A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 4, Issue 7, pages 1073–1087, April 2014
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2014; 4(7):1073–1087
- Issue published online: 7 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 29 JAN 2014
- Manuscript Received: 15 JAN 2014
- National Basic Research Program of China. Grant Numbers: 2011CB100506, 2014CB441003
- National Science Foundation of China. Grant Number: 41271258
- Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Grant Number: KZCX2-YW-407
- New Zealand – China Scientist Exchange Program
- 454 pyrosequencing;
- contemporary disturbance;
- historical contingency;
- microbial biogeography;
- nitrogen cycling;
- soil transplantation
The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ~1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA, nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil.