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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 4

April 2013

Volume 3, Issue 4

Pages i–ii, 753–1139

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    5. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.572

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    5. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Geographical origin of Leucobryum boninense Sull. & Lesq. (Leucobryaceae, Musci) endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan (pages 753–762)

      Emiko Oguri, Tomio Yamaguchi, Hiromi Tsubota, Hironori Deguchi and Noriaki Murakami

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.492

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      We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species and infer the origin of L. boninense.

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      Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of threatened forest-restricted birds in Madagascar (pages 763–769)

      Rado H. Andriamasimanana and Alison Cameron

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.497

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      This study uses Maximum Entropy species distribution modeling to explore how potential climate change could affect the distribution of the 17 threatened forest endemic bird species in Madagascar. The importance of forest cover as a modeling variable is explored and the use of pseudo-presences drawn from extent of occurrence distributions is tested. Four species (Neodrepanis hypoxantha, Mesitornis unicolor, Euryceros prevostii, and Oriolia bernieri) are probably the most vulnerable to climate change. Combination of Climate change and deforestation in the future could negatively affect these species in a drastic way.

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      Genetic variability and structure of the water vole Arvicola amphibius across four metapopulations in northern Norway (pages 770–778)

      Claudia Melis, Åsa Alexandra Borg, Henrik Jensen, Eirin Bjørkvoll, Thor H. Ringsby and Bernt-Erik Sæther

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.499

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      We used DNA microsatellite markers to describe the genetic structure of 14 island populations of water vole in northern Norway. We found a high level of genetic differentiation among populations overall as well as between all pairs of populations. Our results suggest a small geographic scale for evolutionary and population dynamic processes in our water voles.

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      The origin of parental care in relation to male and female life history (pages 779–791)

      Hope Klug, Michael B. Bonsall and Suzanne H. Alonzo

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.493

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      Males and females vary in basic life-history characteristics (e.g., stage-specific mortality, maturation) in ways that are unrelated to parental investment. Here, we use a theoretical approach to determine the sex-specific life-history characteristics that give rise to the origin of paternal, maternal, or bi-parental care from an ancestral state of no care. We find that basic life-history differences between the sexes can alone explain the origin of maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

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      Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care (pages 792–806)

      Hope Klug, Michael B. Bonsall and Suzanne H. Alonzo

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.494

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      Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different forms of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other factors (mate availability, sex differences in the costs of competing for mates) influence the evolution of parental care.

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      Gene flow in the green mirid, Creontiades dilutus (Hemiptera: Miridae), across arid and agricultural environments with different host plant species (pages 807–821)

      J. P. Hereward, G. H. Walter, P. J. DeBarro, A. J. Lowe and C. Riginos

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.510

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      The green mirid is endemic to arid parts of Australia, but has invaded agricultural resources within the last 200 years. We investigate gene flow across these two environments and conclude that the adaptations that allowed this insect to survive ephemeral conditions continue to determine patterns of genetic differentiation.

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      New-old hemoglobin-like proteins of symbiotic dinoflagellates (pages 822–834)

      Nedeljka N. Rosic, William Leggat, Paulina Kaniewska, Sophie Dove and Ove Hoegh-Guldberg

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.498

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      Coral Acropora aspera on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia (A). Light micrograph of Symbiodinium maintained in culture at constant temperature and light conditions (B).

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      Changes in breeding phenology of eastern Ontario frogs over four decades (pages 835–845)

      Samantha P. Klaus and Stephen C. Lougheed

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.501

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      Our study examines how long-term changes in local temperatures and precipitation have affected the timing of emergence and the onset of calling activity in Ontario frog species. In two of eight observed species, breeding phenology has shifted over four decades, correlating with local increases in spring temperatures and a literature review revealed regional differences in phenological shifts within and among species. These can have significant impacts on how we understand the consequences of climate change on range limits and species and population persistence, and how we might predict future trends.

