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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 10

September 2013

Volume 3, Issue 10

Pages i–ii, 3195–3636

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.821

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally (pages 3195–3203)

      David T. S. Hayman, Katherine D. McDonald and Michael Y. Kosoy

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.702

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      Our analyses of 191 gltA sequences of rat associated bartonellae from around the world test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rodents to other parts of the globe. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa (pages 3204–3218)

      Karl Gruber, Caspar Schöning, Marianne Otte, Wanja Kinuthia and Martin Hasselmann

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.711

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      Morphometric differences exist among workers sampled in distinct Kenyan regions linked to altitude. The degree of genetic differentiation among these populations suggest a phenotypic plastic response to the environment.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial phenotypic and genetic structure of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a heterogeneous natural system, Lake Mývatn, Iceland (pages 3219–3232)

      Antoine Millet, Bjarni K. Kristjánsson, Árni Einarsson and Katja Räsänen

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.712

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      In this study, we investigated fine scale phenotypic and genetic structure of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) within the heterogeneous Lake Mývatn (Iceland). Our results showed different levels of phenotypic divergence among habitats despite low neutral genetic structure. Overall, our results indicate ecologically mediated phenotypic divergence despite extensive gene flow.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure and demographic history of the endangered tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (Meliaceae) in Western Ghats, India: implications for conservation in a biodiversity hotspot (pages 3233–3248)

      Sofia Bodare, Yoshiaki Tsuda, Gudasalamani Ravikanth, Ramanan Uma Shaanker and Martin Lascoux

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.669

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      The endangered and economically important tree species Dysoxylum malabaricum (white cedar) shows extensive gene flow at chloroplast and nuclear markers among populations separated by natural barriers. Gene diversity and allelic richness did not differ between older and younger cohorts, but signs of a recent bottleneck and higher inbreeding was evident in the more severely disturbed northern populations. Based on analysis of genetic structure, four population clusters are recommended as units for conservation management.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah (pages 3249–3262)

      Renato Cintra, William E. Magnusson and Ana Albernaz

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.700

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      We found that the organization and composition of bird communities in an Amazonian savannah in forest fragments isolated for hundreds to thousand years are affected by local long-term forest fragmentation processes.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tropical rain forest conservation and the twin challenges of diversity and rarity (pages 3263–3274)

      Stephen P. Hubbell

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.705

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      Data from a global network of large, permanent plots in lowland tropical forests demonstrate (1) that the phenomenon of tropical tree rarity is real and (2) that almost all of the species diversity in such forests is due to rare species. Theoretical and empirically-based reasoning suggests that many of these rare species are not as geographically widespread as previously thought. Successful strategies for conserving global tree diversity in lowland tropical forests must pay much more attention to the biogeography of rarity, and the impact of climate change on the distribution and abundance of rare species.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism? (pages 3275–3282)

      Jahnavi Joshi and Praveen Karanth

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.603

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      We suggest that the southern Western Ghats of India acted as a refuge during the Cretaceous Volcanism to a group of terrestrial predatory invertebrates inhabiting the tropical wet forests of the Western Ghats.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Identification of molecular and physiological responses to chronic environmental challenge in an invasive species: the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (pages 3283–3297)

      Melody S. Clark, Michael A. S. Thorne, Ana Amaral, Florbela Vieira, Frederico M. Batista, João Reis and Deborah M. Power

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.719

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      We show that temperature affects condition of the Pacific oyster more than reduced pH. The genes upregulated in response to chronic stress in the Pacific oyster are very different to those previously reported in short-term studies, highlighting the difference between the acute and chronic stress response.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Age-specific responses to spring temperature in a migratory songbird: older females attempt more broods in warmer springs (pages 3298–3306)

