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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 3

March 2013

Volume 3, Issue 3

Pages i–ii, 465–751

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.537

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Does elevated pCO2 affect reef octocorals? (pages 465–473)

      Yasmin Gabay, Yehuda Benayahu and Maoz Fine

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.351

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      Several biological features of selected octocorals were examined under high pCO2 conditions. The results indicate no difference between the octocorals exposed to reduced pH values compared to the control. It is therefore suggested that the octocorals' tissue may act as a protective barrier against adverse pH conditions, thus maintaining them unharmed at high levels of pCO2.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A quantitative trait locus analysis of personality in wild bighorn sheep (pages 474–481)

      J. Poissant, D. Réale, J.G.A. Martin, M. Festa-Bianchet and D.W. Coltman

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.468

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      Personality, the presence of persistent behavioral differences among individuals over time or contexts, potentially has important ecological and evolutionary consequences. However, a lack of knowledge about its genetic architecture limits our ability to understand its origin, evolution, and maintenance. We report on a genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for two personality traits, docility and boldness, in free-living bighorn sheep from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Foraging by forest ants under experimental climatic warming: a test at two sites (pages 482–491)

      Katharine L. Stuble, Shannon L. Pelini, Sarah E. Diamond, David A. Fowler, Robert R. Dunn and Nathan J. Sanders

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.473

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      We used a large-scale experimental temperature manipulation to warm intact forest ant assemblages in the field and examine the impacts of chronic warming on ant foraging activity at two geographically distinct sites. We found responses to be both site and species-specific. Importantly, these species-specific responses were related to functional traits of species: species with higher critical thermal maxima had greater forager density at higher temperatures than did species with lower critical thermal maxima.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Connectivity in a pond system influences migration and genetic structure in threespine stickleback (pages 492–502)

      Mathew Seymour, Katja Räsänen, Rolf Holderegger and Bjarni K. Kristjánsson

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.476

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      In this study, we investigated the relationship between landscape connectivity, via periodically flooded areas, and genetic distances among populations using a landscape genetic approach in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found strong genetic structure in the study area, with genetic distances more strongly correlated with landscape distance (least-cost-paths and isolation-by-resistance) than with Euclidean distance. Overall, this study highlights the importance of periodic landscape changes influencing migration and genetic differentiation of populations at small spatial scales.

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      Differential sperm expenditure reveals a possible role for post-copulatory sexual selection in a lekking moth (pages 503–511)

      Nils Cordes, Arzu Yiğit, Leif Engqvist and Tim Schmoll

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.458

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      In the lesser wax moth, a lekking insect, pre-copulatory sexual selection is well studied. Here we studied sperm characteristics and found that males transfer an excessive amount of sperm in initial, virgin copulations relative to subsequent ones, with considerable variation in sperm number between males. These results suggest a role for post-copulatory sexual selection in this interesting study system.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Niche partitioning between close relatives suggests trade-offs between adaptation to local environments and competition (pages 512–522)

      Megan L. Peterson, Kevin J. Rice and Jason P. Sexton

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.462

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      In a reciprocal transplant field experiment, we investigated the relative importance of species interactions and habitat adaptation for habitat partitioning between two close relatives of monkeyflower (Mimulus). We found that low survival excludes M. guttatus from fast-drying seeps occupied by M. laciniatus, whereas both species exhibit similar performance and competitive ability in sympatric meadows. M. laciniatus was not excluded from streams by either habitat performance or congeneric competition, suggesting a role for community-level interactions.

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      Ice-dependent winter survival of juvenile Atlantic salmon (pages 523–535)

      R. D. Hedger, T. F. Næsje, P. Fiske, O. Ugedal, A. G. Finstad and E. B. Thorstad

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.481

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      Reductions in ice-cover may cause increased Atlantic salmon juvenile mortality, particularly for larger individuals. This is likely to be the result of greater decline in energy stores in ice-free conditions. Likely effects of climate change in cold temperate and Arctic regions include reduced ice cover, and consequently increased juvenile winter mortality, and a change in the juvenile age distribution to being composed of younger individuals.

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      River barriers and cryptic biodiversity in an evolutionary museum (pages 536–545)

      G. Voelker, B. D. Marks, C. Kahindo, U. A'genonga, F. Bapeamoni, L. E. Duffie, J. W. Huntley, E. Mulotwa, S. A. Rosenbaum and J. E. Light

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.482

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      We find strong genetic evidence that the Congo River has served as a barrier to both birds and their ectoparasitic lice. Our results indicate that contemporaneous, Pleistocene lineage diversification has occurred across the Congo River.

