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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 7

July 2013

Volume 3, Issue 7

Pages i–ii, 1837–2391

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have open access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.692

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An age–size reaction norm yields insight into environmental interactions affecting life-history traits: a factorial study of larval development in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (pages 1837–1847)

      Conan Phelan and Bernard D. Rotiberg

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.589

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      Interactions among environmental factors that affect development time and body size were assessed for the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial larval rearing experiment revealed interactions among food level, water depth, and temperature. An L-shaped relationship between development time and body size across resource levels provides an explanation of food-by-depth interactions, while temperature effects are more complex.

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      A detachable mobile and adjustable telemetry system (pages 1848–1855)

      Tommy S. Parker, William E. Persons, Joseph G. Bradley, Margaret Gregg, Shinelle K. Gonzales and Jesse S. Helton

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.591

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      In this article we present an alternative to this configuration by providing a platform that can be placed atop the vehicle in which the antenna mast can be mounted and controlled from the cabin of the vehicle.

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      No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks (pages 1856–1863)

      Renée C. Firman, Blair Bentley, Faye Bowman, Fernando García-Solís Marchant, Jahmila Parthenay, Jessica Sawyer, Tom Stewart and James E. O'Shea

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.577

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      It has been suggested that the sperm hook of the muroid rodents is an evolutionary product of sperm competition, and may allow for the formation of motile sperm trains. We utilized in vitro and in vivo methodologies to assess the behaviour of the three-hooked sperm of the Australian sandy inland mouse. We found no evidence that the sperm hooks function to form motile sperm groups in this species, and discuss alternative hypotheses for the evolution of this unique sperm morphology.

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      Phenological indices of avian reproduction: cryptic shifts and prediction across large spatial and temporal scales (pages 1864–1877)

      Philippa Gullett, Ben J. Hatchwell, Robert A. Robinson and Karl L. Evans

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.558

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      We use data from a long-term study of long-tailed tits to show that early and late spring temperatures respectively determine the timing of the onset and termination of the breeding season. Climate change has reduced breeding season length by one third in the last 17 years due to faster warming rates in late spring than in early spring. These phenological shifts could have important demographic consequences, but are not detected by the typically-used phenological index of mean population lay date. Our locally-derived model successfully predicts observed responses to climate change observed at the national level over longer time periods.

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      MHC class II B diversity in blue tits: a preliminary study (pages 1878–1889)

      Juan Rivero- de Aguilar, Elske Schut, Santiago Merino, Javier Martínez, Jan Komdeur and Helena Westerdahl

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.598

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      In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity.

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      Getting the biggest birch for the bang: restoring and expanding upland birchwoods in the Scottish Highlands by managing red deer (pages 1890–1901)

      Andrew J. Tanentzap, James Zou and David A. Coomes

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.548

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      Predicting the outcome of deer culling, aimed at improving habitat conservation value, is difficult. We develop the first spatially explicit simulation model to predict the functional responses of birch (Betula spp.) woodland to land management in the Scottish Highlands. Our results show that managers interested in maximizing tree regeneration must consider the impacts of large herbivores rather than their densities, in addition to improving ground cover for seedling establishment.

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      Manta Matcher: automated photographic identification of manta rays using keypoint features (pages 1902–1914)

      Christopher Town, Andrea Marshall and Nutthaporn Sethasathien

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.587

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      We describe a new technique for automated visual identification of manta rays which is robust to image noise and requires minimal user effort. The method outperforms all other automated techniques on a large data set, and forms the foundation of a global collaborative ecological database of manta ray sightings.

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      Delimiting shades of gray: phylogeography of the Northern Fulmar, Fulmarus glacialis (pages 1915–1930)

      Kevin C. R. Kerr and Carla J. Dove

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.597

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      We used a multigene phylogenetic approach to investigate population divergence in a Holarctic seabird with an unusual distribution of color morphs. We found land and ice to be a major barrier to dispersal, effectively segregating Atlantic and Pacific populations into independent evolutionary units; however, divergence estimates predate those documented for other Holarctically distributed seabirds. We also examined the link between MC1R variation and color morph but found no correlation. Photos by Mark K. Peck.