      L. Bulluck, S. Huber, C. Viverette and C. Blem

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.673

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      We used a long-term reproductive data set for a migratory songbird, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) to assess which factors influence (a) an individual female's probability of double brooding and (b) the annual variation in population-level double brooding rates. We found that older and earlier nesting birds are more likely to double brood and previous experience (i.e., whether the female double brooded in the previous year) significantly increased the probability of doing so again. When assessing annual variation in double brooding rate, we found that older females are more likely to double brood in years with warmer springs, but this relationship was not seen for younger females.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dramatic response to climate change in the Southwest: Robert Whittaker's 1963 Arizona Mountain plant transect revisited (pages 3307–3319)

      Richard C. Brusca, John F. Wiens, Wallace M. Meyer, Jeff Eble, Kim Franklin, Jonathan T. Overpeck and Wendy Moore

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.720

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      We re-examined Robert Whittaker's 1963 plant transect in the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona, finding large changes in the elevational ranges of common montane plants over the past 5 decades, during which time mean annual temperatures have increased significantly. Although elevational changes of species are individualistic, significant overall upward movement of the lower elevation boundaries, and elevational range contractions, have occurred. This study confirms that previous hypotheses are correct in their prediction that mountain communities in the Southwest will be strongly impacted by warming, and that the Southwest is already experiencing a rapid vegetation change.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Origin and demographic history of the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) (pages 3320–3333)

      Sofia Bodare, Michael Stocks, Jeng-Chuann Yang and Martin Lascoux

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.698

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      The origin and demographic history has been inferred in the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola). We find that the Chinese mainland species Picea wilsonii is the closes relative and that the split likely occured 1–2 mya. Picea morrisonicola has subsequently gone through a severe bottleneck during the Pleistocene ice ages and its nucleotide diversity is today limited.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate change, species distribution models, and physiological performance metrics: predicting when biogeographic models are likely to fail (pages 3334–3346)

      Sarah A. Woodin, Thomas J. Hilbish, Brian Helmuth, Sierra J. Jones and David S. Wethey

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.680

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      The application of models for anticipating the biogeographic consequences of climate change mandates that we have confidence in model predictions under what are often novel environmental conditions. However, models generated using data from one location often fail when extended to new locales or new epochs, and such instances have been used as prima facie evidence of a change in physiological tolerance, that is, a fundamental niche shift. We explore an alternative explanation and propose a method for predicting the likelihood of failure based on metrics from physiological performance curves and environmental variance in the original and new environments.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sweeping beauty: is grassland arthropod community composition effectively estimated by sweep netting? (pages 3347–3358)

      Ryan D. Spafford and Christopher J. Lortie

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.688

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      The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweep netting was effective at estimating arthropod diversity at the community-level in grasslands or if supplemental pan trapping was needed. Both sampling methods were assessed using three standardized evaluation criteria: consistency, reliability, and precision. Neither sampling method was sufficient in any criteria to be used alone for community-level arthropod surveys, however for certain taxa a single method could be deemed sufficient.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Less can be more: loss of MHC functional diversity can reflect adaptation to novel conditions during fish invasions (pages 3359–3368)

      Catalina Monzón-Argüello, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz, Gonzalo Gajardo and Sofia Consuegra

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.701

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      By comparing functional (immune-related) and neutral genetic diversity in invasive rainbow trout, we found that functional genetic diversity can be lost rapidly during adaptation to novel conditions and thus, although high genetic diversity may initially enhance fitness in translocated populations, it does not necessarily reflect invasion success.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Experimental demonstration of accelerated extinction in source-sink metapopulations (pages 3369–3378)

      John M. Drake and Blaine D. Griffen

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.713

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      Population extinction is a fundamental ecological process which may be aggravated by the exchange of organisms between productive (source) and unproductive (sink) habitat patches. The extent to which such source-sink exchange affects extinction rates is unknown. We conducted an experiment in which metapopulation effects could be distinguished from source-sink effects in laboratory populations of Daphnia magna. Our results confirm that where environments are spatially heterogeneous, accurate assessments of extinction risk will require understanding the exchange of organisms among population sources and sinks.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mixed asexual and sexual reproduction in the Indo-Pacific reef coral Pocillopora damicornis (pages 3379–3387)

