SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Addison, J. A., B. S. Ort, K. A. Mesa, and G. H. Pogson. 2008. Range-wide genetic homogeneity in the California sea mussel (Mytilus californianus): a comparison of allozymes, nuclear DNA markers, and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Ecol. 17:42224232.
  • Allendorf, F. W., P. A. Hohenlohe, and G. Luikart. 2010. Genomics and the future of conservation genetics. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11:697709.
  • Altschul, S. F., W. Gish, W. Miller, E. W. Myers, and D. J. Lipman. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Mol. Biol. 215:403410.
  • Andersen, L. W. 1988. Electrophoretic differentiation among local populations of the long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melaena, at the Faroe Islands. Canad. J. Zool.-Rev. Canad. De Zool. 66:18841892.
  • Andre, C., L. C. Larsson, L. Laikre, D. Bekkevold, J. Brigham, G. R. Carvalho, et al. 2011. Detecting population structure in a high gene-flow species, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus): direct, simultaneous evaluation of neutral vs putatively selected loci. Heredity 106:270280.
  • Antao, T., A. Lopes, R. J. Lopes, A. Beja-Pereira, and G. Luikart. 2008. LOSITAN: A workbench to detect molecular adaptation based on a F-st-outlier method. BMC Bioinformat. 9:323.
  • Barrett, R. D. H., and H. E. Hoekstra. 2011. Molecular spandrels: tests of adaptation at the genetic level. Nat. Rev. Genet. 12:767780.
  • Beare, D. J., A. Gislason, O. S. Astthorsson, and E. McKenzie. 2000. Assessing long-term changes in early summer zooplankton communities around Iceland. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57:15451561.
  • Beaumont, M. A., and R. A. Nichols. 1996. Evaluating loci for use in the genetic analysis of population structure. Proceed. Royal Soc. London Series B-Biol. Sci. 263:16191626.
  • Bernstein, S. C., L. H. Throckmorton, and J. L. Hubby. 1973. Still more genetic variability in natural populations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 70:39283931.
  • Bérubé, M., A. Aguilar, D. Dendanto, F. Larsen, G. N. Di Sciara, R. Sears, et al. 1998. Population genetic structure of North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Cortez fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus 1758): analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear loci. Mol. Ecol. 7:585599.
  • Bérubé, M., H. Jørgensen, R. McEwing, and P. J. Palsbøll. 2000. Polymorphic di nucleotide microsatellite loci isolated from the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae. Mol. Ecol. 9:21812183.
  • Blom, N., S. Gammeltoft, and S. Brunak. 1999. Sequence and structure-based prediction of eukaryotic protein phosphorylation sites. J. Mol. Biol. 294:13511362.
  • Bonnell, M. L., and R. K. Selander. 1974. Elephant seals: genetic variation and near extinction. Science 184:908909.
  • Brunelli, J. P., G. H. Thorgaard, R. F. Leary, and J. L. Dunnigan. 2008. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with allozyme differences between Inland and Coastal Rainbow Trout. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 137:12921298.
  • Canino, M. F., P. T. O'Reilly, L. Hauser, and P. Bentzen. 2005. Genetic differentiation in walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in response to selection at the pantophysin (PanI) locus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62:25192529.
  • Carroll, S. B. 2008. Evo-devo and an expanding evolutionary synthesis: a genetic theory of morphological evolution. Cell 134:2536.
  • Chaoui, L., P.-A. Gagnaire, B. Guinand, J.-P. Quignard, C. Tsigenopoulos, M. H. Kara, et al. 2012. Microsatellite length variation in candidate genes correlates with habitat in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Mol. Ecol. 21:54975511.
  • Chaturvedi, A., V. Mohindra, R. K. Singh, K. K. Lal, P. Punia, R. Bhaskar, et al. 2011. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis. Mol. Biol. Rep. 38:35133529.
  • Chen, M., and J. L. Manley. 2009. Mechanisms of alternative splicing regulation: insights from molecular and genomics approaches. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10:741754.
  • Choudhary, C., C. Kumar, F. Gnad, M. L. Nielsen, M. Rehman, T. C. Walther, et al. 2009. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science 325:834840.
  • Clarke, G. M., and L. S. Whyte. 2003. Phylogeography and population history of the endangered golden sun moth (Synemon plana) revealed by allozymes and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Conserv. Genet. 4:719734.
