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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 10

October 2012

Volume 2, Issue 10

Pages i–i, 2367–2635

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.405

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp (pages 2367–2373)

      Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Darryl L. Felder, Nicole L. Vollmer, Joel W. Martin and Keith A. Crandall

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.347

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      The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Phylogenetic analyses on new collections from the Gulf of Mexico provide definitive evidence that this species is an early developmental stage of the deepwater shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus.

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      Interannual variations of soil organic carbon fractions in unmanaged volcanic soils (Canary Islands, Spain) (pages 2374–2386)

      Cecilia María Armas-Herrera, Juan Luis Mora, Carmen Dolores Arbelo and Antonio Rodríguez-Rodríguez

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.355

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      The soil carbon (C) contents under undisturbed ecosystems are traditionally assumed to be highly stable. We found a significant variation of both the contents of total soil C and several C fractions in volcanic soils under unmanaged ecosystems over a 2-year period. Such variations were particularly evident under nearly mature ecosystems, while some ecosystems undergoing processes of active natural regeneration exhibited disguised C losses.

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      Detecting immigrants in a highly genetically homogeneous spiny lobster population (Palinurus elephas) in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (pages 2387–2396)

      Hamdi Elphie, Goñi Raquel, Dìaz David and Planes Serge

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.349

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      This article investigates the genetic structure of early benthic juveniles of the spiny lobster P. elephas in the northwestern Mediterranean basin by means of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. In addition, this article proposes a new analytical approach that leads to evaluate connectivity with adjacent differentiated population combining multivariate analysis and assignation tests.

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      Rainfall can explain adaptive phenotypic variation with high gene flow in the New Holland Honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae) (pages 2397–2412)

      Steven A. Myers, Stephen Donnellan and Sonia Kleindorfer

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.352

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      We examined population genetic structure, sex-specific dispersal patterns, and morphology in relation to rainfall patterns at a landscape scale in South Australia. We observed phenotypic divergence across regions, despite high gene flow. We found strong support for the hypothesis that rainfall has driven the observed phenotypic variation.

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      Extensive introgressive hybridization within the northern oriole group (Genus Icterus) revealed by three-species isolation with migration analysis (pages 2413–2429)

      Frode Jacobsen and Kevin E. Omland

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.365

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      Coalescent-based isolation-migration approaches such as IMa2 are key to assessing the role of gene flow for recently diverged taxa. Our study reveals the complexity of evolutionary processes that have contributed to produce the observed pattern of rampant allele sharing among the three species within the northern oriole group. Furthermore, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for all potentially interbreeding taxa when interpreting the divergence history of a group of taxa, and the extent to which gene flow may retard the rate of divergence at neutral loci.

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      Phenotypic plasticity alone cannot explain climate-induced change in avian migration timing (pages 2430–2437)

      Josh Van Buskirk, Robert S. Mulvihill and Robert C. Leberman

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.367

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      Climate change has been linked to phenological shifts in many organisms, but there is debate over the degree to which changes are caused by evolved genetic responses of populations or by phenotypic plasticity of individuals. We estimated that temperature-induced plasticity of spring arrival date in 27 species of North American migratory bird was strong, but not sufficient to explain the climate-induced trend in phenology observed over 46 years. Some part of the response to environmental change may be caused by microevolution.

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      Evolutionary and biogeographic history of the subfamily Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) (pages 2438–2449)

      Fábio F. Roxo, Cláudio H. Zawadzki, Markos A. Alexandrou, Guilherme J. Costa Silva, Marcio C. Chiachio, Fausto Foresti and Claudio Oliveira

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.368

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      In this study, we investigated the relationships and the origin of the catfish species that belongs to the subfamily Neoplecostominae, a very important Neotropical freshwater group distributed all over the Atlantic Rainforest, with the main objective to analyze the influence of geological processes in the evolution of this group. We showed that most species originated during recent geological periods and that fluctuation in sea level, associated with glaciations, had a primordial impact in this process. As these fluctuations were global phenomena, we think that our findings could be widely employed for other researchers working with biodiversity origin.

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      Higher temperature variability increases the impact of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and shifts interspecific interactions in tadpole mesocosms (pages 2450–2459)

      Phineas T. Hamilton, Jean M.L. Richardson, Purnima Govindarajulu and Bradley R. Anholt

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.369

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      Effects of climate on the emergence of infectious disease and on interactions between species are under increasing scrutiny. Using an outdoor mesocosm experiment, we tested the influence of increased daily variation in temperature on the effects of Bd, the cause of amphibian chytridiomycosis, in communities of Rana aurora and Pseudacris regilla tadpoles. We found that temperature influenced multiple aspects of this system, including the response of R. aurora to Bd and the outcome of interactions between tadpole species.

