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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 11

October 2013

Volume 3, Issue 11

Pages i–ii, 3637–4043

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    1. You have open access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.852

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Elevated CO2 affects embryonic development and larval phototaxis in a temperate marine fish (pages 3637–3646)

      Elisabet Forsgren, Sam Dupont, Fredrik Jutfelt and Trond Amundsen

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.709

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      Results from an aquarium experiment demonstrate strong effects of being reared under elevated CO2 conditions on the phototactic response of newly hatched larvae of a temperate goby. Elevated CO2 also increased embryonic malformations and egg loss. These effects could have wide ranging implications for recruitment and population processes in fishes.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Why to account for finite sites in population genetic studies and how to do this with Jaatha 2.0 (pages 3647–3662)

      Lisha A. Mathew, Paul R. Staab, Laura E. Rose and Dirk Metzler

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.722

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      In population genetics it is not always appropriate to neglect finite-sites effects, that is the possibility of back mutations and double hits. The new version of the R package Jaatha allows to estimate parameters of more complex models of population demography and to account for finite-sites effects.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion (pages 3663–3671)

      Anna Deck, Adrianna Muir and Sharon Strauss

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.716

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      We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader-experienced) and uninvaded (invader-naïve) areas were mediated by biotic and abiotic soil changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to soil treatments with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Our results suggest that, like some invasive species, native species may, too, become less sensitive to soil biota when they compete with invaders.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna (pages 3672–3682)

      Marit L. Wilkerson, Leslie M. Roche and Truman P. Young

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.744

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      This study uncovers a novel set of trophic interactions between livestock (cattle), large wild herbivores, a flowering shrub species, and a dominant butterfly pollinator guild. One of the most intriguing results of the study was that in plots where only cattle were allowed to graze, the plant species had higher shrub and flower densities which in turn attracted greater pollinator abundances. The premise and general findings of this study will be useful for land managers in working rangeland systems all over.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Shrub canopies influence soil temperatures but not nutrient dynamics: An experimental test of tundra snow–shrub interactions (pages 3683–3700)

      Isla H. Myers-Smith and David S. Hik

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.710

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      Shrubs are the largest plant life form in tundra ecosystems; therefore, any changes in the abundance of shrubs will feedback to influence ecosystem function. However, previous work has not been able to separate the abiotic from the biotic influences of shrub canopies. We conducted a 3-year canopy manipulation experiment and found that, although shrubs trapped snow and insulated soils in winter and shaded soils in summer, there was no strong evidence of canopy manipulations altering nutrient dynamics. Our results suggest that the abiotic influences of shrub canopy cover on nutrients in tundra ecosystems are weaker than previously asserted.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unexpected genetic differentiation between recently recolonized populations of a long-lived and highly vagile marine mammal (pages 3701–3712)

      Carolina A. Bonin, Michael E. Goebel, Jaume Forcada, Ronald S. Burton and Joseph I. Hoffman

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.732

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      South Georgia (SG) is thought to be the main source population of Antarctic fur seals that recolonized Livingston Island (LI) after their near extirpation in the 19th century. However, by collecting and analyzing genetic data (microsatellites and mtDNA sequences) from these two locations, we found no support for this scenario. Significant genetic differences were detected at both types of marker and several unique mtDNA haplotypes were detected in over half of the individuals sampled at LI. This suggests a more complex recolonization scenario involving additional source populations to SG. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms by which severely depleted populations can recover while maintaining surprisingly high levels of genetic diversity. Photo credit: Oliver Krueger.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia): survey methods, data management, and long-term population trends (pages 3713–3737)

      Sami P. Ojanen, Marko Nieminen, Evgeniy Meyke, Juha Pöyry and Ilkka Hanski

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.733

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      The long-term metapopulation study of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) that has been conducted since 1991 in a large network of 4,000 habitat patches (dry meadows) within a study area of 50 by 70 km in the Åland Islands in Finland. Here, we explain how the landscape structure has been described, including definition, delimitation and mapping of the habitat patches; methods of field survey, including the logistics, cost and reliability of the survey; and data management using the EarthCape biodiversity platform.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of harvesting on spatial and temporal diversity of carbon stocks in a boreal forest landscape (pages 3738–3750)

      Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian, Stephen J. Colombo and Jiaxin Chen

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.751

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      Carbon stocks in managed forests of Ontario, Canada, and in harvested wood products originated from these forests were estimated for 2010–2100. Spatial variation in projected forest carbon stocks and its dependence on forest age and harvesting rate is discussed.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spanish juniper gain expansion opportunities by counting on a functionally diverse dispersal assemblage community (pages 3751–3763)

      Gema Escribano-Ávila, Beatriz Pías, Virginia Sanz-Pérez, Emilio Virgós, Adrián Escudero and Fernando Valladares

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.753

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      Generalist seed dispersers such as carnivores provided more probability of recruitment than specialized dispersers (Turdus spp.) on woodlands and old fields recently colonized.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum (pages 3764–3779)

      Nicolás Cara, Carlos F. Marfil and Ricardo W. Masuelli

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.758

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      Hybridization and polyploidization are important evolutionary forces in plants, as a source of genetic and epigenetic variation. This work present results and discuss about genetic and epigenetic variability in a natural hybrid population of Solanum. Our results show that after hybridization a novel epigenetic pattern is rapidly established and maintained through several generations allowing the adaptation of hybrids to new environments.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Best Practicable Aggregation of Species: a step forward for species surrogacy in environmental assessment and monitoring (pages 3780–3793)

      Stanislao Bevilacqua, Joachim Claudet and Antonio Terlizzi

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.715

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      We proposed a new approach to species surrogacy that is virtually applicable to any environmental context, allowing exploiting multiple surrogate types going beyond the stagnant perspectives which rely on taxonomic relatedness. This prerogative is crucial to extend the concept of species surrogacy to ecological traits of species, thus leading to ecologically meaningful surrogates that, while representing cost-effective tools in reflecting community patterns, may contribute also to unveil underlying processes.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Birth seasonality and calf mortality in a large population of Asian elephants (pages 3794–3803)

      Hannah S. Mumby, Alexandre Courtiol, Khyne U. Mar and Virpi Lummaa

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.746

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      Asian elephants inhabit seasonal environments, but are able to reproduce throughout the year and working elephants also face a seasonal work schedule. We show conceptions peak in the annual rest season and calves conceived in this period also have higher survival rates between the ages of 1 and 5 years. Our results have implications for improving the birth rate and infant survival in captive populations, and for potentially preventing further capture from the wild.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda (pages 3804–3823)

      C. Bulafu, D. Baranga, P. Mucunguzi, R. J. Telford and V. Vandvik

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.747

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      Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, from a myriad of anthropogenic pressures. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remains underresearched. Using re-census data, we show massive forest structure and composition changes in the fragments we study with remnant fragments species richness increment over the re-sample period. We conclude that forest fragments have a role to play in biodiversity conservation at local level although the increasing urban sprawl limits their importance at regional level.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interploidy hybridization in sympatric zones: the formation of Epidendrum fulgens × E. puniceoluteum hybrids (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) (pages 3824–3837)

      Ana P. Moraes, Mariana Chinaglia, Clarisse Palma-Silva and Fábio Pinheiro

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.752

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      Neotropical species diversification is an intriguing area of research and hybridization events are clearly an important part of the process. Hybrid zones formed between Epidendrum species, specially the interploidal hybridization, offer great opportunities for exploring the evolutionary potential of gene flow across ploidy barriers.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Behavioral signature of intraspecific competition and density dependence in colony-breeding marine predators (pages 3838–3854)

      Greg A. Breed, W. Don Bowen and Marty L. Leonard

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.754

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      In the last 35 years the population of gray seals breeding at Sable Island has rapidly grown, here we present evidence that intraspecific competition is causing compensatory density-dependent population regulation.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific variation in the growth and survival of juvenile fish exposed to Eucalyptus leachate (pages 3855–3867)