  • Cochrane, B. J. 1976. Heat stability variants of esterase-6 in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature 263:131132.
  • Coyne, J. A. 1976. Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of Drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. Genetics 84:593607.
  • Coyne, J. A. 1982. Gel electrophoresis and cryptic protein variation. Isozym.-Curr. Top. Biol. Med. Res. 6:132.
  • Crease, T. J., R. Floyd, M. E. Cristescu, and D. Innes. 2011. Evolutionary factors affecting Lactate dehydrogenase A and B variation in the Daphnia pulex species complex. BMC Evol. Biol. 11:212.
  • Crick, F. H., S. Brenner, R. J. Watstobi, and L. Barnett. 1961. General nature of genetic code for proteins. Nature 192:1227000.
  • Crozier, W. W., and I. J. J. Moffett. 1990. Inheritance of allozymes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Aquaculture 88:253262.
  • Curole, J. P., D. W. Foltz, and K. A. Brown. 2004. Extensive allozyme monomorphism in a threatened species of freshwater mussel, Margaritifera hembeli Conrad (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae). Conserv. Genet. 5:271278.
  • Daníelsdóttir, A. K. 1994. Genetic variation among different species and populations of Baleen whales from the north Atlantic ocean. University College Dublin, Ireland.
  • Daníelsdóttir, A. K., E. J. Duke, P. Joyce, and A. Árnason. 1991. Preliminary studies on the genetic variation at enzyme loci in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) from the North Atlantic. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. (Special Issue) 13:115124.
  • Daníelsdóttir, A. K., J. Sigurjónsson, E. Mitchell, and A. Árnason. 1992. Report on a pilot study of genetic variation in North Atlantic fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Paper SC/44/NAB16 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, June 1992, 8 pp.
  • De Innocentiis, S., L. Sola, S. Cataudella, and P. Bentzen. 2001. Allozyme and microsatellite loci provide discordant estimates of population differentiation in the endangered dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) within the Mediterranean Sea. Mol. Ecol. 10:21632175.
  • Dhuyvetter, H., E. Gaublomme, and K. Desender. 2004. Genetic differentiation and local adaptation in the salt-marsh beetle Pogonus chalceus: a comparison between allozyme and microsatellite loci. Mol. Ecol. 13:10651074.
  • Donovan, G. P. 1991. A review of IWC stock boundaries. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 13:3968.
  • Drummond, A. J., B. Ashton, S. Buxton, M. Cheung, A. Cooper, C. Duran, et al. 2011. Geneious v5.4. Available at http://www.geneious.com.
  • Dufresne, F., E. Bourget, and L. Bernatchez. 2002. Differential patterns of spatial divergence in microsatellite and allozyme alleles: further evidence for locus-specific selection in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides? Mol. Ecol. 11:113123.
  • Eanes, W. F. 1999. Analysis of selection on enzyme polymorphisms. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30:301326.
  • Ellegren, H., and B. C. Sheldon. 2008. Genetic basis of fitness differences in natural populations. Nature 452:169175.
  • Excoffier, L., and H. E. L. Lischer. 2010. Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Mol. Ecol. Res. 10:564567.
  • Ferguson, A., and F. M. Mason. 1981. Allozyme evidence of reproductively isolated sympatric populations of brown trout Salmo trutta in Lough Melvin, Ireland. J. Fish Biol. 18:629642.
  • Fields, P. A., and G. N. Somero. 1998. Hot spots in cold adaptation: localized increases in conformational flexibility in lactate dehydrogenase A(4) orthologs of Antarctic notothenioid fishes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 95:1147611481.
  • Ford, M. J. 2002. Applications of selective neutrality tests to molecular ecology. Mol. Ecol. 11:12451262.
  • Fu, Y. X., and W. H. Li. 1993. Statistical tests of neutrality of mutations. Genetics 133:693709.
  • Gaines, C. A., M. P. Hare, S. E. Beck, and H. C. Rosenbaum. 2005. Nuclear markers confirm taxonomic status and relationships among highly endangered and closely related right whale species. Proceed. Royal Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 272:533542.