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      Variable extent of parallelism in respiratory, circulatory, and neurological traits across lake whitefish species pairs (pages 546–557)

      Melissa L. Evans, Lauren J. Chapman, Igor Mitrofanov and Louis Bernatchez

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.469

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      In one of the best-described examples of parallel speciation, ecologically driven selection has been invoked to explain the evolution and maintenance of sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish (Coregonus spp.) species. Nevertheless, links between most putatively adaptive traits and ecological variation remain poorly defined across whitefish populations. Here, we examine phenotypic divergence in traits predicted to be critical in whitefish ecological adaptation; the gills, heart, and brain.

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      Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) (pages 558–568)

      Jarosław Bryk, Mehmet Somel, Anna Lorenc and Meike Teschke

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.447

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      We analyzed gene expression patterns in brain, liver, and testis between two natural and recently separated populations of the house mouse. We demonstrate multitude of changes in gene expression despite short divergence time and show that: all tissues have similar fraction of differentially expressed genes; that differentially expressed genes are mostly differentially expressed in a single tissue; that transcription factors contribute particularly to the divergence of gene expression in brain, but not liver or testis; and that testis show different gene expression divergence in terms of degree and direction of change compared to the other two tissues.

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      Contemporary effective population and metapopulation size (Ne and meta-Ne): comparison among three salmonids inhabiting a fragmented system and differing in gene flow and its asymmetries (pages 569–580)

      Daniel Gomez-Uchida, Friso P. Palstra, Thomas W. Knight and Daniel E. Ruzzante

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.485

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      We examined local and meta-population effective sizes (Ne and meta-Ne) among three coexisting salmonid species (Salmo salar, Salvelinus fontinalis, S. alpinus) inhabiting a freshwater system of seven interconnected lakes. We estimated meta-Ne with six different approaches and compared them with the sum of local Ne [∑(Ne)]. Most models provided estimates of meta-Ne that were similar to each other and to ∑(Ne), despite their differing assumptions regarding metapopulation dynamics. One approach, which incorporates gene flow asymmetries, provided instead, meta-Ne < ∑(Ne).

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer (pages 581–594)

      Emer Morgan, Ruth M. O' Riordan and Sarah C. Culloty

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.419

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      This research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between two sites over 200 km apart; despite site differences in water and environmental quality, it suggested that temperature and climatic conditions might be the dominant factor in controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle has extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis extended into the winter.

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      Geographically multifarious phenotypic divergence during speciation (pages 595–613)

      Zachariah Gompert, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle and Matthew L. Forister

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.445

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      A male Lycaeides investigates one of the female wing pattern models at Bull Creek in Wyoming.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure of introduced populations: 120-year-old DNA footprint of historic introduction in an insular small mammal population (pages 614–628)

      Siobhan Simpson, Nick Blampied, Gabriela Peniche, Anne Dozières, Tiffany Blackett, Stephen Coleman, Nina Cornish and Jim J. Groombridge

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.486

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      A study examining disease in relation to the genetic origins and structure of the red squirrel population on the channel island of Jersey. We found two introductions of red squirrels occurred, one from England and one from mainland Europe, with genetic structure weak, but detectable 120 years post introduction. We found no association between inbreeding and disease within the population.

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      The influence of demography and local mating environment on sex ratios in a wind-pollinated dioecious plant (pages 629–639)

      Melinda Pickup and Spencer C. H. Barrett

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.465

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      Biased sex ratios are common in flowering plants, but the mechanisms underlying deviations from equality are currently not well understood. By combining field experiments with surveys of populations varying in demographic characteristics, we examined the ecological and genetic mechanisms that contribute to female-biased sex ratios in Rumex hastatulus.

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      Sea star populations diverge by positive selection at a sperm-egg compatibility locus (pages 640–654)

      Jennifer M. Sunday and Michael W. Hart

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.487

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      Fertilization proteins of marine broadcast spawning species often show signals of positive selection, and it has been postulated that such divergent selection across isolated populations may lead to reproductive isolation. Here, we test for positive selection in the reproductive compatibility locus, bindin, in two populations of a sea star on either side of a phylogeographic break. We find evidence for positive selection in both populations, with different sites under positive selection in either population, suggesting they are responding to different evolutionary processes which may lead to reproductive isolation.