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      Is RAD-seq suitable for phylogenetic inference? An in silico assessment and optimization (pages 846–852)

      Marie Cariou, Laurent Duret and Sylvain Charlat

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.512

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      We assess the suitability of RAD-seq for phylogeny using a simulated experiment on the 12 Drosophila genomes, with divergence times ranging from 5 to 63 million years. These simulations show that RAD-seq allows the recovery of the known Drosophila phylogeny with strong statistical support, even for relatively ancient nodes. Notably, this conclusion is robust to the potentially confounding effects of sequencing errors, polymorphism, and low coverage.

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      Human disturbance and stage-specific habitat requirements influence snowy plover site occupancy during the breeding season (pages 853–863)

      Alyson F. Webber, Julie A. Heath and Richard A. Fischer

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.511

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      We studied the effects of human disturbance and stage-specific habitat requirements on snowy plover habitat use along the Florida coast during three different sampling periods: pre-breeding, incubation, and brood-rearing and used multi-season occupancy models to determine whether human disturbance or habitat features influenced site occupancy. Human disturbance had a strong negative effect on plover habitat use. Plovers were less likely to occupy a site with high rates of disturbance and would leave sites as human disturbance increased, indicating that birds were constantly making decisions about habitat use as information about disturbance changed.

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Investigating the genetic load of an emblematic invasive species: the case of the invasive harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (pages 864–871)

      A. Tayeh, A. Estoup, R. A. Hufbauer, V. Ravigne, I. Goryacheva, I. A. Zakharov, E. Lombaert and B. Facon

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.490

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      Because mutation, fixation and purging are stochastic processes (Lynch 2000), the impact of introduction events such as admixture and bottleneck on the genetic load of invasive population cannot be expected to be uniform among invasive species, as it depends on both the population biology within the native range and the demographic history of invasive populations. The main result of our laboratory crossing experiments was a lack of evidence for any fixation load in invaded area, because no heterosis was observed in between-population crosses from introduced populations. We argue that it is crucial to better understand the role of introduction events in biological invasions not only through their potential impact on beneficial genetic variation but also through their impact on the structure of the genetic load.

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      Boring sponges, an increasing threat for coral reefs affected by bleaching events (pages 872–886)

      José L. Carballo, Eric Bautista, Héctor Nava, José A. Cruz-Barraza and Jesus A. Chávez

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.452

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      We tested the hypothesis that coral reefs affected by bleaching events are currently heavily infested by boring sponges, which are playing a significant role in the destruction of their physical structure. Forty-six percent of the more than 10,000 coral samples examined were invaded by boring sponges, and the results indicated that they are promoting the dislodgment of live colonies and large fragments from the framework, especially in reefs previously impacted by bleaching phenomena.

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      Cenozoic climate change and diversification on the continental shelf and slope: evolution of gastropod diversity in the family Solariellidae (Trochoidea) (pages 887–917)

      S. T. Williams, L. M. Smith, D. G. Herbert, B. A. Marshall, A. Warén, S. Kiel, P. Dyal, K. Linse, C. Vilvens and Y. Kano

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.513

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      Ilanga laevissima dredged at 100 m off Amanzimtoti, KwaZulu-Natal (NMSA D4831). Photo credit: D. G. Herbert, KwaZulu-Natal Museum.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Diversity and selective pressures of anticoagulants in three medicinal leeches (Hirudinida: Hirudinidae, Macrobdellidae) (pages 918–933)

      Sebastian Kvist, Gi-Sik Min and Mark E Siddall

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.480

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      Although medicinal leeches have long been used as treatment for various ailments because of their potent anticoagulation factors, neither the full diversity of salivary components that inhibit coagulation, nor the evolutionary selection acting on them has been thoroughly investigated. Here, EST libraries from three medicinal leeches were screened for anticoagulants and putative selective pressures acting on the proteins were estimated via a series of algorithms. Results indicate that the diversity of anticoagulation factors possessed by the leeches exceeds expectations and that purifying selection heavily influences the stability of the residues.

