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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 12

December 2012

Volume 2, Issue 12

Pages i–i, 2935–3268

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.457

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population density does not influence male gonadal investment in the Least Killifish, Heterandria formosa (pages 2935–2942)

      Matthew Schrader, Joseph J. Apodaca, Pamela S. D. Macrae and Joseph Travis

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.402

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      A Heterandria formosa male. Photo courtesy of Pierson Hill.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Microevolution of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium populations associated with soybeans in east North America (pages 2943–2961)

      Jie Tang, E. S. P. Bromfield, N. Rodrigue, S. Cloutier and J. T. Tambong

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.404

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      Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and probabilistic microevolutionary analyses indicated that soybeans in east North America are predominantly colonized by diverse lineages of symbiotic bradyrhizobia originating from native legumes irrespective of the practice of recurrent bacterial inoculation. Homologous recombination events at six core gene loci of 220 isolates of soybean-nodulating bacteria were inferred to have an effect on genetic diversification that was approximately equal to mutation. The inheritance of accessory (symbiotic) genes (nodC and nifH) appeared predominantly by vertical transmission. The data suggest that soybean-nodulating bacteria associated with native legumes represent a novel source of ecologically adapted bacteria for soybean inoculation.

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      Species delimitation and digit number in a North African skink (pages 2962–2973)

      R. P. Brown, T. Tejangkura, E. H. El Mouden, M. A. Ait Baamrane and M. Znari

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.326

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      Geographic variation in morphology and sequences from three loci were studied in the Moroccan skink, Chalcides mionecton. Bayesian analyses of population structure showed that five-digit individuals from southern Morocco formed one genetic cluster, while northern four- and five-digit individuals clustered together. There was strong statistical support for delimitation of C. mionecton into northern and southern species which appear to have diverged 0.46–2.66 mya.

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      Deep sympatric mitochondrial divergence without reproductive isolation in the common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus (pages 2974–2988)

      Silje Hogner, Terje Laskemoen, Jan T. Lifjeld, Jiri Porkert, Oddmund Kleven, Tamer Albayrak, Bekir Kabasakal and Arild Johnsen

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.398

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      Deep divergence in the COI has been revealed in the common redstart. Herein, we describe the phylogeographic pattern of these lineages and test hypotheses for how such high diversity in mtDNA has evolved.

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      Resurrected Ceriodaphnia quadrangula highlight differences between pheno- and genotypic expressions (pages 2989–2998)

      Marko Reinikainen and Emma Åhlén

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.401

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      Century-old resting eggs of cladocerans were hatched from a lake sediment. Differences in pheno- and genotypic morphological expressions were found in relation to historic changes in fish predation.

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      Is the change of winter wheat yield under warming caused by shortened reproductive period? (pages 2999–3008)

      Ruixing Hou, Zhu Ouyang, Yunsheng Li, Glenn V. Wilson and Hanxia Li

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.403

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      Reproductive period of winter wheat may not be shortened in the future warming world for wheat could adjust its growth under the climate change. The change of winter wheat yield would be effected less than we considered before under no-till or conservation tillage.

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      Common garden experiments reveal uncommon responses across temperatures, locations, and species of ants (pages 3009–3015)

      Shannon L. Pelini, Sarah E. Diamond, Heidi MacLean, Aaron M. Ellison, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Nathan J. Sanders and Robert R. Dunn

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.407

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      We ask how variation in responsiveness to temperature change within and across species will shape future species' distributions. We found that the responses of ants to increasing temperatures varied by population and species. Therefore, there will be a complex, nonlinear response of the ant community to climate change, and simplistic models based on assumptions of uniform responses of all populations within a species are likely to be inadequate.

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      Changes in soil bacterial community triggered by drought-induced gap succession preceded changes in soil C stocks and quality (pages 3016–3031)

      Jorge Curiel Yuste, Josep Barba, Antonio José Fernandez-Gonzalez, Manuel Fernandez-Lopez, Stefania Mattana, Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Pau Nolis and Francisco Lloret

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.409

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      Dead Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) individual in the mixed forest of the Titllar Valley in Prades (North-East Spain). Photo reproduced by permission of David Aguade.

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      Exploring the genetics of nestling personality traits in a wild passerine bird: testing the phenotypic gambit (pages 3032–3044)

      Jon E. Brommer and Edward Kluen

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.412

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      A young blue tit is taken from a paper bag, where it spent some minutes in isolation, to be assayed for three aspects of its personality. By splitting the broods of families such that part of the offspring are reared by foster parents, the authors of this study demonstrate how both ‘nature’ (genes) and ‘nurture’ (rearing) contribute about equally to the development of blue tit personality traits. The design further allowed to estimate the genetic correlation between the personality traits. Encouragingly, this genetic correlation is captured reasonably well by the phenotypic correlation, which is an assumption (the 'phenotypic gambit') underlying much of current animal personality research.