  • Gasteiger, E., C. Hoogland, A. Gattiker, S. E. Duvaud, M. R. Wilkins, R. D. Appel, et al. 2005. Protein Identification and Analysis Tools on the ExPASy Server. Pp. 571607. in J. M. Walker, ed. The proteomics protocols handbook. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
  • Glaubitz, J. C. 2004. Convert: A user-friendly program to reformat diploid genotypic data for commonly used population genetic software packages. Mol. Ecol. Notes 4:309310.
  • Gnad, F., J. Gunawardena, and M. Mann. 2011. PHOSIDA 2011: The posttranslational modification database. Nucleic Acids Res. 39:D253D260.
  • Goudet, J. 1995. FSTAT (Version 1.2): A computer program to calculate F-statistics. J. Hered. 86:485486.
  • Gracy, R. W., and E. A. Noltmann. 1968. Studies on phosphomannose isomeras 3. A mechanism for catalysis and for role of zinc in enzymatic and nonenzymatic isomerization. J. Biol. Chem. 243:5410000.
  • Griffith, E. C., and J. R. Powell. 1997. Adh nucleotide variation in Drosophila willistoni: high replacement polymorphism in an electrophoretically monomorphic protein. J. Mol. Evol. 45:232237.
  • Harris, H., and D. Hopkinson. 1976. Handbook of enzyme electrophoresis in human genetics. North-Holland Pub. Co., The Netherlands.
  • Hasson, E., I. N. Wang, L. W. Zeng, M. Kreitman, and W. F. Eanes. 1998. Nucleotide variation in the triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) locus of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15:756769.
  • Hemmer-Hansen, J., E. E. Nielsen, J. Frydenberg, and V. Loeschcke. 2007. Adaptive divergence in a high gene flow environment: Hsc70 variation in the European flounder (Platicthys flesus L.). Heredity 99:592600.
  • Hinga, K. R. 1979. The food requirements of whales in the southern hemisphere. Deep Sea Res. Part A. Ocean. Res. Pap. 26:569577.
  • Hoekstra, H. E., and J. A. Coyne. 2007. The locus of evolution: evo devo and the genetics of adaptation. Evolution 61:9951016.
  • Hoffmann, A. A., and C. M. Sgro. 2011. Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature 470:479485.
  • Holm, S. 1979. A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Stat. 6:6570.
  • Hornbeck, P. V., I. Chabra, J. M. Kornhauser, E. Skrzypek, and B. Zhang. 2004. Phosphosite: A bioinformatics resource dedicated to physiological protein phosphorylation. Proteomics 4:15511561.
  • Hubby, J. L., and R. C. Lewontin. 1966. A molecular approach to study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations I: number of alleles at different loci in Drosphofila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54:577594.
  • Hunter, R. L., and C. L. Markert. 1957. Histochemical demonstration of enzymes separated by zone electrophoresis in starch gels. Science (New York, N.Y.) 125:12941295.
  • Huttlin, E. L., M. P. Jedrychowski, J. E. Elias, T. Goswami, R. Rad, S. A. Beausoleil, et al. 2010. A tissue-specific atlas of mouse protein phosphorylation and expression. Cell 143:11741189.
  • Ingram, V. M. 1957. Gene mutations in human haemoglobin – chemical difference between normal and sickle cell haemoglobin. Nature 180:326328.
  • IWC. 2007. Report of the joint NAMMCO/IWC scientific workshop on the catch history, stock structure and abundance of North Atlantic fin whales. J. Cet. Res. Manag. (Suppl.) 9:451468.
  • IWC. 2009. Report of the First Intersessional RMP workshop on North Atlantic fin whales. J. Cet. Res. Manag. (Suppl.) 11:425452.
  • Jackson, J. A., C. S. Baker, M. Vant, D. J. Steel, L. Medrano-González, and S. R. Palumbi. 2009. Big and slow: Phylogenetic estimates of molecular evolution in Baleen Whales (Suborder Mysticeti). Mol. Biol. Evol. 26:24272440.
  • Jacobson, K. B. 1968. Alcohol dehydrogenase of Drosophila – interconversion of isoenzymes. Science 159:324000.
  • Jullien, N. 2008. AmplifX version 1.5.4. Available at http://ifrjr.nord.univ-mrs.fr/AmplifX-Home-page.
  • Kelemen, O., P. Convertini, Z. Zhang, Y. Wen, M. Shen, M. Falaleeva, et al. 2013. Function of alternative splicing. Gene 514:130.