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      Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of native mountain ponies of Britain and Ireland reveals a novel rare population (pages 934–947)

      Clare L. Winton, Matthew J. Hegarty, Robert McMahon, Gancho T. Slavov, Neil R. McEwan, Mina C.G. Davies-Morel, Charly M. Morgan, Wayne Powell and Deborah M. Nash

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.507

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      Herein, we describe the use of microsatellites and SNPs together with analysis of the mitochondrial control region to quantify the extent and magnitude of genetic diversity present in the feral Carneddau pony and relate this to several recognised British and Irish pony breeds. Our results establish that the feral Carneddau ponies represent a unique and distinctive population that merits recognition as a defined population and conservation priority. We discuss the implications for conservation of this population as a unique pool of genetic diversity adapted to the British uplands and potentially of particular value in maintaining the biodiversity of these habitats.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The adaptive significance of population differentiation in offspring size of the least killifish, Heterandria formosa (pages 948–960)

      Jeff Leips, F. Helen Rodd and Joseph Travis

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.509

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      We tested the hypothesis that density dependent competition influences the evolution of offspring size by manipulating density of females and, in mesocosms, of their offspring. We studied two populations of the least killifish (Heterandria formosa) that differ dramatically in population density; these populations are genetically differentiated for offspring size and females from both populations produce larger offspring when they experience higher social densities. From our results, we infer that competition contributed to the evolution of both interpopulation differences in offspring size and plasticity in offspring size in response to conspecific density.

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      When directional selection reduces geographic variation in traits mediating species interactions (pages 961–970)

      C. W. Benkman and T. L. Parchman

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.518

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      Thompson (2005) hypothesized a coevolutionary process where a predator preferentially attacks the more profitable prey species so that the defenses of all prey escalate to a similar extent. We describe an analogous process whereby a seed predator (crossbill) preferentially forages among trees within an area and among areas depending on the levels of seed defense. Because the strength of selection the predator exerted was inversely proportional to the overall levels of defense in the local prey population, our results provide a mechanism for the escalation and homogenization of defenses across a landscape.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Allometric disparity in rodent evolution (pages 971–984)

      Laura A. B. Wilson

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.521

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      The evolution of covariance structure has largely been quantified at the adult stage, sampling only the endpoint of ontogeny. Here, a developmental approach was adopted, whereby ontogenetic trajectories for 51 rodent species were analyzed using multivariate morphospaces and measures of disparity. Results indicate that the evolution of ontogenetic trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Structure of a mosaic hybrid zone between the field crickets Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus (pages 985–1002)

      Erica L. Larson, C. Guilherme Becker, Eliana R. Bondra and Richard G. Harrison

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.514

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      We describe a previously uncharacterized region of a well-studied hybrid zone between two species of field crickets. Using a combination of mitochondrial DNA sequencing, morphological data, and modeling of environmental variables, we identify the ecological factors structuring the hybrid zone and define patterns of hybridization and introgression.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Long-distance dispersal in a fire- and livestock-protected savanna (pages 1003–1015)

      Roberto Tarazi, Alexandre M. Sebbenn, Paulo Y. Kageyama and Roland Vencovsky

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.515

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      Savannas are highly diverse and dynamic environments that can shift to forest formations due to protection policies. Long-distance dispersal may shape the genetic structure of these new closed forest formations. We analyzed eight microsatellite loci to understand contemporary pollen and effective seed dispersal of the tropical tree, Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae), occurring in a Brazilian fire- and livestock-protected savanna. Our results show the positive side of closed canopy expansion, where animal activities regarding pollination and seed dispersal are extremely high.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming (pages 1016–1030)

      Ben P. Harvey, Dylan Gwynn-Jones and Pippa J. Moore

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.516

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      Meta-analysis of the impacts of ocean acidification and warming for marine organisms demonstrates that these combined stressors generally led to stronger effects than when experienced in isolation. Moreover, the interaction of ocean warming and acidification led to synergistic effects for the majority of biological responses investigated. Such outcomes highlight the need to include multiple stressors in the development of effective adaptive management strategies, at the same time as highlighting some of the difficulties that need to be overcome to achieve this.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

      Vol. 3, Issue 8, 2782, Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Australasian sky islands act as a diversity pump facilitating peripheral speciation and complex reversal from narrow endemic to widespread ecological supertramp (pages 1031–1049)

