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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 9

September 2012

Volume 2, Issue 9

Pages i–i, 2091–2366

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    5. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (page i)

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.380

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    5. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic diversity is positively associated with fine-scale momentary abundance of an invasive ant (pages 2091–2105)

      Monica A. M. Gruber, Benjamin D. Hoffmann, Peter A. Ritchie and Philip J. Lester

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.313

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      Invasive ants are ecologically successful in an array of new habitats. Why? We test the hypothesis that there is an association between the genetic diversity of invasive ants and density-dependent effects in invaded communities. We found a significant positive association between Anoplolepis gracilipes genetic diversity and abundance, and effects on invaded ant communities were density dependent. The relative importance of genetic diversity to invasion success may be context dependent, and the role of genetic diversity may be more obvious in the absence of highly favorable novel ecological conditions.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sequence polymorphisms in wild, weedy, and cultivated rice suggest seed-shattering locus sh4 played a minor role in Asian rice domestication (pages 2106–2113)

      Yongqing Zhu, Norman C. Ellstrand and Bao-Rong Lu

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.318

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      Spikelets of perennial common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). This grass species with strong seed shattering is considered the direct ancestor of Asian cultivated rice domesticated ~8000 years ago (Normile 1997; Zong et al. 2007). The change from seed shattering of a wild species to seed persistence is the key process in crop domestication.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population structure of the butternut canker fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, in North American forests (pages 2114–2127)

      K. D. Broders, A. Boraks, A. M. Sanchez and G. J. Boland

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.332

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      The results of this study demonstrate the importance of multiple emergence or introduction events that allow fungal forest pathogens to become established in a new environment. This study also represents the first large-scale study on the genetic diversity of the invasive forest pathogen Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, and demonstrates that there is greater diversity in North America Oc-j populations than previously thought.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Canid hybridization: contemporary evolution in human-modified landscapes (pages 2128–2140)

      Astrid V. Stronen, Nathalie Tessier, Hélène Jolicoeur, Paul C. Paquet, Michel Hénault, Mario Villemure, Brent R. Patterson, Tim Sallows, Gloria Goulet and François-Joseph Lapointe

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.335

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      Formerly allopatric species appear especially susceptible to hybridization, and we evaluated levels of wolf-coyote hybridization in regions where coyotes were present (the Canadian Prairies) and absent historically (Québec in eastern Canada). On the Prairies, 6.3% of coyotes and 9.2% of wolves had genetic profiles suggesting wolf-coyote hybridization, whereas 12.6% of coyotes and 37.4% of wolves in Québec had profiles indicating hybrid origin. Our results suggest that hybridization is more frequent in historically allopatric populations, and range shifts, now expected across taxa following climate change and other human influence on the environment, might therefore promote contemporary evolution by hybridization.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diversifying and correlational selection on behavior toward conspecific and heterospecific competitors in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) (pages 2141–2154)

      Kathryn S. Peiman and Beren W. Robinson

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.339

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      Behavior toward heterospecifics and conspecifics may be correlated because of shared mechanisms of expression in both social contexts (nonadaptive covariation), or because correlational selection favors adaptive covariation. Brook stickleback sociability was consistently correlated toward conspecifics and heterospecifics from three populations sympatric with a competitor, but not in populations allopatric from this competitor. Correlations between social contexts for both overt aggression and activity varied in a way unrelated to sympatry, suggesting that these behaviors may covary for nonadaptive reasons.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus (pages 2155–2167)

      Jose C. Noguera, Rebecca Dean, Caroline Isaksson, Alberto Velando and Tommaso Pizzari

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.300

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      Determining the extent to which oxidative stress contributes to the senescence of sexually selected traits is key to better understand the evolution of male life-history strategies and the fitness consequences of mate preferences. Here, we examine the expression of multiple pre- and post-mating reproductive traits in relation to age-related changes in oxidative status in the red junglefowl Gallus gallus.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss (pages 2168–2180)

      Morgan S. Pratchett, Darren J. Coker, Geoffrey P. Jones and Philip L. Munday

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.321

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      It is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, but this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study quantified habitat specialization for six coral-dwelling pomacentrids (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related this to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. Proportional declines in the abundance of damselfishes corresponded closely with their specific reliance on live corals, but among coral-dependent damselfishes highly specialized species experienced much more pronounced population declines compared with generalists.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cascading trait-mediated interactions induced by ant pheromones (pages 2181–2191)

      Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Heidi Liere, Estelí J. Soto and Ivette Perfecto