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      Cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with Mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) (pages 655–666)

      Niclas Backström, Daria Shipilina, Mozes P. K. Blom and Scott V. Edwards

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.484

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      By taking a candidate gene approach, we investigate patterns of genetic variation in cis-regulatory sequences of three genes previously shown to be differentially expressed between populations of house finches naive and historically exposed to the disease Mycoplasma gallisepticum. We show that upstream regions have high GC content, varying genetic variability, and contain several transcription factor-binding sites. We identify two SNPs significantly associated with disease response that are located in cis-regulatory sequences of the gene HSP90a and discuss their potential role in the evolution of resistance in this system.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unraveling the evolutionary history of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus: from lineage diversification to island colonization (pages 667–675)

      Angela McGaughran, Katy Morgan and Ralf J Sommer

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.495

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      Our manuscript evaluates the evolutionary history of P. pacificus on La Réunion Island from a statistical standpoint. Specifically, we employ divergence analyses to date diversification events among the P. pacificus lineages, and examine demographic properties of a subset of four populations present on La Réunion Island. Finally, we use the results of the divergence and demographic analyses to inform a modeling-based approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach, where we test hypotheses about the order and timing of establishment of the Réunion populations. Combined, our work comprehensively improves previous inferences about the evolutionary history of P. pacificus.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      One-year experiment on the physiological response of the Mediterranean crustose coralline alga, Lithophyllum cabiochae, to elevated pCO2 and temperature (pages 676–693)

      Sophie Martin, Stéphanie Cohu, Céline Vignot, Guillaume Zimmerman and Jean-Pierre Gattuso

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.475

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      The response of respiration, photosynthesis, and calcification to elevated pCO2 and temperature were investigated in isolation and in combination in the Mediterranean crustose coralline alga Lithophyllum cabiochae. L. cabiochae calcification was maintained or even enhanced under increased pCO2. However, there is likely a trade-off with other physiological processes such as photosynthesis, which declines in response to increased pCO2 under ambient irradiance. The physiological responses differed among seasons. For example, warming was beneficial to the algal metabolism except in summer when temperature was close to the thermal optimum.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      New support for an old hypothesis: density affects extra-pair paternity (pages 694–705)

      Christian Mayer and Gilberto Pasinelli

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.489

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      Density has been suggested to affect variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) in avian mating systems, because increasing density promotes encounter rates and thus mating opportunities. Accounting for potentially confounding factors, we tested whether EPP rates within and among 13 subpopulations of the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) were related to density. Our study confirmed that density is an important biological factor, which significantly influences the amount of EPP within and among subpopulations.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparing constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids (pages 706–713)

      Christoph Vorburger, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy and Marek Kwiatkowski

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.491

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      We compared constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids. As expected, we observed a substantial constitutive longevity cost associated with harbouring resistance-conferring bacterial symbionts, but there was no evidence for an induced cost. On the contrary, symbiont-protected aphids that resisted a parasitoid attack enjoyed increased longevity and lifetime reproduction compared to unattacked controls, suggesting that parasitoids may somehow interfere with their hosts' endosymbionts.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Hybridization in natural sympatric populations of Dermacentor ticks in northwestern North America (pages 714–724)

      A. Araya-Anchetta, G. A. Scoles, J. Giles, J. D. Busch and D. M. Wagner

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.496

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      We describe putative hybridization events between Dermacentor andersoni and D. variabilis in sympatric populations from Northwestern North America. Using a sample of 235 D. andersoni and 62 D. variabilis, we identified 31 individuals as putative hybrids: four F2 individuals and 27 backcrosses to D. andersoni. We found no evidence of hybrids backcrossing into D. variabilis.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The role of glacial cycles in promoting genetic diversity in the Neotropics: the case of cloud forests during the Last Glacial Maximum (pages 725–738)

      Santiago Ramírez-Barahona and Luis E. Eguiarte

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.483

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      In this synthesis we address the ongoing paleoecological debate regarding Neotropical precipitation during the last glacial period. We propose to test contrasting paleoecological hypotheses against the expected patterns of genetic diversity of cloud forest species. To date, there is limited genetic evidence regarding the proposed paleoecological scenarios. In this context, this review is intended as a general framework for conducting future phylogeographic studies on Neotropical species.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) (pages 739–751)

      Emmi Felker-Quinn, Jennifer A. Schweitzer and Joseph K. Bailey

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.488

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      We conducted a meta-analysis of defense and competitive traits of invasive plant species to assess support for the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) hypothesis. There is no general trend across species of evolutionary reductions in defense, and evolutionary enhancement of competitive traits occured only for vegetative growth traits, not for fitness-related traits. However, there is broad support for evolutionary changes not consistent with EICA in defensive traits and competitive traits across invasive populations of these plant species.

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