      David J. Combosch and Steven V. Vollmer

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.721

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      This study provides the first detailed genetic analyses of the unusual, simultaneously mixed reproductive strategy in the important reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. The proportion of sexual larvae varied with colony size, reproductive cycle day and general calendar day. In particular, the decrease in the production of sexually produced larvae with increasing colony size, suggests that the mixed reproductive strategy changes across the life of the coral, which has important ecological and evolutionary consequences.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Population genetics structure of glyphosate-resistant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers) does not support a single origin of the resistance (pages 3388–3400)

      Luis Fernández, Luis Alejandro de Haro, Ana J. Distefano, Maria Carolina Martínez, Verónica Lía, Juan C. Papa, Ignacio Olea, Daniela Tosto and Horacio Esteban Hopp

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.671

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      Single sequence repeats (SSR) developed for Sorghum bicolor were used to characterize the genetic distance of different Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) accessions from Argentina some of which have evolved toward glyphosate resistance. UPGMA, Mantel, and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components analysis showed that Johnsongrass glyphosate-resistant accessions that belong to different geographic regions do not share similar genetic backgrounds. Consequently, these results do not support a single genetic origin of glyphosate resistance.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Predicting rarity and decline in animals, plants, and mushrooms based on species attributes and indicator groups (pages 3401–3414)

      C. J. M. Musters, Vincent Kalkman and Arco van Strien

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.699

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      Random forests make it possible to accurately predict the rarity and decline of many species via their traits. This method can be used to estimate the threat to complete faunas and floras of countries or regions. Vertebrates indicate all animals well, as do birds for all vertebrates and vascular plants for all plants, but butterflies are poor indicators of all insects.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      “Forms” of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia): intraspecific variation or valid species? (pages 3415–3435)

      Jeanette Stålstedt, Johannes Bergsten and Fredrik Ronquist

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.704

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      Morphological variants labelled “forms”, “varieties” or “ecomorphs” have been described in numerous taxa, but what they really represent often remains unclear or untested. With recent advances in methods of species delimitation we can explicitly test if sympatrically occurring “forms” merit species status under the unified species concept. We apply morphological, nuclear and mitochondrial data on water mite “forms” with or without prior taxonomical status

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phenotypic plasticity of coralline algae in a High CO2 world (pages 3436–3446)

      Federica Ragazzola, Laura C. Foster, Armin U. Form, Janina Büscher, Thor H. Hansteen and Jan Fietzke

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.723

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      Understanding how marine calcifying organisms such as coralline algae may acclimatize to ocean acidification is important to understand their survival over the coming century. Our results from a culturing experiment suggests a reallocation of the energy budget between over long period and highlights the high degree plasticity that is present. This might provide a selective advantage in future high CO2 world.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Did the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) shape the evolutionary trajectory of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)? (pages 3447–3454)

      C. F. Morris, E. P. Fuerst, B. S. Beecher, D. J. Mclean, C. P. James and H. W. Geng

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.724

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      Wheat kernel texture phenotype of plants grown from uneaten kernels. Hard and soft kernels were given to mice. Allele frequency of hard kernels (dots > 60) was substantially increased.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      How many marker loci are necessary? Analysis of dominant marker data sets using two popular population genetic algorithms (pages 3455–3470)

      Michael F. Nelson and Neil O. Anderson

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.725

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      Simulated dominant marker data sets were used to examine the effect of sample size, number of markers, migration, and unbalanced sampling on the performance of AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance) and STRUCTURE. We found that AMOVA provided accurate results with as few as 30 markers, while STRUCTURE required more particularly when populations were closely related, and the delta K method was strongly affected by unequal sampling. A protocol is provided for determining the number of markers needed, along with R-scripts for adjusting parameters to mimic any given organism.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region (pages 3471–3482)

      Brett A. Werner, W. Carter Johnson and Glenn R. Guntenspergen

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.731

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      We adopt a hindcast simulation approach comparing wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Modeled wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR's) western Canadian prairies show a recent trend toward less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale (pages 3483–3494)

