SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Sol. Energy 70:295310.
  • Bonnington, C., K. J. Gaston, and K. L. Evans. In press. Squirrels in suburbia: influence of urbanisation on the occurrence and distribution of a common exotic mammal. Urban Ecosyst. doi: 10.1007/s11252-013-0331-2.
  • Britt, C., and M. Johnston. 2008. Trees in Towns II: a new survey of urban trees in England and their condition and management. Department for Communities and Local Government, London.
  • Chen, H., K. Yin, H. Wang, S. Zhong, N. Wu, F. Shi, et al. 2011. Detecting one-hundred-year environmental changes in western China using seven-year repeat photography. PLoS ONE 6:e25008.
  • Dallimer, M., Z. Tang, P. R. Bibby, P. Brindley, K. J. Gaston, and Z. G. Davies. 2011. Temporal changes in greenspace in a highly urbanised region. Biol. Lett. 7:763766.
  • Davies, R. G., O. Barbosa, R. A. Fuller, J. Tratalos, N. Burke, D. Lewis, et al. 2008. City-wide relationships between green spaces, urban land use and topography. Urban Ecosyst. 11:269287.
  • Davies, Z. G., J. L. Edmondson, A. Heinemeyer, J. R. Leake, and K. J. Gaston. 2011. Mapping an urban ecosystem service: quantifying above-ground carbon storage at a city-wide scale. J. Appl. Ecol. 48:11251134.
  • Department for Communities and Local Government. 2006. Tree Preservation Orders: a guide to the law and good practice. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Department for Communities and Local Government. 2012. Protected trees: a guide to tree preservation procedures. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Dereli, Z., C. Yücedağ, and J. M. Pearce. 2013. Simple and low-cost method of planning for tree growth and lifetime effects on solar photovoltaic systems performance. Sol. Energy 95:300307.
  • Dodds, J., and D. A. Orwig. 2011. An invasive urban forest pest invades natural environments — Asian long-horned beetle in northeastern US hardwood forests. Can. J. For. Res. 41:17291742.
  • Donovan, R. G., H. E. Stewart, S. M. Owen, A. R. Mackenzie, and C. N. Hewitt. 2005. Development and application of an urban tree air quality score for photochemical pollution episodes using the Birmingham, United Kingdom, area as a case study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39:67306738.
  • Evans, K. L. 2010. Urbanisation and individual species. Pp. 5387 in Gaston. KJ, ed. Urban ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Evans, K. L., S. E. Newson, and K. J. Gaston. 2009. Habitat influences on urban avian assemblages. Ibis 151:1939.
  • Fitter, A. H., and H. J. Peat. 1994. The ecological flora database. J. Ecol. 82:415425.
  • Forestry Commission. 2001. Inventory report for England. National Inventory of Woodland and Trees. Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
  • Fuller, R. A., K. N. Irvine, P. Devine-Wright, P. H. Warren, and K. J. Gaston. 2007. Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biol. Lett. 3:390394.
  • Gaston, K. J., M. L. Ávila-Jiménez, and J. L. Edmondson. 2013. Managing urban ecosystems for goods and services. J. Appl. Ecol. 50:830840.
  • Gillespie, T. W., S. Pincetl, S. Brossard, J. Smith, S. Saatchi, D. Pataki, et al. 2012. A time series of urban forestry in Los Angeles. Urban Ecosyst. 15:233246.
  • Hall, J. M., J. F. Handley, and A. R. Ennos. 2012. The potential of tree planting to climate-proof high density residential areas in Manchester, UK. Landsc. Urban Plan. 104:140417.
  • Hill, E., J. H. Dorfman, and E. Kramer. 2010. Evaluating the impact of government land use policies on tree canopy coverage. Land Use Policy 27:407414.
  • Islam, M. N., K. S. Rahman, M. M. Bahar, M. A. Habib, K. Ando, and N. Hattori. 2012. Pollution attenuation by roadside greenbelt in and around urban areas. Urban For. Urban Greening 11:460464.
  • Jim, C. Y. 2004. Evaluation of heritage trees for conservation and management in Guangzhou city (China). Environ. Manage. 33:7486.
  • Kuo, F. E., and W. C. Sullivan. 2001. Environment and crime in the inner city - does vegetation reduce crime? Environ. Behav. 33:343367.
  • Land Use Consultants. 1993. Trees in towns. HMSO, London, U.K.
  • Landry, S., and R. Pu. 2010. The impact of land development regulation on residential tree cover: an empirical evaluation using high-resolution IKONOS imagery. Landsc. Urban Plan. 94:94104.