  • Keren, H., G. Lev-Maor, and G. Ast. 2010. Alternative splicing and evolution: diversification, exon definition and function. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11:345355.
  • Kiemer, L., J. D. Bendtsen, and N. Blom. 2005. NetAcet: prediction of N-terminal acetylation sites. Bioinformatics 21:12691270.
  • Kim, E. Y., W. K. Kim, H. J. Kang, J. H. Kim, S. J. Chung, Y. S. Seo, et al. 2012. Acetylation of malate dehydrogenase 1 promotes adipogenic differentiation via activating its enzymatic activity. J. Lipid Res. 53:18641876.
  • King, M., and A. Wilson. 1975. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188:107116.
  • Kirk, H., and J. R. Freeland. 2011. Applications and implications of neutral versus non-neutral markers in molecular ecology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12:39663988.
  • Kreitman, M. 1983. Nucleotide polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Nature 304:412417.
  • Kreitman, M. 2000. Methods to detect selection in populations with applications to the human. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 1:539559.
  • Lakovaara, S., and A. Saura. 1970. Isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase in the species of the Drosophila obscura group. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae Series A, IV Biologica.
  • Larsson, L. C., L. Laikre, S. Palm, C. Andre, G. R. Carvalho, and N. Ryman. 2007. Concordance of allozyme and microsatellite differentiation in a marine fish, but evidence of selection at a microsatellite locus. Mol. Ecol. 16:11351147.
  • Lemaire, C., G. Allegrucci, M. Naciri, L. Bahri-Sfar, H. Kara, and F. Bonhomme. 2000. Do discrepancies between microsatellite and allozyme variation reveal differential selection between sea and lagoon in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)? Mol. Ecol. 9:457467.
  • Lewontin, R. C., and J. L. Hubby. 1966. A molecular approach to study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. 2. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54:595000.
  • Linnen, C. R., E. P. Kingsley, J. D. Jensen, and H. E. Hoekstra. 2009. On the origin and spread of an adaptive allele in deer mice. Science 325:10951098.
  • Lockyer, C. 1986. Body-fat condition in northeast Atlantic fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and its relationship with reproduction and food resources. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43:142147.
  • Lockyer, C. 2007. All creatures great and smaller: a study in cetacean life history energetics. J. Marine Biol. Assoc. UK 87:10351045.
  • Mann, M., and O. N. Jensen. 2003. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications. Nat. Biotechnol. 21:255261.
  • Marden, J. H. 2008. Quantitative and evolutionary biology of alternative splicing: how changing the mix of alternative transcripts affects phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms. Heredity 100:111120.
  • Markert, C. L., and F. Moller. 1959. Multiple forms of enzymes – tissue, ontogenetic, and species specific patterns. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 45:753763.
  • Matlin, A. J., F. Clark, and C. W. J. Smith. 2005. Understanding alternative splicing: towards a cellular code. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6:386398.
  • Matsui, M., K. Nishikawa, T. Utsunomiya, and S. Tanabe. 2006. Geographic allozyme variation in the Japanese clouded salamander, Hynobius nebulosus (Amphibia: Urodela). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 89:311330.
  • May, B. 1998. Starch gel electrophoresis of allozymes. Pp. 128 in A. R. Hoelzel, ed. Molecular genetic analysis of populations – a practical approach. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U.K.
  • McCracken, K. G., C. P. Barger, M. Bulgarella, K. P. Johnson, S. A. Sonsthagen, J. Trucco, et al. 2009a. Parallel evolution in the major haemoglobin genes of eight species of Andean waterfowl. Mol. Ecol. 18:39924005.
  • McCracken, K. G., M. Bulgarella, K. P. Johnson, M. K. Kuhner, J. Trucco, T. H. Valqui, et al. 2009b. Gene flow in the face of countervailing selection: adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in the beta A hemoglobin subunit of yellow-billed pintails in the Andes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 26:815827.
  • McDonald, J. H., and M. Kreitman. 1991. Adaptive protein evolution at the ADH locus in Drosophila. Nature 351:652654.
  • McKinley, J. S., and D. W. Moss. 1965. Heterogeneity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase on starch-gel electrophoresis. Biochem. J. 96:583000.
  • Morcillo-Suarez, C., J. Alegre, R. Sangros, E. Gazave, R. De Cid, R. Milne, et al. 2008. SNP analysis to results (SNPator): a web-based environment oriented to statistical genomics analyses upon SNP data. Bioinformatics 24:16431644.
