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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 15

December 2013

Volume 3, Issue 15

Pages i–ii, 4851–5126

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.922

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The density and spatial arrangement of the invasive oyster Crassostrea gigas determines its impact on settlement of native oyster larvae (pages 4851–4860)

      Emma M. Wilkie, Melanie J. Bishop and Wayne A. O'Connor

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.872

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      The effects of a non-native oyster on native oyster larval settlement are dependent on both the spatial arrangement and density of the non-native. Increasing the effective density of non-natives will likely have negative impacts on native oyster larval settlement.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An experimental heat wave changes immune defense and life history traits in a freshwater snail (pages 4861–4871)

      Katja Leicht, Jukka Jokela and Otto Seppälä

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.874

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      We examined the effect of an experimental heat wave on the susceptibility of a snail host with the main focus on two different mechanisms: (1) general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) altered allocation of resources that reduce expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. To examine these hypotheses, we exposed snails to an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) and examined immune parameters, growth, and reproduction in relation to duration of exposure. We found that in short-term exposures (few days) to high temperature, a plastic response did not alter immune function but increased snails' growth and reproduction while long-term exposures (several days) to high temperature reduced immune function and reproduction, suggesting that high performance could not be maintained over long time periods.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species (pages 4872–4880)

      Amane Hidaka and Kanehiro Kitayama

      Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.861

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      With decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE). In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions) in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Our results show that high PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions and suggest that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth (i.e., maintaining photosynthesis and enhancing PPUE) and for reducing demand for P (i.e., reducing total foliar P concentration) as their adaptation to P-poor soils.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Is population structure in the European white stork determined by flyway permeability rather than translocation history? (pages 4881–4895)

      Jill M. Shephard, Rob Ogden, Piotr Tryjanowski, Ola Olsson and Peter Galbusera

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.845

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      European white stork have long been considered to have genetically distinct migration flyways. This study addresses this contention with specific attention to natural levels of admixture and the impact of human-mediated translocation programs.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Dynamic occupancy models for analyzing species' range dynamics across large geographic scales (pages 4896–4909)

      Florent Bled, James D. Nichols and Res Altwegg

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.858

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      Occupancy models allow quantifying species' range dynamics and identifying drivers of shifts across large spatial scales.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Range dynamics, rather than convergent selection, explain the mosaic distribution of red-winged blackbird phenotypes (pages 4910–4924)

      Matthew J. Dufort and F. Keith Barker

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.859

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      Disjunct phenotypic distributions are evidence of a complex evolutionary history that may include local adaptation or significant range changes. Populations of a blackbird phenotype distributed disjunctly in Mexico and California are genetically most closely related to one another, suggesting as history of range dynamism.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic plant community structure along elevation is lineage specific (pages 4925–4939)

      Charlotte Ndiribe, Loïc Pellissier, Silvia Antonelli, Anne Dubuis, Julien Pottier, Pascal Vittoz, Antoine Guisan and Nicolas Salamin

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.868

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      Our study investigates the phylogenetic structure found in plant communities in a mountain study area. We show that the global patterns of community structure found do not correspond to those found in other studies, usually along smaller gradients and/or taxonomically more restricted. In particular, we demonstrate that large lineage-specific differences exist, which highlight the need to reconsider global measures of phylogenetic community.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pattern of inbreeding depression, condition dependence, and additive genetic variance in Trinidadian guppy ejaculate traits (pages 4940–4953)

      Clelia Gasparini, Alessandro Devigili, Ryan Dosselli and Andrea Pilastro

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.870

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      Good genes models of sexual selection predict that sexual traits that are subject to directional selection become exaggerated, costly and hence condition dependent. As condition is influenced by the whole genome, large additive genetic variance (CVA) for these traits is expected. We tested these predictions at the postcopulatory level in the guppy, by comparing inbreeding depression (ID, an indication of past directional selection on the trait), condition dependence (CD) and CVA in three ejaculate traits whose selection gradients in sperm competition is known. As predicted, ID, CD, and CVA were larger for sperm number (the main predictor of sperm competition success) than for sperm velocity and the size of sperm components (which are less tightly associated with fertilization success). Our results highlight the possibility that sperm number may mediate female genetic benefits associated with multiple matings.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations (pages 4954–4969)

      Dylan J. Fraser, Anna M. Calvert, Louis Bernatchez and Andrew Coon

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.871

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      This study assesses several metrics for monitoring remote populations for conservation where demographic data are sparse, including genetics, genomics, life history, and traditional ecological knowledge.