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      Adaptive divergence in body size overrides the effects of plasticity across natural habitats in the brown trout (pages 1931–1941)

      Björn Rogell, Johan Dannewitz, Stefan Palm, Jonas Dahl, Erik Petersson and Anssi Laurila

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.579

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      How consistent local adaptations are across natural habitats remain largely unexplored. Here, we use a QSTFST approach to study how local adaptations in brown trout are expressed across natural habitats, and find that these adaptations were similar across all natural habitats.

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      Selection on the Drosophila seminal fluid protein Acp62F (pages 1942–1950)

      Alex Wong and Howard Rundle

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.605

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      Sperm competition and sexual conflict are thought to underlie the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins in many taxa. While comparative data are generally consistent with these hypotheses, few manipulative tests have been conducted and those that have provided contradictory results in some cases. Here, we use both comparative and experimental techniques to investigate the evolution of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protein Acp62F, a protease inhibitor for which extensive functional tests have yielded ambiguous results.

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      Alternative forms for genomic clines (pages 1951–1966)

      Benjamin M. Fitzpatrick

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.609

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      Genomic clines compare patterns of gene exchange at particular loci to a genome-wide average to address questions about the basis of hybrid fitness and the nature of species boundaries. I derive a new model for describing genomic clines and show that it performs well relative to previous alternatives.

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      Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences (pages 1967–1976)

      Yahkat Barshep, Clive D. T. Minton, Les G. Underhill, Birgit Erni and Pavel Tomkovich

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.612

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      The molt schedule of Curlew Sandpipers is closely related with their breeding biology and migratory schedules; early molt is an indication of poor breeding and early migration. Body condition prior to spring migration can be affected through carry-over effects; a late completion of molt results in poor body condition. The study of molt can, therefore, provide useful biological and ecological information.

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      Evidence of maternal effects on temperature preference in side-blotched lizards: implications for evolutionary response to climate change (pages 1977–1991)

      Dhanashree A. Paranjpe, Elizabeth Bastiaans, Amy Patten, Robert D. Cooper and Barry Sinervo

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.614

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      Using controlled laboratory genetic crosses, we demonstrate that maternal effects, not additive genetic variation, influence temperature preference in lizards. We have also investigated factors contributing to the phenotypic variation in body temperature in a lizard population. The lack of additive genetic variation for temperature preference coupled with persistent maternal effects might possibly impede the rate of adaptation to higher temperatures. Our novel findings provide a new dimension from which to understand the evolution of physiological traits such as temperature preference.

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      Developmental trajectories and breakdown in F1 interpopulation hybrids of Tribolium castaneum (pages 1992–2001)

      Douglas W. Drury, Ross C. Ehmke, Victoria N. Jideonwo and Michael J. Wade

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.536

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      We assess the scope of morphological and developmental variation among hybrids of Tribolium castaneum populations on the cusp of reproductive isolation. To do this, we follow populations and their 12 possible F1 hybrids from egg to adult, recording morphology and developmental progress at each life-history stage. We find that degree and the timing of hybrid inviability depends upon the populations crossed, the direction of the cross, and the environment in which the hybrids are raised.

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      Foraging area fidelity for Kemp's ridleys in the Gulf of Mexico (pages 2002–2012)

      Donna J. Shaver, Kristen M. Hart, Ikuko Fujisaki, Cynthia Rubio, Autumn R. Sartain, Jaime Peña, Patrick M. Burchfield, Daniel Gomez Gamez and Jaime Ortiz

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.594

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      In this manuscript, we detail the results from the largest and longest-term satellite-tracking data set for Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) sea turtles. We demonstrate the importance of nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico as foraging habitat and suggest that critical foraging habitat exists for the species in that region. The dissemination of our tracking results on this critically endangered species along a coast with areas heavily used for industry and recreation will be of interest to a wide audience including marine ecologists and conservation managers.