  • Moritz, C. 1994. Defining evolutionary significant units for conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9:373375.
  • Mullis, K. B., and F. A. Faloona. 1987. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase catalyzed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol. 155:335350.
  • Nei, M. 1987. Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
  • Nielsen, E. E., J. Hemmer-Hansen, P. F. Larsen, and D. Bekkevold. 2009a. Population genomics of marine fishes: identifying adaptive variation in space and time. Mol. Ecol. 18:31283150.
  • Nielsen, E. E., J. Hemmer-Hansen, N. A. Poulsen, V. Loeschcke, T. Moen, T. Johansen, et al. 2009b. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). BMC Evol. Biol. 9:11.
  • Nielsen, E. E., A. Cariani, E. Mac Aoidh, G. E. Maes, I. Milano, R. Ogden, et al. 2012. Gene-associated markers provide tools for tackling illegal fishing and false eco-certification. Nat. Comm. 3: 851.
  • O'Brien, S. J., D. E. Wildt, D. Goldman, C. R. Merril, and M. Bush. 1983. The cheetah is depauperate in genetic variation. Science 221:459462.
  • Økland, J. M., O. A. Haaland, and H. J. Skaug. 2010. A method for defining management units based on genetically determined close relatives. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 67:551558.
  • Ouborg, N. J., C. Pertoldi, V. Loeschcke, R. Bijlsma, and P. W. Hedrick. 2010. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics. Trends Genet. 26:177187.
  • Palsbøll, P., M. Bérubé, A. Larsen, and H. Jørgensen. 1997. Primers for the amplification of tri and tetramer microsatellite loci in baleen whales. Mol. Ecol. 6:893895.
  • Palsbøll, P. J., M. Bérubé, and F. W. Allendorf. 2007. Identification of management units using population genetic data. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22:1116.
  • Palsbøll, P. J., M. Zachariah Peery, and M. Bérubé. 2010. Detecting populations in the ‘ambiguous’ zone: kinship-based estimation of population structure at low genetic divergence. Mol. Ecol. Res. 10:797805.
  • Palumbi, S. R., and C. S. Baker. 1994. Contrasting population structure from nuclear intron sequences and mtDNA of humpback whales. Mol. Biol. Evol. 11:426435.
  • Pinho, C., A. Kaliontzopoulou, D. J. Harris, and N. Ferrand. 2011. Recent evolutionary history of the Iberian endemic lizards Podarcis bocagei (Seoane, 1884) and Podarcis carbonelli Perez-Mellado, 1981 (Squamata: Lacertidae) revealed by allozyme and microsatellite markers. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 162:184200.
  • Pogson, G. H. 2001. Nucleotide polymorphism and natural selection at the pantophysin (Pan I) Locus in the Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua (L.). Genetics 157:317330.
  • Pogson, G. H., and S. E. Fevolden. 2003. Natural selection and the genetic differentiation of coastal and Arctic populations of the Atlantic cod in northern Norway: a test involving nucleotide sequence variation at the pantophysin (PanI) locus. Mol. Ecol. 12:6374.
  • Potvin, J., J. A. Goldbogen, and R. E. Shadwick. 2012. Metabolic expenditures of Lunge Feeding Rorquals Across Scale: implications for the evolution of filter feeding and the limits to maximum body size. PLoS ONE 7: e44854.
  • Protas, M. E., C. Hersey, D. Kochanek, Y. Zhou, H. Wilkens, W. R. Jeffery, et al. 2006. Genetic analysis of cavefish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism. Nat. Genet. 38:107111.
  • Protas, M. E., P. Trontelj, and N. H. Patel. 2011. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 108:57025707.
  • Proudfoot, A. E. I., G. Turcatti, T. N. C. Wells, M. A. Payton, and D. J. Smith. 1994. Purification, cDNA cloning and heterologous expression of human phosphomannose isomerase. Eur. J. Biochem. 219:415423.
  • Ren, J., X. J. Gao, C. J. Jin, M. Zhu, X. W. Wang, A. Shaw, et al. 2009. Systematic study of protein sumoylation: development of a site-specific predictor of SUMOsp 2.0. Proteomics 9:34093412.