      T. R. Frasier, R. M. Gillett, P. K. Hamilton, M. W. Brown, S. D. Kraus and B. N. White

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.738

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      Pedigree information for the endangered North Atlantic right whale shows that successful fertilizations/pregnancies are biased towards dissimilar gametes. This has resulted in a slight increase in heterozygosity over time, instead of the expected erosion of genetic diversity expected for a small population.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dioecy, more than monoecy, affects plant spatial genetic structure: the case study of Ficus (pages 3495–3508)

      Alison G. Nazareno, Ana L. Alzate-Marin and Rodrigo Augusto S. Pereira

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.739

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      Using the Sp statistic, which allows for quantitative comparisons among different studies, we compared the extent of SGS between monoecious and dioecious Ficus species. To broaden our conclusions we used published data on an additional 27 monoecious and dioecious plant species. Our results show that dioecy more than monoecy significantly affect SGS in plant populations. On average, the estimate of Sp was six times higher for dioecious Ficus species than monoecious Ficus species and it was two times higher in dioecious than monoecious plant species.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay (pages 3509–3523)

      Linda J. Gormezano and Robert F. Rockwell

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.740

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      We analyzed scat contents to characterize the current terrestrial polar bear diet in western Hudson Bay and compared our results to a similar study done in the 1960s to see how the diet has changed since the onset of climate-related changes. We found that polar bears are eating new foods (eggs, caribou) in relative proportion to their availability on the landscape. We discuss whether the diet shift is solely a response to nutritional stress or is another expression of plastic foraging strategy typical of other Ursids.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of structural connectivity on fine scale population genetic structure of muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus (pages 3524–3535)

      Sophie Laurence, Matthew J. Smith and Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.741

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      Our study examined the influence of landscape features on population genetic structure and gene flow of muskrat. A single genetic cluster was identified and no genetic differences were found among the watersheds as a result of high levels of gene flow. Population genetic structure was not influenced by landscape composition, and landscape features had a limited effect on gene flow. Open landscapes and urban areas seemed to restrict but not prevent gene flow and roads may be used as corridors for movements.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Tree size and its relationship with flowering phenology and reproductive output in Wild Nutmeg trees (pages 3536–3544)

      Mauricio Fernández Otárola, Marlies Sazima and Vera N. Solferini

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.742

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      Variability in flowering phenology among individuals can be influenced by plant size. We quantified the flowering intensity, length, and reproductive synchronization of two sympatric dioecious tree species and analyzed their relationships to tree sex and size. We show that the effect of tree size on flowering phenology is dependent on the general phenological strategy and is only present in the annual flowering species. The effect of tree size was stronger in the flowering of males than females.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Distinguishing the importance between habitat specialization and dispersal limitation on species turnover (pages 3545–3553)

      Shixiong Wang, Xiaoan Wang, Hua Guo, Weiyi Fan, Haiying Lv and Renyan Duan

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.745

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      Our results underscore the importance of synthetic models that integrate effects of both dispersal and niche assembly for understanding the community assembly. However, habitat specialization (niche assembly) may not always be the dominant process in community assembly, even under harsh environments. Community assembly may be in a trait-dependent manner (e.g., forest layers in present study). Thus, taking more species traits into account would strengthen our confidence in the inferred assembly mechanisms.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A natural antipredation experiment: predator control and reduced sea ice increases colony size in a long-lived duck (pages 3554–3564)

      Sveinn A. Hanssen, Børge Moe, Bård-Jørgen Bårdsen, Frank Hanssen and Geir W. Gabrielsen

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.735

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      In this study, we examine the effect of egg predation and climate on growth rate and carrying capacity in high-arctic breeding populations of the common eider duck. By comparing population time series from two different colonies where one is within a nature reserve and one is actively managed by a trapper/down collector, we are able to show that reducing the effect of egg predators led to an increase in population growth rate and carrying capacity of the managed colony.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ocean acidification and responses to predators: can sensory redundancy reduce the apparent impacts of elevated CO2 on fish? (pages 3565–3575)