      John R. Morrongiello, Nicholas R. Bond, David A. Crook and Bob B. M. Wong

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.757

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      Leachates from terrestrial plants alter the physio-chemical environment of fresh waters by lowering pH and dissolved oxygen and also releasing toxic compounds such as polyphenols and tannins, all of which can be detrimental to aquatic organisms. Chronic exposure to elevated leachate levels negatively impacted on the growth and survival of juvenile southern pygmy perch (Nannoperca australis). The magnitude of these lethal and sub-lethal responses was conditional on leachate concentration, body size and source population.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mitochondrial DNA inference between European populations of Tanymastix stagnalis and their glacial survival in Scandinavia (pages 3868–3878)

      Augustine Arukwe and Arnfinn Langeland

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.756

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      The early observation from 1914 of Tanymastix stagnalis in Norway was not repeated recently, showing a rare and restricted distribution of this species. Based on the new biogegraphical distribution, diurnal temperature variations and biological evidence (inference with the analysis of mitochondria DNA), the immigration history of T. stagnalis was considered on the basis of two opposing immigration theories and in relation to the implications of global climate change. Two immigration theories, namely - the Tabula rasa and Nunatak have prevailed in explaining the present distribution of plants and animals in Scandinavia. It was concluded that the rare occurrence of T. stagnalis in Norway fits into the Nunatak theory and that the species probably survived, at least, the last glaciation on Nunataks or coast refuges located in central Northwestern Norway at Møre mountain and coast area.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Disentangling environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in a Mediterranean hotspot (pages 3879–3894)

      Rafael Molina-Venegas, Abelardo Aparicio, Francisco José Pina, Benito Valdés and Juan Arroyo

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.762

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      We determined the environmental correlates of vascular plant diversity of the Baetic-Rifan biodiversity hotspot in the western Mediterranean, based on the whole flora of the region. Despite the fact that southern Spain and northern Morocco are parts of two tectonic plates currently separated by the Strait of Gibraltar, the Baetic and Rifan mountain ranges have many floristic similarities. Climatic variables are associated to the spatial distribution of endemic species richness, whereas elevation and both lithology and elevation were the most significant drivers for nonendemic and endemic beta diversity respectively.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Disentangling environmental correlates of vascular plant biodiversity in a Mediterranean hotspot

      Vol. 3, Issue 14, 4849, Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Asynchronous responses of soil microbial community and understory plant community to simulated nitrogen deposition in a subtropical forest (pages 3895–3905)

      Jianping Wu, Wenfei Liu, Houbao Fan, Guomin Huang, Songze Wan, Yinghong Yuan and Chunfeng Ji

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.750

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      Nitrogen deposition may change above- and belowground biological communities. Our results indicate that N deposition has greater effects on the understory plant community than on the soil microbial community and different conservation strategies should be considered.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Adaptive divergence along environmental gradients in a climate-change-sensitive mammal (pages 3906–3917)

      P. Henry and M. A. Russello

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.776

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      In this paper, we use a genomic scan approach to test for signature of selection along environmental gradients in a climate-change sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). Out of 1509 loci screened, 68 showed evidence for positive selection, 15 of which were strongly correlated with environmental variables such as annual precipitation and maximum summer temperature. As a conclusion, we propose that such markers can be used to inform novel approaches to wildlife conservation in a changing world.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Environmental drivers defining linkages among life-history traits: mechanistic insights from a semiterrestrial amphipod subjected to macroscale gradients (pages 3918–3924)

      Julio Gómez, Francisco R. Barboza and Omar Defeo

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.759

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      This study revealed for the first time, using field data, how environmental drivers define a nexus among multiple traits (senescence, fecundity, embryos size, weight of brooding females, size at maturity and sex ratio) determining life history strategies. Our work highlights the importance of analyzing field data to find the variables and potential mechanisms that define concerted responses among traits.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Degradation of chemical alarm cues and assessment of risk throughout the day (pages 3925–3934)

      Douglas P. Chivers, Danielle L. Dixson, James R. White, Mark I. McCormick and Maud C. O. Ferrari

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.760

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      Our understanding of how animals gain temporal information about risk using chemical information is very limited. Here we showed that chemical alarm cues of coral reef damselfish are quite short lived under natural conditions. The rate of degradation of the cues varies markedly throughout the day with the highest rate of degradation occurring in mid afternoon.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Possible combined effects of climate change, deforestation, and harvesting on the epiphyte Catopsis compacta: a multidisciplinary approach (pages 3935–3946)

