computer-assisted instruction on contraception for college students. Adolescence 1992;27(108):803-11.
  • Roberto 2007a {published data only}
  • Roberto A, Zimmerman R, Carlyle K, Abner E, Cupp P, Hansen G. The effects of a computer-based pregnancy, STD, and HIV prevention intervention: A nine-school trial. Health Communication 2007;21(2):115-24.
  • Scholes 2003 {published data only}
  • Scholes D, McBride CM, Grothaus L, Civic D, Ichikawa LE, Fish LJ, et al.A tailored minimal self-help intervention to promote condom use in young women: results from a randomized trial. AIDS 2003;17(10):1547-56.
  • Seidner 1996 {published data only}
  • Seidner AL, Burling TA, Marshall G. Using Interactive Multimedia to Educate High-Risk Patients About AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Computers in Human Services 1996;13(4):1-15.
  • Tian 2007 {published data only}
  • Tian L, Tang S, Cao W, Zhang K, Li V, Detels R. Evaluation of a web-based intervention for improving HIV/AIDS knowledge in rural Yunnan, China. AIDS 2007;21(Suppl 8):S137-42.
  • Yom 2005 {published data only}
  • Yom YH, Eun LK. Effects of a CD-ROM educational program on sexual knowledge and attitude. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2005;23(4):214-9.
  • References to studies awaiting assessment
  • Bilardi 2009 {published data only}
  • Bilardi J, Sanci L, Fairley C, Hocking J, Mazza D, Henning D, et al.The experience of providing young people attending general practice with an online risk assessment tool to assess their own sexual health risk. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009;9(1):29.
  • Bull 2009 {published data only}
  • Bull S, Pratte K, Whitesell N, Rietmeijer C, McFarlane M. Effects of an Internet-based intervention for HIV prevention: the Youthnet trials. AIDS and Behavior 2009;13(3):474-87.
  • Chib 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Chib AI. Network influences in health initiatives: Multimedia games for youth in Peru. Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California.
  • Halpern 2008 {published data only}
  • Halpern CT, Mitchell EMH, Farhat T, Bardsley P. Effectiveness of web-based education on Kenyan and Brazilian adolescents' knowledge about HIV/AIDS, abortion law, and emergency contraception: Findings from TeenWeb. Social Science & Medicine 2008;67(4):628-37.
  • Ito 2008 {published data only}
  • Ito KE, Kalyanaraman S, Ford CA, Brown JD, Miller WC. "Let's Talk About Sex": pilot study of an interactive CD-ROM to prevent HIV/STIS in female adolescents. AIDS Education & Prevention 2008;20(1):78-89.
  • Lau 2008 {published data only}
  • Lau JTF, Lau M, Cheung A, Tsui HY. A randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong. AIDS Care 2008;20(7):820-8.
  • Markham 2009 {published data only}
  • Markham CM, Shegog R, Leonard AD, Bui TC, Paul ME. +CLICK: harnessing web-based training to reduce secondary transmission among HIV-positive youth. AIDS Care 2009;21(5):622-31.
  • Mevissen 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Mevissen FEF, Ruiter RAC, Meertens RM, Zimbile FR, Schaalma HP. Justify your love: testing an online STI risk communication intervention on condom use and STI testing. Unpublished 2008.
  • Peipert 2007 {published data only}
  • Peipert J, Redding CA, Blume J, Allsworth JE, Iannuccillo K, Lozowski F, et al.Design of a stage-matched intervention trial to increase dual method contraceptive use (Project PROTECT). Contemporary Clinical Trials 2007;28(5):626-37.
  • Weinhardt 2007 {published data only}
  • Weinhardt LS, Mosack KE, Swain GR. Development of a computer-based risk-reduction counseling intervention: acceptability and preferences among low-income patients at an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic. AIDS and Behavior 2007;11(4):549-56.
  • Additional references
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  • Barak A, Fisher WA. Toward an Internet-driven, theoretically-based, innovative approach to sex education. Journal of Sex Research 2001;38(4):324-32.
  • Bellis 2002
  • Bellis JM, Grimley DM, Alexander LR. Feasibility of a tailored intervention targeting STD-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(5):378-85.
  • Bosworth 1994
  • Bosworth K, Gustafson DH, Hawkins RP. The barn system: use and impact of adolescent health promotion via computer. Computers in Human Behavior 1994;10(4):467-82.
  • Chambers 2001
  • Chambers R, Wakely G, Chambers S. Tackling teenage pregnancy. Sex, culture and needs. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press, 2001.
  • Chinn 2000
  • Chinn S. A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine 2000;19:3127-3131.
  • Cohen 1988
  • Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd Edition. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc, 1988.
  • Craig 2008
  • Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M. Developing and evaluating complex interventions: The new Medical Research Council guidance. BMJ 2008; Vol. 337:a1655.
  • DiCenso 2002
  • DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L. Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2002;324(7351):1426-30.
  • DOH 2001
  • Department of Health. Better prevention, better services, better sexual health: the national strategy for sexual health and HIV. http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/05/89/45/04058945.pdf 2001 (accessed 23rd July 2009).
  • Downing 2006
  • Downing J, Jones L, Cook PA, Bellis MA. Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): a review of reviews into the effectiveness of non-clinical interventions. Evidence Briefing Update. Liverpool: Centre for Public Health, 2006.
  • Dutton 2005
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  • Elford J, Bolding G, Sherr L. Seeking sex on the Internet and sexual risk behaviour among gay men using London gyms. AIDS 2001;15(11):1409-15.
  • Elford 2003
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  • Ellis S, Barnett-Page E, Morgan A, Taylor L, Walters R, Goodrich J (Health Development Agency). HIV prevention: a review of reviews assessing the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the risk of sexual transmission. Evidence briefing. http://www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/documents/HIV_review.pdf. London: Health Development Agency, 2003 (accessed 23rd July 2009).
  • Ellis 2004
  • Ellis S, Grey A (NHS Health Development Agency). Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): a review of reviews into the effectiveness of non-clinical interventions. http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=502657 2004 (accessed 23rd July 2009).
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  • Flowers P, Smith J, Sheeran P, Beail N. Health and romance: Understanding unprotected sex in relationships between gay men. British Journal of Health Psychology 1997;2(Part 1):73-86.
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  • Free 2009
  • Free C, Roberts IG, Abramsky T, Fitzgerald M, Wensley F. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials of interventions promoting effective condom use. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2009;doi:10.1136/jech.2008.085456. [DOI: 10.1136/jech.2008.085456]
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  • Johnson WD, Diaz RM, Flanders WD, Goodman M, Hill AN, Holtgrave D, et al.Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001230.pub2.]
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