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      Diversity protects plant communities against generalist molluscan herbivores (pages 2460–2473)

      Yvonne Fabian, Nadine Sandau, Odile T. Bruggisser, Patrik Kehrli, Alexandre Aebi, Rudolf P. Rohr, Russell E. Naisbit and Louis-Félix Bersier

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.359

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      We conducted a long-term experiment focusing on the effect of plant diversity on herbivore abundance in ecological compensation zones in an agroecosystem. Our results show a strong negative effect of plant diversity on the abundance of mollusks and, vice versa, a strong negative effect of mollusk abundance on plant diversity. This highlights the importance of plant diversity as protection against generalist herbivores, which if abundant can in the long term negatively impact plant diversity.

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      Climate-change refugia in the sheltered bays of Palau: analogs of future reefs (pages 2474–2484)

      Robert van Woesik, Peter Houk, Adelle L. Isechal, Jacques W. Idechong, Steven Victor and Yimnang Golbuu

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.363

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      The study asks the question: Are there any refuges on coral reefs that are resistant to the increasing threat of regional thermal stress events? We find that compared with adjacent habitats the near-shore reefs of Palau are refugia for corals through climate-change induced thermal stress events. (Photo by R. van Woesik; nearshore reefs of Palau, July 2010.)

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      Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff (pages 2485–2505)

      Robert Ekblom, Lindsay L. Farrell, David B. Lank and Terry Burke

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.370

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      We present transcriptome sequencing data for a large number of genes in a lekking bird species with no previous genomic resources. We also investigate the genetic basis for morphological and behavioral variation by comparing gene expression and genetic structure between males with different ornamental colors and mating strategies. None of the genes investigated showed significant expression divergence between different males, but several genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation for both color morphs and mating strategies.

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      Genetic consequences of fragmentation in “arbor vitae,” eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), toward the northern limit of its distribution range (pages 2506–2520)

      Huaitong Xu, Francine Tremblay, Yves Bergeron, Véronique Paul and Cungen Chen

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.371

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      The impact of population fragmentation on the genetic structure of EWC is to create a positive inbreeding coefficient, which was two to three times higher on average than that of a population from the continuous zone. This result indicated a higher occurrence of selfing within fragmented EWC populations coupled with a higher degree of gene exchange among near-neighbor relatives, thereby leading to significant inbreeding. Increased population isolation was apparently not correlated with a detectable effect on genetic diversity. Overall, the fragmented populations of EWC appear well-buffered against effects of inbreeding on genetic erosion.

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      Bacteriocin-mediated interactions within and between coexisting species (pages 2521–2526)

      Hadas Hawlena, Farrah Bashey and Curtis M. Lively

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.354

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      Bacteriocins are bacteriocidal toxins released by almost all bacteria. They are known to have a narrow range of killing, but whether this narrow range of action falls mostly within or mostly between species in natural communities is an open problem with important ecological and evolutionary implications. Here we establish the existence of both intraspecific and interspecific bacteriocin-mediated interactions at biologically relevant scales in nature, and show that inhibitions between conspecifics are significantly more common than between heterospecifics, using entomopathogenic bacteria (Xenorhabdus bovienii and X. koppenhoeferi). These results suggest that bacteriocins may serve to mediate bacterial community interactions and that a major role of bacteriocins in nature is to mediate intraspecific microbial dynamics.

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      Male pheromone polymorphism and reproductive isolation in populations of Drosophila simulans (pages 2527–2536)

      Gwénaëlle Bontonou, Béatrice Denis and Claude Wicker-Thomas

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.342

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      Our findings do support divergence of Drosophila simulans populations from West Africa for both pheromonal profile and mating preference.

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      The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England (pages 2537–2548)

      Charles Ikediashi, Sam Billington and Jamie R. Stevens

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.353

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      Following an extensive clean-up program of the Mersey, Atlantic salmon have returned to the river since 2001. This study uses microsatellite analysis to type returning salmon and the recently compiled pan-European SALSEA-Merge database to identify the most probable region of origin of adult fish entering the river. Assignment analysis suggests that returning fish originate from multiple sources, with the greatest proportion assigning to rivers in northwest England and the Solway Firth.

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      Global remote sensing of water–chlorophyll ratio in terrestrial plant leaves (pages 2549–2556)

      Keiji Kushida

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.361

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      This article presents and supports the use of global remote sensing techniques for measuring water–chlorophyll ratio in terrestrial plant leaves, which can provide an indicator of changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Long-term and short-term changes in the water–chlorophyll ratio are indicative of changes in plant composition and plant responses to stressors, respectively.