  • Ligot, G., P. Balandier, A. Fayolle, P. Lejeune, and H. Claessens. 2013. Height competition between Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica natural regeneration in mixed and uneven-aged stands. For. Ecol. Manage. 304:391398.
  • Lindberg, F., and C. Grimmond. 2011. Nature of vegetation and building morphology characteristics across a city: influence on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperatures in London. Urban Ecosyst. 14:617634.
  • Lindenmayer, D. B., W. F. Laurance, and J. F. Franklin. 2012. Global decline in large old trees. Science 338:13051306.
  • Maas, J., R. A. Verheij, P. P. Groenewegen, S. de Vries, and P. Spreeuwenberg. 2006. Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60:587592.
  • Meineke, E. K., R. R. Dunn, J. O. Sexton, and S. D. Frank. 2013. Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees. PLoS ONE 8:e59687.
  • Milne, R., and T. A. Brown. 1997. Carbon in the vegetation and soils of Great Britain. J. Environ. Manage. 49:413433.
  • Monge-Nájera, J., and G. Pérez-Gómez. 2010. Urban vegetation change after a hundred years in a tropical city (San José de Costa Rica). Revista de Biología Tropical 58:13671386.
  • Myers-Smith, I. H., D. S. Hik, C. Kennedy, D. Cooley, J. F. Johnstone, A. J. Kenney, et al. 2011. Expansion of canopy-forming willows over the twentieth century on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada. Ambio 40:610623.
  • Nowak, D. J. 1993. Historical vegetation change in Oakland and its implications for urban forest management. J. Arboric. 19:313319.
  • Nowak, D. J., and D. E. Crane. 2002. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environ. Pollut. 116:381389.
  • Office for National Statistics (2010) Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland mid-2010 Population Estimates. Available at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pop-estimate/population-estimates-for-uk–england-and-wales–scotland-and-northern-ireland/mid-2010-population-estimates/index.html (accessed 30 September 2011).
  • Oldfield, E. E., R. J. Warren, A. J. Felson, and M. A. Bradford. 2013. FORUM: challenges and future directions in urban afforestation. J. Appl. Ecol. 50:11691177.
  • Pauleit, S., R. Ennos, and Y. Golding. 2005. Modeling the environmental impacts of urban land use and land cover change—a study in Merseyside, UK. Landsc. Urban Plan. 71:295310.
  • Pennisi, E. 2013. Worth a thousand words. Science 341:482.
  • Pickett, S. T. A. (1989) Space-for-time substitution as an alternative to long-term studies. Pp. 110135 in G. E. Likens, ed. Long-term studies in ecology: approaches and alternatives. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
  • Roy, S., J. Byrne, and C. Pickering. 2012. A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For. Urban Greening 11:351363.
  • Seto, K. C., B. Güneralp, and L. R. Hutyra. 2012. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109:1608316088.
  • Sieghardt, M., E. Mursch-Radlgruber, E. Paoletti, E. Couenberg, A. Dimitrakopoulus, F. Rego, et al. 2005. The abiotic urban environment: impact of urban growing conditions on urban vegetation. Pp. 281323 in C. C. Konijnendijk, K. Nilsson, T. B. Randrup, J. Schipperijn, eds. Urban forests and trees. Springer, Berlin.
  • Stagoll, K., D. B. Lindenmayer, E. Knight, J. Fischer, and A. D. Manning. 2012. Large trees are keystone structures in urban parks. Conserv. Lett. 5:115122.
  • Stovin, V. R., A. Jorgensen, and A. Clayden. 2008. Street trees and stormwater management. Arboricultural J. 30:297310.
  • Ulrich, R. S. 1986. Human responses to vegetation and landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 13:2944.
  • Urban Green Spaces Task Force. 2002. Green spaces, better places: final Report of the urban green spaces taskforce. DTLR, London.
  • Van Bogaert, R., K. Haneca, J. Hoogesteger, C. Jonasson, M. De Dapper, and T. V. Callaghan. 2011. A century of tree line changes in sub-Arctic Sweden shows local and regional variability and only a minor influence of 20th century climate warming. J. Biogeogr. 38:907921.
  • Willoughby, I. 2009. The effect of duration of vegetation management on broadleaved woodland creation by direct seeding. Forestry 82:343359.
  • Zhou, W., G. Huang, and M. L. Cadenasso. 2011. 90 years of forest cover change in an urbanizing watershed: spatial and temporal dynamics. Landscape Ecol. 26:645659.