  • Richter-Boix, A., M. Quintela, G. Segelbacher, and A. Laurila. 2011. Genetic analysis of differentiation among breeding ponds reveals a candidate gene for local adaptation in Rana arvalis. Mol. Ecol. 20:15821600.
  • Rørvik, C. J., and Å. Jonsgård. 1981. Review of Balaenopterids in the North Atlantic ocean. Pp. 269286 in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Working Party on Marine Mammals, eds. Mammals in the seas: General papers and large cetaceans. Food & Agriculture Org., Rome.
  • Rousset, F. 2008. genepop'007: a complete re-implementation of the genepop software for Windows and Linux. Mol. Ecol. Res. 8:103106.
  • Sambrook, J., E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York.
  • Sanger, F., S. Nicklen, and A. R. Coulson. 1977. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 74:54635467.
  • Sa-Pinto, A., M. S. Branco, P. B. Alexandrino, M. C. Fontaine, and S. J. E. Baird. 2012. Barriers to gene flow in the marine environment: insights from two common intertidal limpet species of the Atlantic and Mediterranean. PLoS ONE 7: e50330.
  • Schlotterer, C., B. Amos, and D. Tautz. 1991. Conservation of polymorphic simple sequence loci in Cetacean species. Nature 354:6365.
  • Schoville, S. D., J. M. Flowers, and R. S. Burton. 2012. Diversifying selection underlies the origin of allozyme polymorphism at the phosphoglucose isomerase locus in Tigriopus californicus. PLoS ONE 7: e40035.
  • Scott, G. R., P. M. Schulte, S. Egginton, A. L. M. Scott, J. G. Richards, and W. K. Milsom. 2011. Molecular evolution of cytochrome c oxidase underlies high-altitude adaptation in the bar-headed goose. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28:351363.
  • Shimura, E., and K. Numachi. 1987. Genetic variability and differentiation in the toothed whales. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. 38:141163.
  • Sick, K. 1961. Haemoglobin polymorphism in fishes. Nature 192:894000.
  • Silva, E. P., and D. O. F. Skibinski. 2009. Allozymes and nDNA markers show different levels of population differentiation in the mussel Mytilus edulis on British coasts. Hydrobiologia 620:2533.
  • Simonsen, V., F. W. Allendorf, W. F. Eanes, and F. O. Kapel. 1982a. Electrophoretic variation in large mammals 3. The ringed seal, Pusa hispida, the harp seal, Pagophilus groenlandicus, and the hooded seal, Cysotphora cristata. Hereditas 97:8790.
  • Simonsen, V., F. O. Kapel, and F. Larsen. 1982b. Electrophoretic variation in the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépéde. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 32:275278.
  • Skarstein, T. H., J. I. Westgaard, and S. E. Fevolden. 2007. Comparing microsatellite variation in north-east Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) to genetic structuring as revealed by the pantophysin (Pan I) locus. J. Fish Biol. 70:271290.
  • Slein, M. W. 1950. Phosphomannose isomerase. J. Biol. Chem. 186:753761.
  • Storz, J. F., and M. W. Nachman. 2003. Natural selection on protein polymorphism in the rodent genus Peromyscus: evidence from interlocus contrasts. Evolution 57:26282635.
  • Storz, J. F., S. J. Sabatino, F. G. Hoffmann, E. J. Gering, H. Moriyama, N. Ferrand, et al. 2007. The molecular basis of high-altitude adaptation in deer mice. PLoS Genet. 3:448459.
  • Storz, J. F., A. M. Runck, S. J. Sabatino, J. K. Kelly, N. Ferrand, H. Moriyama, et al. 2009. Evolutionary and functional insights into the mechanism underlying high-altitude adaptation of deer mouse hemoglobin. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 106:1445014455.
  • Strand, A. E., L. M. Williams, M. F. Oleksiak, and E. E. Sotka. 2012. Can diversifying selection be distinguished from history in geographic clines? A population genomic study of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). PLoS ONE 7:e45138.
  • Tajima, F. 1989. Statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis by DNA polymorphism. Genetics 123:585595.
  • Tautz, D. 1989. Hypervariability of simple sequences as a general source for polymorphic DNA markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:64636471.
  • Toda, M., T. Hikida, S. Okada, and H. Ota. 2003. Contrasting patterns of genetic variation in the two sympatric geckos Gekko tawaensis and G-japonicus (Reptilia: Squamata) from western Japan, as revealed by allozyme analyses. Heredity 90:9097.