      Rafael F. del Castillo, Sonia Trujillo-Argueta, Raul Rivera-García, Zaneli Gómez-Ocampo and Demetria Mondragón-Chaparro

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.765

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      We explored the effects climate change, habitat loss, and harvesting in Catopsis compacta, an epiphytic bromeliad commercially harvested in Oaxaca, Mexico, through a multidisciplinary approach. Our study evidences conflicting requirements between the epiphytes and their hosts and antagonistic effects of climate change and fragmentation with harvesting on a species that can exploit open spaces in the forest.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      What remains from a 454 run: estimation of success rates of microsatellite loci development in selected newt species (Calotriton asper, Lissotriton helveticus, and Triturus cristatus) and comparison with Illumina-based approaches (pages 3947–3957)

      Axel Drechsler, Daniel Geller, Katharina Freund, Dirk S. Schmeller, Sven Künzel, Oliver Rupp, Adeline Loyau, Mathieu Denoël, Emilio Valbuena-Ureña and Sebastian Steinfartz

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.764

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      Microsatellite loci development using next generation sequencing approaches are generally believed to result in high success rates of applicable loci. The study of Drechsler et al. indeed shows that success rates of finally applicable loci can be realistically much lower as demonstrated for selected amphibian species.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A bioturbation classification of European marine infaunal invertebrates (pages 3958–3985)

      Ana M. Queirós, Silvana N. R. Birchenough, Julie Bremner, Jasmin A. Godbold, Ruth E. Parker, Alicia Romero-Ramirez, Henning Reiss, Martin Solan, Paul J. Somerfield, Carl Van Colen, Gert Van Hoey and Stephen Widdicombe

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.769

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      Bioturbation, the biogenic modification of sediments, is a key mediator of geochemical processes in marine systems. Where dedicated bioturbation research programs do not exist, community BPc – a functional metric for bioturbation well established in the literature (BPc) – can be calculated from inventories of species, abundance and biomass data (routinely available), and a functional classification of organism traits associated with sediment mixing (less available). Here, the ICES Study Group on Climate Related Benthic Processes in the North Sea offers a standardized functional classification for bioturbation for 1032 NW European marine invertebrate species to estimate BPc, providing a critical review of the strengths and limitations of this functional approach.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Context-specific effects of the identity of detrital mixtures on invertebrate communities (pages 3986–3999)

      Melanie J. Bishop and Brendan P. Kelaher

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.775

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      We conducted field experiments to disentangle how the richness, identity and biomass of detrital mixtures influence invertebrate communities of estuarine sediments. Our experiments utilized eight litter sources that are presently experiencing human-mediated changes in their supply to estuarine mudflats, and were replicated in three estuaries. Our study demonstrates that changing detrital source biodiversity will modify detrital food webs via context-specific identity effects.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects (pages 4000–4015)

      Aaron S. David, Joe M. Kaser, Amy C. Morey, Alexander M. Roth and David A. Andow

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.737

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      Genetically engineered insects have the potential to radically change pest management worldwide, but there remains a need for a synthesized framework to identify their potential adverse ecological and evolutionary effects. We propose that potential effects associated with insect release may occur during two distinct phases of release - a transitory and a steady state phase. We apply our framework to the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, a malaria vector being engineered to suppress the wild mosquito population, to illustrate how our framework allows for more rigorous identification of the potential ecological and evolutionary effects of a GE insect release.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective (pages 4016–4038)

      Dan A. Smale, Michael T. Burrows, Pippa Moore, Nessa O'Connor and Stephen J. Hawkins

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.774

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      The kelp dominated ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic are unique and provide a wealth of goods and services to regional and centralized human populations. However, compared to other regions, such as North America and Australasia, NE Atlantic kelp ecosystems have been understudied in recent decades, resulting in extensive knowledge gaps and insufficient understanding of ecological responses to rapid environmental change.

  4. Hypotheses

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Consequences of variation in foraging success among predators on numerical response (pages 4039–4043)

      Toshinori Okuyama

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.772

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study describes a general mechanism that stabilizes food web dynamics when two conditions are satisfied: (1) the reproduction of predators experiences diminishing returns from foraging success, and (2) foraging success variation among predator individuals increases with the predator density.

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