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      Interspecific synchrony of seabird population growth rate and breeding success (pages 2013–2019)

      James P. W. Robinson, Maria Dornelas and Alfredo F. Ojanguren

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.592

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      Species covariation reduces the portfolio effect and destabilizes communities. We present evidence of synchronous responses of a seabird group to environmental variability, and describe a novel method for examining pronounced fluctuations in multiple species demography. Six seabird species experienced “exceptional” years in their population growth rate and breeding success, driven by variation in lagged sea surface temperature. Understanding such extreme responses to environmental variation informs both our understanding of community dynamics and of the future impacts of global climate change.

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      Covariation and repeatability of male mating effort and mating preferences in a promiscuous fish (pages 2020–2029)

      Jean-Guy J. Godin and Heather L. Auld

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.607

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      Recent theoretical models have shown that the evolution of male mate choice is more likely when individual variation in male mating effort and mating preferences exist and positively covary within populations. In support of these models, we report that mating effort and mating preferences in male Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), based on female body length (a strong correlate of fecundity), positively covary and are significantly variable among subjects; individual males are thus consistent, but not unanimous, in their mate choice. Both individual mating effort (including courtship effort) and mating preference are significantly repeatable.

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      The use of on-animal acoustical recording devices for studying animal behavior (pages 2030–2037)

      Emma Lynch, Lisa Angeloni, Kurt Fristrup, Damon Joyce and George Wittemyer

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.608

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      Acoustical monitoring is rapidly becoming a favored technique across many disciplines because of its ability to gather high-resolution data over broad spatial and temporal scales. We describe a unique approach to acoustic wildlife research in terrestrial environments – the development and implementation of a collar-mounted recording device capable of documenting detailed information on organismal activities and interactions with the environment.

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      Alternative trait combinations and secondary resource partitioning in sexually selected color polymorphism (pages 2038–2046)

      Yuma Takahashi and Masakado Kawata

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.610

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      In damselflies, females show color polymorphism: one of the female morphs is a blue-green (andromorph, male-like morph), whereas the other morph is brown (gynomorph). We reported the secondary partitioning of oviposition resources without resource competition in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis. Resource partitioning in this system may be a by-product of phenotypic integration with body color that has been sexually selected, suggesting an overlooked mechanism of the evolution of resource partitioning.

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      Individual heterogeneity in reproductive rates and cost of reproduction in a long-lived vertebrate (pages 2047–2060)

      Thierry Chambert, Jay J. Rotella, Megan D. Higgs and Robert A. Garrott

      Article first published online: 31 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.615

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      Using a hierarchical modeling approach, we investigated specific hypotheses concerned with the prevalence and temporal expression of individual variation in Weddell seal reproductive rates. Our results provide strong evidence for the existence of biologically significant levels of individual variation in the study population and also suggest that differences among individuals remain relatively consistent across contrasted environmental conditions. We also found, for the first time, strong evidence of an important reproductive cost in this species.

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    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure of the white-footed mouse in the context of the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Québec (pages 2075–2088)

      Anita Rogic, Nathalie Tessier, Pierre Legendre, François-Joseph Lapointe and Virginie Millien

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.620

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      The white-footed mouse is primary reservoir for Lyme disease, and is expanding into Quebec. The genetic structure of 11 populations of the mouse from a fragmented landscape in Southern Quebec is affected by geographic barriers such as rivers and roads, which impacts the spatial distribution of Lyme disease in the area.

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      Inbreeding reveals mode of past selection on male reproductive characters in Drosophila melanogaster (pages 2089–2102)

      Outi Ala-Honkola, David J. Hosken, Mollie K. Manier, Stefan Lüpold, Elizabeth M. Droge-Young, Kirstin S. Berben, William F. Collins, John M. Belote and Scott Pitnick

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.625

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      We use inbreeding to reveal the mode of past selection on traits important for male reproductive success. We suggest that male attractiveness and sperm competition success may have been under directional selection, whereas sperm length has a history of stabilizing selection, despite earlier studies suggesting directional selection for longer sperm. Drosophila melanogaster lines with red or green fluorescently tagged sperm heads allowed us to distinguish between the two males in competition within the female reproductive tract.

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      Evolutionary dynamics of giant viruses and their virophages (pages 2103–2115)

      Dominik Wodarz

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.600

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      Virophages are true parasites of giant viruses which in turn infect protists. These interactions are thought to be important for the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. This study uses mathematical models to examine the evolutionary dynamics of virophages and their giant viruses.