  • Valsecchi, E., and W. Amos. 1996. Microsatellite markers for the study of cetacean populations. Mol. Ecol. 5:151156.
  • Vandewoestijne, S., and H. Van Dyck. 2010. Population genetic differences along a latitudinal cline between original and recently colonized habitat in a butterfly. PLoS ONE 5: e13810.
  • Víkingsson, G. A. 1990. Energetic studies on fin and sei whales caught off Iceland. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 40, 365373.
  • Víkingsson, G. A. 1997. Feeding of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) off Iceland – diurnal and seasonal variation and possible rates. J. Northwest Atlant. Fish. Sci. 22:7789.
  • Víkingsson, G. A., A. G. Pike, G. Desportes, N. Øien, T. H. Gunnlaugsson, and D. Bloch. 2009. Distribution and abundance of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the Northeast and Central Atlantic as inferred from the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys 1987–2001. NAMMCO Sci. Publ. 7:4972.
  • Vuorinen, J. A., and O. Eskelinen. 2005. Long-term stability of allozyme frequencies in a wood lemming, Myopus schisticolor, population with a biased sex ratio and density fluctuations. Heredity 94:443447.
  • Wada, S. 1983a. Genetic heterozygosity in the striped dolphin off Japan. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 33:617619.
  • Wada, S. 1983b. Genetic structure and taxonomic status of minke whales in the coastal waters of Japan. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 33:361363.
  • Wada, S. 1988. Genetic differentiation between two forms of short-finned pilot whales off the Pacific coast of Japan. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. 39:91101.
  • Wada, S., and K. Numachi. 1991. Allozyme analyses of genetic differentiation among the populations and species of the Balaenoptera. Rep. Int. Whal. Comm. 13:125154.
  • Walsh, P. S., D. A. Metzger, and R. Higuchi. 1991. Chelex-100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA from PCR-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques 10:506513.
  • Walsh, C. T., S. Garneau-Tsodikova, and G. J. Gatto. 2005. Protein posttranslational modifications: the chemistry of proteome diversifications. Ang. Chem.-Int. Edit. 44:73427372.
  • Wang, Q., Y. Zhang, C. Yang, H. Xiong, Y. Lin, J. Yao, et al. 2010. Acetylation of metabolic enzymes coordinates carbon source utilization and metabolic flux. Science 327:10041007.
  • Waples, R. S., and O. Gaggiotti. 2006. What is a population? An empirical evaluation of some genetic methods for identifying the number of gene pools and their degree of connectivity. Mol. Ecol. 15:14191439.
  • Watterson, G. A. 1975. Number of segregating sites in genetic models without recombination. Theor. Popul. Biol. 7:256276.
  • Weir, B. S., and C. C. Cockerham. 1984. Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution 38:13581370.
  • Werle, E., C. Schneider, M. Renner, M. Volker, and W. Fiehn. 1994. Convenient single-step, one tube purification of Pcr products for direct sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:43544355.
  • Wetton, J. H., D. T. Parkin, and R. E. Carter. 1992. The use of genetic markers for parentage analysis in Passer domesticus (house sparrow). Heredity 69:243254.
  • Wheat, C. W., W. B. Watt, D. D. Pollock, and P. M. Schulte. 2006. From DNA to fitness differences: sequences and structures of adaptive variants of Colias phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). Mol. Biol. Evol. 23:499512.
  • Wheat, C. W., C. R. Hagg, J. H. Marden, I. Hanski, and M. J. Frilander. 2010. Nucleotide polymorphism at a gene (Pgi) under balancing selection in a butterfly metapopulation. Mol. Biol. Evol. 27:267281.
  • White, T. A., J. Stamford, and A. R. Hoelzel. 2010. Local selection and population structure in a deep-sea fish, the roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris). Mol. Ecol. 19:216226.
  • Yim, H.-S., Y. S. Cho, X. Guang, S. G. Kang, J.-Y. Jeong, S.-S. Cha, et al. 2014. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans. Nat. Genet. 46:8892.
  • Zhao, S., W. Xu, W. Jiang, W. Yu, Y. Lin, T. Zhang et al. 2010. Regulation of cellular metabolism by protein lysine acetylation. Science 327:10001004.