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.322

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      We experimentally demonstrate a cascade of trait-mediated indirect interactions involving two TMII units: (1) an ant–hemipteran mutualism unit, where the ants interfere with the ability of coccinellid predators to attack scale insects, and (2) a phorid fly-ant-hemipteran unit where the phorid flies reduce the foraging activity of the ants thus reducing their ability to interfere with the coccinellid predator. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the gravid female coccinellid beetles indeed eavesdrop on the ant pheromone to find a window of opportunity to oviposit and hide their eggs in high-quality microsites with high densities of their prey. This level of tight connection between a beetle predator and an ant that tends a hemipteran prey is unique in the scientific literature.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Contemporary ocean warming and freshwater conditions are related to later sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon spawning in Norwegian rivers (pages 2192–2203)

      Jaime Otero, Arne J. Jensen, Jan Henning L'Abée-Lund, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Geir O. Storvik, and Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.337

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      Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reaches maturity after a single (1SW) or multiple winters at sea (MSW). The proportion of 1SW fish relative to 1SW and 2SW fish pertaining to the same smolt cohort angled in multiple Norwegian rivers has decreased over the cohorts 1991–2005. The increase in age at maturity was related to the increasing sea surface temperature experienced by the fish in autumn during their first year at sea, and to higher water discharge during summer months 1 year ahead of seaward migration.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments (pages 2204–2212)

      Einat Karpestam, Sami Merilaita and Anders Forsman

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.338

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      We use humans as “predators” on prey images on computer screens to test the hypothesis that the protective value of melanistic coloration depends on the visual background. Our results demonstrate that the risk of detection for black prey is highest in nonburnt habitats, and decreases with increasing degree of burnt matter in habitats that have been blackened by fire. These findings corroborate the notion that camouflage and predation may be important drivers of evolutionary modifications of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Homoploid hybrid origin of Yucca gloriosa: intersectional hybrid speciation in Yucca (Agavoideae, Asparagaceae) (pages 2213–2222)

      Jeremy D. Rentsch and Jim Leebens-Mack

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.328

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      Here, we describe the homoploid hybrid origin of Yucca gloriosa as the result of a cross between distinct sections of the genus. This species appears to be reproductively isolated from its parents and reproducing to create later-generation hybrids.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hitchhiking with forests: population genetics of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria in primeval and managed forests in southeastern Europe (pages 2223–2240)

      Christoph Scheidegger, Peter O. Bilovitz, Silke Werth, Ivo Widmer and Helmut Mayrhofer

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.341

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      We found significant associations between groups of tree species and two L. pulmonaria genepools, which may indicate “hitchhiking” of this lichen species on forest communities during postglacial migration. Genepool B of L. pulmonaria was associated with European Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and we hypothesize that genepool B survived the last glaciation associated within the refuge of European Beech on the Coastal and Central Dinarides. The allelic richness of genepool A was highest in the Alps, which is evidence for a northern refuge of L. pulmonaria. Vicariant altitudinal distributions of the two genepools suggest intraspecific ecological differentiation. Gene diversity was higher in primeval than in managed forests.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temperature alters reproductive life history patterns in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a lethal pathogen associated with the global loss of amphibians (pages 2241–2249)

      Jamie Voyles, Leah R. Johnson, Cheryl J. Briggs, Scott D. Cashins, Ross A. Alford, Lee Berger, Lee F. Skerratt, Rick Speare and Erica Bree Rosenblum

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.334

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      Temperature alters development of fungal pathogens such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a lethal pathogen of amphibians. Yet, it is not clear how this pathogen maintains high virulence in low (sub-optimal) temperatures. We investigated how Bd responds to temperature treatments when serially propagated in different thermal conditions and found differences in life history characteristics that could explain why Bd maintains high levels of virulence in suboptimal thermal conditions.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Fragmentation reduces regional-scale spatial genetic structure in a wind-pollinated tree because genetic barriers are removed (pages 2250–2261)

      Rong Wang, Stephen G. Compton, Yi-Su Shi and Xiao-Yong Chen

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.344

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      This study compares the pre- and post-fragmentation genetic structure of populations of Castanopsis sclerophylla where pollen and seed dispersal respond differentially to forest fragmentation generated by flooding. We found no significant difference in genetic diversity between pre- and post-fragmentation cohorts. Significant genetic structure was observed in pre-fragmentation cohorts, due to an unknown genetic barrier that had isolated one small population. Among post-fragmentation cohorts this genetic barrier had disappeared and genetic structure was significantly weakened, due to enhanced pollen dispersal.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in Stylidium hispidum: implications for mixing seed sources for ecological restoration (pages 2262–2273)

      Kristina M. Hufford, Siegfried L. Krauss and Erik J. Veneklaas

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.302

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      The detection of an optimal intermediate outcrossing distance for early life stages of Stylidium hispidum indicates that both inbreeding and outbreeding depression affect population fitness. These results are discussed in light of the evolutionary consequences of mixing seed sources for biodiversity restoration.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Out of Florida: mtDNA reveals patterns of migration and Pleistocene range expansion of the Green Anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) (pages 2274–2284)

      Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Rachel M. Goodman, Niclas Backström, Scott V. Edwards, Jonathan B. Losos and Jason J. Kolbe

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.324

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      The Green Anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) is an emerging model species and the sole member of its genus native to the United States. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequence data reveal five well-supported, geographically distinct mitochondrial haplotype clades throughout the southeastern United States. Most Florida populations fall into one of three divergent clades, whereas the vast majority of populations outside Florida belong to a single, shallowly diverged clade.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Choice of hydrogen uptake (Hup) status in legume-rhizobia symbioses (pages 2285–2290)

      Henry Annan, Amber-Leigh Golding, Yinping Zhao and Zhongmin Dong

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.325

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      Hydrogen gas is an obligate by-product of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Some root nodules in leguminous plants contain the Hup gene, which codes for the enzyme hydrogenase and enables these nodules to recycle the hydrogen gas produced. While Hup symbiotic relationships with the root nodules of leguminous plants are often viewed as energetically inefficient as compared with the Hup+ symbioses, this work shows that there may be significant benefits of Hup associations which cause them to be more prevalent in nature.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Geographic mosaic of symbiont selectivity in a genus of epiphytic cyanolichens (pages 2291–2303)

      Katja Fedrowitz, Ulla Kaasalainen and Jouko Rikkinen

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.343

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      We analyzed the genetic diversity of Nephroma mycobionts and their associated Nostoc photobionts to exemplify symbiont diversity patterns on a global scale.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Variation in resistance to multiple pathogen species: anther smuts of Silene uniflora (pages 2304–2314)

      Erin Chung, Elsa Petit, Janis Antonovics, Amy B. Pedersen and Michael E. Hood

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.346

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      The occurrence of multiple pathogen species on a shared host is unexpected when they exploit the same micro-niche within the host. One explanation for such observations is the evolution of pathogen-specific resistances that segregate the host population into sites that are differentially occupied by the competing pathogens. This study used experimental inoculations to test whether specific resistances may contribute to the maintenance of two anther-smut fungi in natural populations of Silene uniflora in England and Wales.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unique haplotypes in ant-attended aphids and widespread haplotypes in non-attended aphids (pages 2315–2324)

      Izumi Yao and Takashi Kanbe

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.348

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      In the examination of genetic structure of Tuberculatus aphids in Japan, ant-attended T. quercicola aphids have unique haplotypes, whereas non-attended T. paiki have widespread haplotypes. These results suggested that following T. quercicola colonization, gene flow among populations was limited, resulting in genetic drift within populations.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Y-chromosome evidence supports widespread signatures of three-species Canis hybridization in eastern North America (pages 2325–2332)

      Paul J. Wilson, Linda Y. Rutledge, Tyler J. Wheeldon, Brent R. Patterson and Bradley N. White

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.301

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      We detected divergent Y-chromosome haplotypes in the historic range of the eastern wolf that are concordant with earlier mitochondrial DNA findings that support the existence of the North American evolved eastern wolf, Canis lycaon. The natural contemporary eastern Canis populations represent an important example of widespread introgression resulting in adaptive hybrid genomes across the original C. lycaon range that appears to be facilitated by the eastern wolf acting as a conduit for hybridization. Applying conventional taxonomic nomenclature and species-based conservation initiatives, particularly in human-modified landscapes, may be counter-productive to the effective management of these hybrids and fails to consider their evolutionary potential.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Weak patriline effects are present in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of isolated Formica exsecta ants but they disappear in the colony environment (pages 2333–2346)

      Stephen Martin, Kalevi Trontti, Sue Shemilt, Falko Drijfhout, Roger Butlin and Duncan Jackson

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.319

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      Genetic variation in the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of F. exsecta ants (n-alkanes and Z9-alkenes) may result in differences among patrilines, but these become obscured in the colony environment.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interactive effects between diet and genotypes of host and pathogen define the severity of infection (pages 2347–2356)

      Ji Zhang, Ville-Petri Friman, Jouni Laakso and Johanna Mappes

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.356

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      Our results demonstrate that the relative benefit of tiger moth larval cuticular melanin depends on both diet quality and pathogen virulence: plantain diet only boosted the immunity of already resistant ‘high melanin’ hosts, and cuticular melanin increased larval survival only when infected with moderately virulent pathogen.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    5. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effective/census population size ratio estimation: a compendium and appraisal (pages 2357–2365)

      Friso P. Palstra and Dylan J. Fraser

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.329

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      Annual trends of empirical studies on contemporary N e based on genetic data.

  4. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    5. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pacific Walrus and climate change: observations and predictions (page 2366)

      James G. MacCracken

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.381

      This article corrects:

      Pacific Walrus and climate change: observations and predictions

      Vol. 2, Issue 8, 2072–2090, Article first published online: 22 JUL 2012

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