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      Genotypic and phenotypic variation in transmission traits of a complex life cycle parasite (pages 2116–2127)

      Katja-Riikka Louhi, Anssi Karvonen, Christian Rellstab and Jukka Jokela

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.621

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      Characterizing genetic variation in parasite transmission traits and its contribution to parasite vigor is essential for understanding the evolution of parasite life-history traits. In this study we measured genetic variation in transmission traits of clonal parasite stages of a trematode (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum) and tested experimentally whether manipulation of host nutritional stage could explain variability in these traits. Our data give evidence for substantial interclonal and phenotypic variation in the measured traits that are not affected by host nutritional status.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Can endopolyploidy explain body size variation within and between castes in ants? (pages 2128–2137)

      Daniel R. Scholes, Andrew V. Suarez and Ken N. Paige

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.623

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      Endopolyploidy is the increase in cellular ploidy by repeated genome replication without mitotic division, and has been associated with increases in cell size and metabolism in numerous organisms. This process may be particularly consequential for hymenopterans given their haplo-diploid sex determination and variety of castes and social roles. Here we test the hypothesis that endopolyploidy is important in caste and societal role determination, and provide evidence that endopolyploidy occurs differentially among worker body sizes, body segments, and between the haploid and diploid sexes.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An ecological genetic delineation of local seed-source provenance for ecological restoration (pages 2138–2149)

      Siegfried L. Krauss, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, John D. Bussell and Richard J. Hobbs

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.595

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      An increasingly important practical application of the analysis of spatial genetic structure within plant species is to help define the extent of local provenance seed collection zones that minimizes negative impacts in ecological restoration programs. Here, we derive seed sourcing guidelines from a novel probability-based range-wide assessment of spatial genetic structure of 24 populations of Banksia menziesii (Proteaceae), a widely distributed Western Australian tree of significance in local ecological restoration programs.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields (pages 2150–2168)

      Yosuke Kuroda, Akito Kaga, Norihiko Tomooka, Hiroshi Yano, Yoshitake Takada, Shin Kato and Duncan Vaughan

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.606

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      The objective of this study is to understand the mechanism for gene introgression from cultivated soybean into wild soybean because transgene dispersal from transgenic soybean into wild soybean populations is a concern in East Asian countries. The genetic factors affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybean were analyzed by a molecular genetics approach in which artificial hybrids were evaluated in several field locations. The results suggest that the major genes acquired during soybean adaptation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats and that hybrid derivatives will disappear in the early self-pollinating generations.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Demographic patterns of a widespread long-lived tree are associated with rainfall and disturbances along rainfall gradients in SE Australia (pages 2169–2182)

      Janet S. Cohn, Ian D. Lunt, Ross A. Bradstock, Quan Hua and Simon McDonald

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.626

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      We examined how changes in rainfall and disturbances along climatic gradients determined demographic patterns in a widespread and long-lived tree species, Callitris glaucophylla in SE Australia. Our results show that low annual rainfall and high levels of introduced grazing have led to ageing, contracting populations, whilst higher annual rainfall with low levels of grazing have led to younger, expanding populations. Predicting changes in tree distribution with climate change requires knowledge of how rainfall and key disturbances (tenure, vertebrate grazing) will shift along climatic gradients.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks (pages 2183–2196)

      Megan L. Head, Genevieve M. Kozak and Janette W. Boughman

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.631

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      Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits can forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. We investigate female mate preferences for two ecologically important traits, body shape and size, in a species pair of threespine stickleback. Our results show that female preferences for size and shape may contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks and enhance population divergence of these ecologically important traits.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Condition-dependent expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in guppies (pages 2197–2213)

      Md Moshiur Rahman, Jennifer L. Kelley and Jonathan P. Evans

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.632

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      We show that a range of traits targeted by pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection exhibit condition dependence, as revealed through a reduction in trait values under dietary stress (quantity of food). However, we failed to detect any additional or interactive effects of modifying diet quality (carotenoid levels), despite the well documented theory that ornamental and ejaculate traits can reflect carotenoid intake.

