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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 8

August 2012

Volume 2, Issue 8

Pages i–i, 1781–2090

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.357

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A complex speciation–richness relationship in a simple neutral model (pages 1781–1790)

      Philippe Desjardins-Proulx and Dominique Gravel

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.292

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      The complex speciation–richness relationship in a simple neutral model: as the number of communities in the metacommunity grows, the relationship changes from positive to negative. When we model the metacommunity as a network with only a few communities, the most connected communities are both more diverse and witness more speciation events, but the opposite is true for metacommunities composed of a great number of communities.

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      Inbreeding rate modifies the dynamics of genetic load in small populations (pages 1791–1804)

      Nina Pekkala, K. Emily Knott, Janne S. Kotiaho and Mikael Puurtinen

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.293

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      We studied the effect of inbreeding rate on offspring production and extinction of experimental Drosophila littoralis populations from low to increasing levels of inbreeding. The results suggest that highly deleterious recessive alleles can be purged from small populations, and that at low levels of inbreeding selection is more efficient when inbreeding is slow. However, purging did not protect the small populations from eventual genetic deterioration and extinction.

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      Waterfalls drive parallel evolution in a freshwater goby (pages 1805–1817)

      Yuichi Kano, Shin Nishida and Jun Nakajima

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.295

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      Local populations of Rhinogobius sp. YB above waterfalls found in Iriomote Island were evolved independently from amphidromous R. brunneus, suggesting parallel evolution. Genetic distance between each Rhinogobius sp. YB local population and R. brunneus was significantly correlated with waterfall height due to the constant geological erosion. Simultaneous multiple phases of allopatric/parallel evolution of the goby can be seen because of variations in waterfall height.

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      Shifts in species richness, herbivore specialization, and plant resistance along elevation gradients (pages 1818–1825)

      Loïc Pellissier, Konrad Fiedler, Charlotte Ndribe, Anne Dubuis, Jean-Nicolas Pradervand, Antoine Guisan and Sergio Rasmann

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.296

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      Ecological gradients have been shown to shape species diversity, abundance, and interactions. Here, we show that during radiation into high altitude, butterfly species encounter low plant species richness. This, concomitant with plants being less resistant in altitude, has favored increased butterfly polyphagy when compared to low altitude species.

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      Phylogenetic assessment of filoviruses: how many lineages of Marburg virus? (pages 1826–1833)

      A. Townsend Peterson and Mark T. Holder

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.297

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      We assess the phylogeny of the enigmatic virus family, Filoviridae, which includes Ebola and Marburg viruses. This family has not seen detailed phylogenetic study before; our analyses show the existence of a second species – or at least a distinct lineage – of Marburg virus. Appreciation of the distinctiveness of this lineage has important implications for understanding the biogeography and host associations of the filoviruses.

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      How much can the orientation of G's eigenvectors tell us about genetic constraints? (pages 1834–1842)

      Daniel Berner

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.306

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      Evolutionary quantitative genetic studies increasingly often attempt to infer pleiotropic constraints to evolution based on the eigenvectors of the G matrix. I here use models of genetic architecture to show that this research strategy is flawed because of potential instability in the eigenvectors of G, and their disconnect to genetic architecture arising from spectral decomposition.

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      Evidence of a strong coupling between root exudation, C and N availability, and stimulated SOM decomposition caused by rhizosphere priming effects (pages 1843–1852)

      Per Bengtson, Jason Barker and Sue J. Grayston

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.311

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      The objective of this experiment was to identify links between plant C exudation and belowground C and N turnover caused by rhizosphere priming effects. Our findings suggest that increased belowground allocation of plant C results in a massive stimulation of soil organic matter decomposition, with concurrent release of plant available N. The increase could be assigned to rhizosphere priming effects, and the extent of priming seems to be intimately linked to C and N availability.

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      Large-scale asymmetric introgression of cytoplasmic DNA reveals Holocene range displacement in a North American boreal pine complex (pages 1853–1866)

      Julie Godbout, Francis C. Yeh and Jean Bousquet

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.294

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      Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) are two North American boreal hard pines that hybridize in their zone of contact in western Canada. The main objective of this study was to characterize their patterns of introgression resulting from past and recent gene flow, using cytoplasmic markers having contrasted maternal and paternal inheritance.

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      Rarity and genetic diversity in Indo–Pacific Acropora corals (pages 1867–1888)

      Zoe T. Richards and Madeleine. J. H. van Oppen

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.304

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      Acropora rongelapensis is a recently described species of Acropora. New population genetic data suggest that despite an exceedingly low global population size, this rare species has high genetic diversity resulting from a hybrid ancestry.