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      Deglaciation explains bat extinction in the Caribbean (pages 3045–3051)

      Liliana M. Dávalos and Amy L. Russell

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.399

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      Although the causes of Caribbean extinction have been debated for decades, ecological explanations have not been compared to a null model of climate-driven area change, and none of the explanations have been tested quantitatively. Here we show that inferred area loss from rising post-glacial sea level explains most Holocene species losses in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Because there were fewer species in the smaller Greater Antilles today than expected given island size and LGM species-area relationships, ecological factors may explain these departures from the null and emphasize the role of the species-area relationship as a null hypothesis in island biogeography.

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      Diversity of birds in eastern North America shifts north with global warming (pages 3052–3060)

      Kenneth W. McDonald, Christopher J. W. McClure, Brian W. Rolek and Geoffrey E. Hill

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.410

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      Here, we report that bird diversity in North America increased and shifted northward between 1966 and 2010. This change in the relationship of diversity to the latitudinal gradient is, likely, primarily influenced by range expansions of species that winter in the eastern United States as opposed to species which migrate to this area from wintering grounds in the tropics. This increase in diversity and its northward expansion is best explained by an increase in regional prebreeding season temperature over the past 44 years.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Gene flow at major transitional areas in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the possible emergence of a hybrid swarm (pages 3061–3078)

      Nolwenn Quéré, Erick Desmarais, Costas S. Tsigenopoulos, Khalid Belkhir, François Bonhomme and Bruno Guinand

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.406

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      We investigate genetic differentiation at 20 nuclear loci associated or nonassociated to genes in sea bass over samples covering the three main metapopulations recognized in this species. Patterns of genetic differentiation illustrate the “porous genome model” and were found distinct across the two tension zones separating populations. The Western Mediterranean population was found significantly more admixed than other populations and could originate from hybrid swarming.

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      Effects of parents and Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on nest predation risk for a songbird (pages 3079–3097)

      Quresh S. Latif, Sacha K. Heath and John T. Rotenberry

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.411

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mechanisms underlying nest predation and thus influencing songbird fitness are poorly understood. We used differences between natural and experimental nests to examine the influence of parents on nest predation rates and patterns. We found differences in patterns with respect to date and territory density, suggesting a role of spatiotemporal variation in parental defense in producing date- and territory-related patterns.

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      Development and evolution of caste dimorphism in honeybees – a modeling approach (pages 3098–3109)

      Olof Leimar, Klaus Hartfelder, Manfred D. Laubichler and Robert E. Page Jr

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.414

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      Using theoretical modeling and empirical data on queen and worker development in honeybees, we show that larval developmental plasticity and nurse worker feeding behavior have coevolved to become integrated parts of a sociogenetic regulatory network that produces dimorphic castes. Based on the mechanisms identified in our analysis, we propose a scenario of the evolutionary history of honeybee development and feeding regimes.

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      Trophic transfer of biodiversity effects: functional equivalence of prey diversity and enrichment? (pages 3110–3122)

      Stephan Behl, Vera de Schryver, Sebastian Diehl and Herwig Stibor

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.415

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      Producer diversity and the supply of limiting resources are two main factors that can independently influence primary production. In an aquatic food-web experiment, we show that both increasing algal diversity and increasing light intensity have equally positive effects on consumer (Daphnia magna) growth and demography. We conclude that producer diversity can indeed have similar positive effects on secondary production as enrichment with a limiting resource.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Concordance in hippocampal and fecal Nr3c1 methylation is moderated by maternal behavior in the mouse (pages 3123–3131)

      Shayna A. Liberman, Rahia Mashoodh, Robert C. Thompson, Dana C. Dolinoy and Frances A. Champagne

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.416

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      A major obstacle to studying epigenetics in noninvasive samples is tissue specificity of epigenetic marks. Here, we compare DNA methylation of the NGFI-A (nerve growth factor-inducible protein A) binding site in the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) gene between central (hippocampal) and peripheral noninvasive (fecal) tissues in juvenile Balb/c mice that had received varying levels of postnatal maternal care. Our results indicate that concordance in methylation levels between these tissues within individuals only emerges after accounting for the effects of postnatal maternal care and that maternally induced variation in DNA methylation is limited to the brain.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nitrogen and carbon isotope variability in the green-algal lichen Xanthoria parietina and their implications on mycobiont–photobiont interactions (pages 3132–3144)

      Andreas Beck and Christoph Mayr

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.417

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      We provide first information on the influences of substrate and photobiont/mycobiont ratio on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures of lichens, and additionally shed some light on the mode of nitrogen acquisition in green-algal lichens. This is an important topic as nitrogen is limiting lichen growth and almost no experimental data is available to explain nitrogen acquisition and distribution between the symbionts. Our data demonstrate that most nitrogen supplied to the green-algal photobiont in Xanthoria parietina is likely independent of the mycobiont, but probably occurs via the gaseous phase (ammonia) and not the liquid (apoplastic) phase.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers (pages 3145–3159)