      Emmanuel F. A. Toussaint, Katayo Sagata, Suriani Surbakti, Lars Hendrich and Michael Balke

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.517

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      The predaceous diving beetles of the Rhantus suturalis species complex represent a geographically very widespread assemblage of closely related taxa. Here, we used phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses to highlight several cases of peripatric speciation in the subalpine zone of New Guinea, and remarkable reversal from narrowly endemic to widespread taxa and vice versa. Divergence time and historical demography estimates show that speciation in remote sky islands is recent and correlated to climatic changes that occurred during the Quaternary ice ages.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Coral population trajectories, increased disturbance and management intervention: a sensitivity analysis (pages 1050–1064)

      Bernhard Riegl, Michael Berumen and Andrew Bruckner

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.519

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      Coral reefs distant from human population have suffered significantly from bleaching and predator outbreaks in the Red Sea. One-third of all reefs showed signs of degradation. Population projections suggest, based on frequency and severity of disturbances, a cascade of community shifts toward dominance by resilient slow-growers and then toward small, weedy, fast-growers. Careful management is needed to avoid large-scale degradation. Avoidance or control of predator outbreaks should have high priority.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species (pages 1065–1078)

      Grégoire T. Freschet, Peter J. Bellingham, Philip O'B. Lyver, Karen I. Bonner and David A. Wardle

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.520

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      This study is particularly important and timely because it is the first to explore how multiple local environmental gradients in resources, i.e., light, water and nutrient availability, as well as soil disturbance, collectively influence within-species changes in both leaf and fine root traits related to the capture of these resources.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Sex-biases in distribution and resource use at different spatial scales in a migratory shorebird (pages 1079–1090)

      José A. Alves, Tómas G. Gunnarsson, Peter M. Potts, William J. Sutherland and Jennifer A. Gill

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.503

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      Migratory species are extremely mobile and often range over large geographic areas, potentially creating distinct distribution patterns for each sex, which may be linked to resource use, given sex-specific energetic requirements. Icelandic black-tailed godwits mostly segregate spatially at the local scale as a consequence of sex differences in prey selection. Sex differences in resource exploitation have implications for the capacity of males and females to meet their energetic requirements, and for sex differences in the response to changing environmental conditions. Photo by Graham Catley.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Ecological immunology in a fluctuating environment: an integrative analysis of tree swallow nestling immune defense (pages 1091–1103)

      Gabriel Pigeon, Marc Bélisle, Dany Garant, Alan A. Cohen and Fanie Pelletier

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.504

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      Given the importance of a proper immune response for survival in the wild, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. We assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the relationships between 7 different immune measures using both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune responses in the wild.

  3. Hypotheses

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    5. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The green beards of language (pages 1104–1112)

      Patrik Lindenfors

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.506

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      Language transfers information on at least three levels; (1) what is said (factual information), (2) how it is said (language itself), and, (3) that it is said (language ability). The use of language necessitates honest cooperation on two of these levels; not necessarily on what is said, but always on how it is said and that it is said. Both the biological language capacity and the cultural language knowledge required for this cooperation signal their presence through speech and understanding, they function as ‘green beards’. This signaling cannot be invaded by ‘false green beards’ because the traits and the signals of their presence are one and the same.

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Hypotheses
    5. Reviews
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Disturbances, organisms and ecosystems: a global change perspective (pages 1113–1124)

      Jean-François Ponge

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.505

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      Disturbances play a decisive role in the assemblage and evolution of plant, animals, and microbes. Two strategies have been selected according to disturbance level of the environment: “civilized” traits/organisms have anticipatory mechanisms efficient in stable environments, while “barbarian” traits/organisms waste energy, but are efficient in unstable environments. Both categories cohabit in communities, but balance according to disturbance level. Implications for global change are discussed.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High-Throughput Sequencing: A Roadmap Toward Community Ecology (pages 1125–1139)

      Timothée Poisot, Bérangère Péquin and Dominique Gravel

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.508

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      We highlight promising directions in which an increased use of high-throughput sequencing can benefit ecology, and build bridges between microbial ecology and biogeography.

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