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecological speciation in postglacial European whitefish: rapid adaptive radiations into the littoral, pelagic, and profundal lake habitats (pages 4970–4986)

      Kim Præbel, Rune Knudsen, Anna Siwertsson, Markku Karhunen, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Otso Ovaskainen, Kjartan Østbye, Stefano Peruzzi, Svein-Erik Fevolden and Per-Arne Amundsen

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.867

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      The mechanisms causing a monophyletic lineage of a species to diverge into several adaptive forms are still under debate. Data of niche utilization, trophic morphology, and variation at microsatellite loci were combined to investigate the diversification process of three sympatric European whitefish morphs from three northern Fennoscandian lakes. We conclude that the diversification process represents a complex evolutionary scenario where ecological speciation acts, but where both allopatric (colonization history) and sympatric (within watercourse divergence) processes are involved.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sneaker “jack” males outcompete dominant “hooknose” males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (pages 4987–4997)

      Brent Young, David V. Conti and Matthew D. Dean

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.869

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      Sneaker males compete against dominants in many animal species, including Chinook salmon. Here we show that sneaker males make sperm that is competitively superior to dominants, which might help explain why these males represent a stable evolutionary strategy in spite of the disadvantages they face at mating.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evaluating the carbon balance estimate from an automated ground-level flux chamber system in artificial grass mesocosms (pages 4998–5010)

      Andreas Heinemeyer, Jemma Gornall, Robert Baxter, Brian Huntley and Phil Ineson

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.879

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      Determining terrestrial ecosystem carbon balance as either net carbon (C) sink or source requires accurate net ecosystem exchange (NEE) chambers. This study conducted a replicated field experiment deploying clear and opaque NEE chambers over grass mesocosms to compare chamber flux estimates of C budgets to actual measurements of mesocosm C stocks.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Eucalypts face increasing climate stress (pages 5011–5022)

      Nathalie Butt, Laura J. Pollock and Clive A. McAlpine

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.873

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      Under projected future climate and increasing drought stress and temperature stress, many eucalypt species in the eastern and southern seaboards will be pushed toward the continental limit and large tracts of currently treed landscapes, especially in the Australian continental interior, will change dramatically in terms of species composition and ecosystem structure.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Integrating batch marks and radio tags to estimate the size of a closed population with a movement model (pages 5023–5030)

      Carl James Schwarz, Scott Cope and Glenda Fratton

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.876

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      A capture–recapture Bayesian model that integrates radio-tagged and batch-marked fish is developed that estimates movement and abundance. The batch marks provided little additional information over that from the radio tags except under certain circumstances.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Intraspecific phenotypic variation in a fish predator affects multitrophic lake metacommunity structure (pages 5031–5044)

      Jennifer G. Howeth, Jerome J. Weis, Jakob Brodersen, Elizabeth C. Hatton and David M. Post

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.878

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      The presence and intraspecific diversification of the planktivorous fish alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) yield coastal lake metacommunities supporting three food webs: lakes with anadromous, landlocked, or no alewives. Here, we study the relative effects of intraspecific phenotypic variation in alewives and plankton dispersal on multitrophic lake plankton metacommunity structure. Our results are among the first to highlight an important role for intraspecific variation in structuring metacommunities and indicate that intraspecific phenotypic variation in alewives maintains contrasting patterns of zooplankton and phytoplankton community composition, with impacts on local and beta diversity.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Changes in the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition with grassland succession: implications for soil C sequestration (pages 5045–5054)