      Oona M. Lönnstedt, Philip L. Munday, Mark I. McCormick, Maud C. O. Ferrari and Douglas P. Chivers

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.684

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      This study examined whether sensory compensation in the presence of multiple sensory cues could reduce the impacts of ocean acidification on anti-predator responses. The results suggest that the response of fish to visual cues may partially compensate for the lack of response to chemical cues, increasing the likelihood of survival in acidified oceans.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Quantitative genetic analysis of responses to larval food limitation in a polyphenic butterfly indicates environment- and trait-specific effects (pages 3576–3589)

      Marjo Saastamoinen, Jon E. Brommer, Paul M. Brakefield and Bas J. Zwaan

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.718

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      We assessed phenotypic responses and quantified heritabilies of key life-history traits of tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana under two different developmental conditions, temperature and food limitation. Development time, pupal mass, and resting metabolic rate showed no genotype-by-environment interaction for genetic variation. However, traits most intimately related to seasonal polyphenism in B. anynana, thorax ratio and fat percentage, showed the most environmental specific genetic variance as well as some indication of cross-environmental genetic correlations. (Photo credits A: Oskar Brattström & B: Andre Coetzer)

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multivariate sexual selection on male song structure in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans (Orthoptera: Haglidae) (pages 3590–3603)

      Geoffrey D. Ower, Kevin A. Judge, Sandra Steiger, Kyle J. Caron, Rebecca A. Smith, John Hunt and Scott K. Sakaluk

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.736

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      Multivariate sexual selection was measured on the songs of sagebrush crickets captured from wild populations, and female preference for the measured song characters was tested with synthesized male songs broadcast to females in choice trials. Selection favored males producing songs with longer train and pulse durations (PD), but also longer intertrain intervals, suggesting an energetic constraint that necessitates “time outs” from bouts of singing. Playback trials confirmed selection for longer train and PDs, and revealed significant stabilizing selection on dominant frequency, suggesting that the female auditory system is tightly tuned to the species-specific call frequency.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity (pages 3604–3612)

      Hui Zhang, Benjamin Gilbert, Wenbin Wang, Junjie Liu and Shurong Zhou

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.743

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      Our paper is of particular significance in that it is the first to perform the analysis of the patterns of inter- and intraspecific association for all species in a grassland community, and to compare them across a overgrazed and fenced area within a community. We found that overgrazing enhanced intraspecific aggregations and interspecific associations and maintained high diversity at small scales, but resulted in loss of species richness at larger scales.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interior Least Tern (Sternula antillarum) breeding distribution and ecology: implications for population-level studies and the evaluation of alternative management strategies on large, regulated rivers (pages 3613–3627)

      Casey A. Lott, Robert L. Wiley, Richard A. Fischer, Paul D. Hartfield and J. Michael Scott

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.726

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      Large multi-purpose dams, irrigation structures, and engineered navigation systems have resulted in major changes to flow regimes and physical habitat on rivers across the range of federally endangered “interior” Least Terns (ILT). We review historic data on colony locations and dispersal to define discrete ILT population subunits and describe their ecology relative to habitat dynamics that typify the regulation era. We identify major areas of uncertainty to be addressed to improve inferences in population-level studies ranging from population projection models to the evaluation of management actions.

  4. Hypotheses

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The episodic evolution of fibritin: traces of ancient global environmental alterations may remain in the genomes of T4-like phages (pages 3628–3635)

      A. V. Letarov and H. M. Krisch

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.730

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      Despite the clear evidence indicating that the C-terminal domains of the fibritin (collar whiskers) protein in T4-like phages have subjected to extensive modular swapping in the past, the existing distribution of the different types of these domains across T4-like Superfamily is in perfect agreement with the phylogeny of the genome core genes that are believed to evolve vertically. To explain this controversy we speculate that the fibritin genes divergency has been generated during the restricted period of extensive search for the novel forms that ceased. Such a period of accelerated evolution could be provoked by some global environmental alteration or by a catastrophic event.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

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