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      Hybridization and population structure of the Culex pipiens complex in the islands of Macaronesia (pages 1889–1902)

      Bruno Gomes, Joana Alves, Carla A. Sousa, Marta Santa-Ana, Inês Vieira, Teresa L. Silva, António P.G. Almeida, Martin J. Donnelly and João Pinto

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.307

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      This manuscript describes the population structure and extent of hybridization between two mosquito sibling species, Culex pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus, in the islands of Macaronesia. These species are important vectors of disease. The observed population structure reflects both the biogeography of the islands and historical aspects of human peopling.

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      Atypical reproductive cycles in a population of Sceloporus grammicus (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae) from the Mexican Plateau (pages 1903–1913)

      Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista, Barry P. Stephenson, Abraham Lozano, Héctor Uribe-Rodríguez and Adrian Leyte Manrique

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.310

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      Adult female of Sceloporus grammicus from Tepeapulco, Hidalgo, México. Interpopulation variation, Life history, Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in lizard.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Limited condition dependence of male acoustic signals in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus (pages 1914–1921)

      Alexandra Franzke and Klaus Reinhold

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.309

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      Male condition is likely to be correlated with male acoustic signal traits, which signal male quality and provide choosy females indirect benefits. We tested whether stressing food plants influence acoustic signal traits of males via a condition-dependent expression of these traits. We suggest that food plant stress and therefore food plant quality led to shifts in loudness of male grasshopper songs via body condition changes.

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      Strength of density feedback in census data increases from slow to fast life histories (pages 1922–1934)

      Salvador Herrando-Pérez, Steven Delean, Barry W. Brook and Corey J. A. Bradshaw

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.298

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      Life history leaves an evolutionary signal in long-term density feedbacks estimated from census data across species of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Where there is a lack of detailed demographic data, broad life-history information can inform about a population's rebound capacity from low numbers and propensity to fluctuate.

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      Fungal soil communities in a young transgenic poplar plantation form a rich reservoir for fungal root communities (pages 1935–1948)

      L. Danielsen, A. Thürmer, P. Meinicke, M. Buée, E. Morin, F. Martin, G. Pilate, R. Daniel, A. Polle and M. Reich

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.305

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      Fungal communities are playing key roles in ecosystem functioning. However, only scarce knowledge exists about their assemblages in roots and soil of biomass plantations. The goal of this study was to analyze fungal biodiversity in their belowground habitats and to gain information on the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal colonization strategy. In a 2-year-old plantation, fungal communities in soil and roots of transgenetically modified poplars were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing using rDNA ITS1 region as the target region.

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      From where did the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) originate? (pages 1949–1957)

      Fan Han, Andreas Wallberg and Matthew T. Webster

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.312

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      The native range of the honeybee Apis mellifera encompasses Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, but its origins are unclear. This analysis of >1000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from individuals across this range suggests that previous reports of an African origin are not well supported, favoring instead an origin in Asia, where all of the other Apis species are found.

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      Adaptive radiation in extremophilic Dorvilleidae (Annelida): diversification of a single colonizer or multiple independent lineages? (pages 1958–1970)

      Daniel J. Thornhill, Torsten H. Struck, Brigitte Ebbe, Raymond W. Lee, Guillermo F. Mendoza, Lisa A. Levin and Kenneth M. Halanych

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.314

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      At methane seeps along the Cascadian margin, sulfide-tolerant dorvilleid annelids dominate the benthos. A combination of preadaptation to high-sulfide and low-oxygen conditions, release from predation and competition, and resource specialization probably enabled multiple lineages of these worms to invade cold seeps and radiate into a diverse species assemblage.

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      Variation in predator species abundance can cause variable selection pressure on warning signaling prey (pages 1971–1976)

      Janne K. Valkonen, Ossi Nokelainen, Martti Niskanen, Janne Kilpimaa, Mats Björklund and Johanna Mappes

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.315

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      If some predator species are capable of coping with the secondary defenses of prey, selection can favor reduced conspicuousness of signaling via reduced detectability or recognition of the prey. In this study, we combine data collected during three large-scale field experiments to assess whether the variation in avian predator species affects the predation pressure on warningly and non-warning colored artificial snakes. Predation pressure varied among locations and interestingly, if common buzzards were abundant, there were disadvantages of warning signaling snakes.

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      Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) (pages 1977–1984)

      Dominique A. Potvin and Kirsten M. Parris

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.320

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      We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Results of meme comparisons and partial redundancy analysis of repertoires provided support for the role of acoustic adaptation in shaping urban silvereye dialects.