      He Nianpeng, Wang Ruomeng, Gao Yang, Dai Jingzhong, Wen Xuefa and Yu Guirui

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.881

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      Q10 decreased logarithmically with grassland succession, and varied from 1.43 in free-grazing grasslands to 1.22 in 31-year grazing-exclusion grasslands. Q10 increased significantly with added substrates, and higher N:C resulted in higher Q10.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Embryonic response to long-term exposure of the marine crustacean Nephrops norvegicus to ocean acidification and elevated temperature (pages 5055–5065)

      Hannah K. Styf, Helen Nilsson Sköld and Susanne P. Eriksson

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.860

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      Due to anthropogenic CO2-emissions, our oceans have gradually become warmer and more acidic, and to better understand the consequences of this, there is a need for long-term (months) and multistressor experiments. Embryonic responses were investigated by quantifying proxies for development rate and fitness including: % yolk consumption, mean heart rate, oxygen consumption, and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that this species would benefit of global warming and be able to withstand the predicted decrease in ocean pH in the next century during their earliest life stages.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant (pages 5066–5075)

      Jennifer C. Pierson, Stephen M. Swain and Andrew G. Young

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.875

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      Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depression in wild radish from five different populations across Australia. This study suggests that dominance interactions at the S-locus provide a possible third stable state between SI and SC where biparental inbreeding increases mate availability with relatively minor fitness costs.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate change and fire effects on a prairie–woodland ecotone: projecting species range shifts with a dynamic global vegetation model (pages 5076–5097)

      David A. King, Dominique M. Bachelet and Amy J. Symstad

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.877

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      We used the dynamic global vegetation model MC1 to project the future ponderosa pine–grass ecotone at Wind Cave National Park in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. Our results differ from those of empirical niche-based models, due in part to the inclusion of fire dynamics in our calibration of MC1 to the current ecotone.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phenotypic divergence in reproductive traits of a moth population experiencing a phenological shift (pages 5098–5108)

      Helena M. Santos, Maria-Rosa Paiva, Susana Rocha, Carole Kerdelhué and Manuela Branco

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.865

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      Adult male of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa. A unique “summer” population of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, reproductively isolated from the typical winter populations by allochronic differentiation, is here analyzed. This work provides an insight of how ecological divergence may follow the process of allochronic reproductive isolation, by comparing female fecundity, egg size, egg covering, and egg parasitism.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Can invasions occur without change? A comparison of G-matrices and selection in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (pages 5109–5118)

      Leonardo D. Bacigalupe, Karin Barrientos, Andrew P. Beckerman, Mauricio J. Carter, Christian C. Figueroa, Stephen P. Foster, Allen J. Moore, Andrea X. Silva and Roberto F. Nespolo

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.883

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      Species that live in human-modified habitats in their native range might have evolved specific adaptations to those environments, which increase the likelihood of establishment and spread in similar human-altered environments. From a quantitative genetic perspective, this hypothesis suggests that both native and introduced populations should reside at or near the same adaptive peak; therefore, we should observe no overall changes in the G (genetic variance–covariance) matrices between native and introduced ranges, and stabilizing selection on fitness-related traits in all populations. We tested these predictions comparing three populations of the worldwide pest Myzus persicae from the Middle East (native range) and the UK and Chile (separately introduced ranges).

  3. Hypotheses

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A shared mechanism of defense against predators and parasites: chitin regulation and its implications for life-history theory (pages 5119–5126)

      Andrew P. Beckerman, Job de Roij, Stuart R. Dennis and Tom J. Little

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.766

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      All organisms deal with multiple forms of stress. Here we offer a physiological hypothesis explaining how many organisms might trade-off a response to parasites and predators, two of the most important forms of stress and the ecological context for understanding one of the most important and common forms of phenotypic plasticity – inducible defences. Our hypothesis centers on chitin, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, and we develop the compelling and testable hypothesis that by understanding the molecular and phyiological regulation of chitin synthesis and degradation we can reveal the mechanistic basis of trade-offs against predators and parasites and understand better the evolution of complex traits in complex environments.

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