The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher
Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Ecology and Evolution
Volume 4, Issue 8, pages 1466–1479, April 2014
How to Cite
Ecology and Evolution 2014; 4(8):1466–1479
- Issue published online: 22 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 24 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 24 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 23 FEB 2014
- Manuscript Received: 21 JAN 2014
- Spanish Government. Grant Numbers: CGL2009-10652, CGL2012-38262, CGL2012-40026-C02-01
- Hungarian Scientific Research Fund. Grant Numbers: K75618, K101611, 105517
- FWO Flanders
- Antipredator behavior;
- behavioral genetics;
- behavioral syndromes;
- linkage disequilibrium;
- novelty seeking;
There is increasing evidence that the genetic architecture of exploration behavior includes the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). Such a link implies that the within-individual consistency in the same behavior has a genetic basis. Behavioral consistency is also prevalent in the form of between-individual correlation of functionally different behaviors; thus, the relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and exploration may also be manifested for other behaviors. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their behavioral displays during the courtship period. In completely natural conditions, we assayed novelty avoidance, aggression and risk-taking, traits that were previously shown repeatable over time and correlate with each other, suggesting that they could have a common mechanistic basis. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP554 and SNP764) in the exon 3 of the DRD4 gene by sequencing a subsample, then we screened 202 individuals of both sexes for these SNPs. Focusing on the genotypic variation in courting males, we found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in our subsample of males). We also found a considerable effect size for the relationship between SNP554 polymorphism and novelty avoidance. Therefore, in addition to exploration, DRD4 polymorphisms may also be associated with the regulation of behaviors that may incur fear or stress. Moreover, polymorphisms at the two SNPs were not independent indicating a potential role for genetic constraints or another functional link, which may partially explain behavioral correlations.