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      The effect of nutrient enrichment on the growth, nucleic acid concentrations, and elemental stoichiometry of coral reef macroalgae (pages 1985–1995)

      Ruth Reef, John M. Pandolfi and Catherine E. Lovelock

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.330

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      Tropical reef macroalgae play an important role in the coral reef ecosystem. We measured the effect of elevated nutrient concentrations on macro algae physiology by linking the relative element content of organisms to algal growth rate and investment in ribosomes. We found that these coral reef algae do not maintain the stoichiometry that would facilitate maximum growth rates but instead invest in luxury uptake of phosphate for future use in a unique adaptation to the low and patchy nutrient environment in many tropical waters.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genome-wide and molecular evolution analysis of the Poplar KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family (pages 1996–2004)

      Caiyun He, Kai Cui, Aiguo Duan, Yanfei Zeng and Jianguo Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.299

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      In this study, with genome-wide in-depth investigation, 31 Poplar KT/HAK/KUP transporter genes including six pairs of tandem duplicated and eight pairs of segmental duplicated paralogs have been identified, suggesting segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of this family in Poplar.

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      Abnormally high digestive enzyme activity and gene expression explain the contemporary evolution of a Diabrotica biotype able to feed on soybeans (pages 2005–2017)

      Matías J. Curzi, Jorge A. Zavala, Joseph L. Spencer and Manfredo J. Seufferheld

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.331

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      Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) (WCR) depends on the continuous availability of corn. Broad adoption of annual crop rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) exploited WCR biology to provide excellent WCR control, but this practice dramatically reduced landscape heterogeneity in East-central Illinois and imposed intense selection pressure. This selection resulted in behavioral changes and ‘rotation-resistant’ (RR) WCR adults. Our data strongly suggest that higher constitutive activity of cathepsin L and differential gene expression are components of the mechanism that enables U.S. Corn Belt populations of WCR that enter soybean fields to circumvent soybean defenses, and thus, crop rotation. These new insights into the mechanism of WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory transcend the issue of RR WCR diagnostics and management to link changes in insect gut proteolytic activity and behavior with landscape heterogeneity. The RR WCR illustrates how agro-ecological factors can affect the evolution of insects in human-altered ecosystems.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita) (pages 2018–2026)

      N. Oromi, A. Richter-Boix, D. Sanuy and J. Fibla

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.323

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      The natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. We analyzed the altitudinal and latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita using genetic diversity parameters. Genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period.

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      The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. XI. Joint evolution of plasticity and dispersal rate (pages 2027–2039)

      Samuel M. Scheiner, Michael Barfield and Robert D. Holt

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.327

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      In a spatially heterogeneous environment, the rate at which individuals move among habitats affects whether selection favors phenotypic plasticity or genetic differentiation, with high dispersal rates favoring trait plasticity. We examined the effects of their joint evolution on selection for plasticity using an individual-based computer simulation model. When dispersal rate and trait plasticity evolve jointly, the system tends to dichotomous outcomes of either high trait plasticity and high dispersal, or low trait plasticity and low dispersal.

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      The disappearing northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens): conservation genetics and implications for remnant populations in western Nevada (pages 2040–2056)

      Serena D. Rogers and Mary M. Peacock

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.308

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      Global amphibian declines suggest a major shift in the amount and quality of habitat for these sensitive taxa. The northern leopard frog (Rana [Lithobates] pipiens] has undergone significant declines particularly in the western United States and Canada. The western Nevada populations are geographically isolated and highly differentiated from each other and populations in eastern Nevada.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands (pages 2057–2071)

      Salote S. Waqairatu, Leanne Dierens, Jeff A. Cowley, Tom J. Dixon, Karyn N. Johnson, Andrew C. Barnes and Yutao Li

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.316

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      Phylogenetic analyses of the Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) from its natural range of Indo-Pacific distribution including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were conducted. The data identified that shrimp from Fiji were genetically distinct, but shrimp from Palau and PNG were genetically similar to shrimp indigenous to Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively. The data supported shrimp from the South Pacific (Palau, PNG, and Fiji) being colonized relatively recently by neighboring populations closest in proximity.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pacific Walrus and climate change: observations and predictions (pages 2072–2090)

      James G. MacCracken

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.317

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      The extent and duration of sea-ice habitats used by Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are diminishing resulting in altered walrus behavior, mortality, and distribution. Associated stressors were modeled as most likely-case, worst-case, and best-case scenarios for the mid- and late-21st century, resulting in four comprehensive working hypotheses that can help identify and prioritize management and research projects, identify comprehensive mitigation actions, and guide monitoring programs to track future developments and adjust programs as needed.

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