      Juan Antonio Sanchez, Michelangelo La Spina and Omaththage P. Perera

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.420

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      The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is predicted as follows using molecular markers: (1) the reduction of the geographical distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges (2) The maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) Introgression of the Italian-French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Permeability of the landscape matrix between amphibian breeding sites (pages 3160–3167)

      Josh Van Buskirk

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.424

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      Landscape genetic analysis confirms that fields and forests are more permeable than urban areas to dispersal by frogs and salamanders, but reveals far smaller differences in permeability among landscape types than those used in most models.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Taylor's law and body size in exploited marine ecosystems (pages 3168–3178)

      Joel E. Cohen, Michael J. Plank and Richard Law

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.418

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      In this paper, a mathematical model is used to predict that marine size spectra obey Taylor's Law with an exponent of close to 2. The model also predicts that a balanced harvesting approach to fishing disrupts this type of natural pattern less than traditional size-at-entry fishing.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (pages 3179–3185)

      Deanna M. Soper, Lynda F. Delph and Curt M. Lively

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.408

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      Populations of the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, are known to coevolve with a sterilizing trematode. This evolutionary dynamic predicts that females should attempt to genetically diversify their broods in order to produce rare offspring genotypes that are not likely to become infected. One way for females to accomplish this is through polyandry that results in multiple paternity, here we show that sexual females from two populations exhibit multiple paternity.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of ozone on zinc and cadmium accumulation in wheat – dose–response functions and relationship with protein, grain yield, and harvest index (pages 3186–3194)

      Håkan Pleijel

      Article first published online: 16 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.423

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      Grain from wheat exposed to ozone had significantly higher zinc concentrations, while cadmium was not affected. The effect on zinc was strongly correlated with but almost twice as large as on nitrogen. The removal per unit area of zinc was not influenced by ozone, but the removal of cadmium was significantly negatively affected.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence of stable genetic structure across a remote island archipelago through self-recruitment in a widely dispersed coral reef fish (pages 3195–3213)

      Mark A. Priest, Andrew R. Halford and Jennifer L. McIlwain

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.260

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      For the majority of marine organisms a pelagic larval stage provides the primary mechanism for dispersal amongst often spatially fragmented habitat patches. The degree to which larvae disperse and populations are subsequently connected may have a profound influence on the population dynamics of a species. We used microsatellite markers to assess the population genetic structure of the scribbled rabbitfish Siganus spinus in the western Pacific. This species is a culturally important food fish in the Mariana Archipelago and subject to high fishing pressure. Our results confirm the relative isolation of the southern Mariana Islands population and highlight how local processes can act to isolate populations that, by virtue of their broad-scale distribution, have been subject to traditionally high gene flows.

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      Evolution of reproductive isolation as a by-product of divergent life-history evolution in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster (pages 3214–3226)

      Shampa M. Ghosh and Amitabh Joshi

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.413

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      We show that long-term selection for rapid development and early reproduction in laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster led to the evolution of reproductive isolation between the selected populations and their ancestral controls presumably due to body size divergence. Small females of fast developing lines show high mortality rate after mating with large ancestral line males giving rise to unidirectional postcopulatory prezygotic isolation. Small males from the fast developing lines, on the other hand, obtain few matings with large control line females showing evolution of a premating barrier in the other direction. Flies from ancestral populations shown in the upper row; lower row showing individuals from fast developing populations.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Invasion history and demographic pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 across European populations of the chestnut blight fungus (pages 3227–3241)

      Sarah F. Bryner, Daniel Rigling and Patrick C. Brunner

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.429

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      We reconstructed the invasion history of the fungal virus Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Europe, which infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Phylogeny and date estimates of population emergence in different European regions suggested that the evolutionary scenarios for CHV-1 and C. parasitica were spatially congruent. The invasion patterns inferred for CHV-1 and C. parasitica in Europe are discussed with respect to geographic, vegetation-related, demographic, economic, and political factors.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Human-induced marine ecological degradation: micropaleontological perspectives (pages 3242–3268)

      Moriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Denise Breitburg, Akira Tsujimoto and Kota Katsuki

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.425

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      We analyzed published microfossil records from 150 studies and reinterpreted them from an ecological degradation perspective. Our results indicated that: (1) ecological degradation in marine systems began significantly earlier in Europe and North America (~1800s) compared with Asia (post-1900) due to earlier industrialization in European and North American countries, (2) ecological degradation accelerated globally in the late 20th century due to post-World War II economic growth, (3) recovery from the degraded state in late 20th century following various restoration efforts and environmental regulations occurred only in limited localities. Microfossils enable reconstruction of the ecological history of the past 102–103 years or even more, and, in conjunction with statistical modeling approach using independent proxy records of climate and human-induced environmental changes, future research will enable workers to address Shifting Baseline Syndrome and separate anthropogenic impact from background natural variability.

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