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      Intracoastal shipping drives patterns of regional population expansion by an invasive marine invertebrate (pages 2557–2566)

      John A. Darling, Leif-Matthias Herborg and Ian C. Davidson

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.362

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      Analysis of the invasive tunicate Styela clava suggests that commercial vessels play a significant role in determining distribution patterns in the northwest Pacific. Significant correlations were observed between genetic relatedness and patterns of intracoastal commercial vessel movement, although these relationships are likely obscured to some degree by independent introductions from the native range and alternative vectors of population spread.

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      Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader (pages 2567–2576)

      Craig F. Purchase and Darek T. R. Moreau

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.364

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      Swimming behavior of brown trout sperm was determined in water that varied in pH. Among-individual variation increased at low pH, indicating that stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation.

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      A mate to die for? A model of conditional monogyny in cannibalistic spiders (pages 2577–2587)

      Lutz Fromhage and Jutta M. Schneider

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.372

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      We present a theoretical model of the evolution of mating behavior in sexually cannibalistic spiders, in which males can choose to mate with either one or two females in their lifetime. The model predicts optimal male decisions in relation to female characteristics and ecological parameters.

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      Extensive genetic diversity and rapid population differentiation during blooms of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) in an isolated salt pond on Cape Cod, MA, USA (pages 2588–2599)

      Mindy L. Richlen, Deana L. Erdner, Linda A. R. McCauley, Katie Libera and Donald M. Anderson

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.373

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      This study investigated the population structure of bloom-forming Alexandrium dinoflagellates within an isolated embayment, and assessed connectivity with coastal populations responsible for annual algal blooms in the Gulf of Maine (GOM). Comparisons of genetic differentiation showed that Alexandrium populations within the embayment exhibited extensive clonal diversity and were genetically distinct from populations in the GOM; furthermore, rapid and significant temporal differentiation was observed among samples collected within the embayment. Results of this investigation will be discussed, along with the environmental conditions and biological interactions potentially driving differentiation.

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      Large-scale longitudinal gradients of genetic diversity: a meta-analysis across six phyla in the Mediterranean basin (pages 2600–2614)

      Cyrille Conord, Jessica Gurevitch and Bruno Fady

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.350

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      Using an unprecedentedly wide number of plant and animal genetic studies, we demonstrate that within-population genetic diversity follows an east-west cline in the Mediterranean. We interpret this longitudinal trend as the result of evolutionary and demographic processes acting differently on eastern than on western Mediterranean populations during Pleistocene climate changes. We discuss how particular life-history traits and ecological requirements modify this trend and highlight consequences for sustainable management and conservation region-wide.

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      Little effect of seasonal constraints on population genetic structure in eusocial paper wasps (pages 2615–2624)

      Thibault Lengronne, Ellouise Leadbeater, Solenn Patalano, Stephanie Dreier, Jeremy Field, Seirian Sumner and Laurent Keller

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.366

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      Climate has long been suggested to affect population genetic structures of eusocial insect societies. For instance, W. D. Hamilton [Journal of Theoretical Biology 7 (1964) 17] discusses whether temperate and tropical eusocial insects may show differences in population-level genetic structure and viscosity, and how this might relate to differences in the degree of synchrony in their life cycles or modes of nest founding. Despite the importance of Hamilton's 1964 papers, this specific idea has not been tested in actual populations of wasps. We therefore carried out a comprehensive analysis comparing colony and population genetic structure in two species of paper wasps with contrasting ecologies: the tropical species Polistes canadensis and the temperate species P. dominulus. Surprisingly, our analyses revealed no support for Hamilton's predictions, as genetic structures of both the temperate and tropical species prove to be very similar in both species. Our study suggests that selection for socially selected traits at the nest and population level overrides fundamental differences in ecology.

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      Effects of CO 2 enrichment on photosynthesis, growth, and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii (pages 2625–2635)

      Ana Alexandre, João Silva, Pimchanok Buapet, Mats Björk and Rui Santos

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.333

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      We investigated the effects of CO 2 enrichment on both carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the seagrass Zostera noltii in a 5-month mesocosm experiment. The photosynthetic rates were positively affected by the CO 2 enrichment, whereas leaf growth rates were not affected. The leaf ammonium uptake rate and glutamine synthetase activity were not significantly affected by increased CO 2 concentrations, but the leaf nitrate uptake rate of plants exposed to CO 2-enriched conditions was fourfold lower than the uptake of plants exposed to current CO 2 level.

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