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      Host–parasite genotypic interactions in the honey bee: the dynamics of diversity (pages 2214–2222)

      Sophie E. F. Evison, Geraldine Fazio, Paula Chappell, Kirsten Foley, Annette B. Jensen and William O. H. Hughes

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.599

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      Here, we investigate genotypic interactions between the honey bee Apis mellifera, and its fungal brood parasites. We found a complex relationship that suggests genetic diversity generated through multiple mating may promote disease resistance in offspring colonies, and that the benefits of genetic variation in disease resistance are most evident under multiple parasite pressures.

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      The evolution of costly acquired immune memory (pages 2223–2232)

      Alex Best and Andy Hoyle

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.611

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      We investigate the evolution of acquired immune memory to disease using a mathematical model. We find that high immunity may evolve in hosts with intermediate or long lifespans depending on whether immunity is long lasting. High initial costs to gain immunity are also found to be essential for a highly effective immune memory. Our model suggests that specific ecological and epidemiological conditions have to be met for acquired immune memory to evolve.

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      Estimating resource selection with count data (pages 2233–2240)

      Ryan M. Nielson and Hall Sawyer

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.617

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      Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology allow animal location data to be collected at fine spatio-temporal scales and have increased the size and correlation of data used in RSF analyses. We suggest a contemporary approach to modeling resource selection using such data is to model intensity of use, which can be estimated for one or more animals by relating the relative frequency of locations in a set of sampling units to the habitat characteristics of those units with count-based regression and, in particular, negative binomial (NB) regression.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for parallel adaptation to climate across the natural range of Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 2241–2250)

      Frank W. Stearns and Charles B. Fenster

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.622

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      How organisms adapt to different climate habitats is a key question in evolutionary ecology and biological conservation. Here, we investigate the ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to occupy climate space by quantifying the extent to which different climate regimes are accessible to different A. thaliana genotypes using publicly available data from a large-scale genotyping project and from a worldwide climate database. Our results also provide evidence of a parallel or convergent evolution on the molecular level supporting recent generalizations regarding the genetics of adaptation.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Inferences of evolutionary history of a widely distributed mangrove species, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, in the Indo-West Pacific region (pages 2251–2261)

      Chie Urashi, Kosuke M. Teshima, Sumiko Minobe, Osamu Koizumi and Nobuyuki Inomata

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.624

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      We examined the levels and patterns of genetic variation of a widespread mangrove species in the Indo-West Pacific region, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, using ten nuclear gene regions. The ten populations were divided into two genetic clusters: the West and East clusters of the Malay Peninsula. The past Sundaland and/or the present Malay Peninsula are likely to prevent gene flow between the West and East clusters and functions as a geographical or land barrier.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lake Malawi cichlid evolution along a benthic/limnetic axis (pages 2262–2272)

      C. D. Hulsey, R. J. Roberts, Y.-H. E. Loh, M. F. Rupp and J. T. Streelman

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.633

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      Divergence along a benthic to limnetic habitat axis is thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the importance of benthic and limnetic divergence within the incredibly species-rich radiation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. We found that evolutionary specialization along a benthic/limnetic axis has occurred multiple times within this tropical lake radiation and has produced repeated convergent matching between exploitation of water column habitats and locomotory morphology.

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      Reconstructing shifts in vital rates driven by long-term environmental change: a new demographic method based on readily available data (pages 2273–2284)

      Edgar J. González and Carlos Martorell

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.549

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      We present a model that, based on a time series of population size-structures and densities, reconstructs the impact of directional environmental changes on vital rates. Our results show that the model is successful, but basic biological knowledge may be required to provide reliable results. Because time series of size structures and densities are available for many species or can be rapidly generated, our model can contribute to understand populations that face highly pressing environmental problems.

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      Estimating home-range size: when to include a third dimension? (pages 2285–2295)

      Pedro Monterroso, Neftalí Sillero, Luís Miguel Rosalino, Filipa Loureiro and Paulo Célio Alves

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.590

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      By disregarding topography, estimates of home-ranges size underestimate the surface actually occupied by the animal, potentially leading to misinterpretations of the animals' ecological needs. Our results revealed that underestimations range from nearly zero up to 22%, and that the difference between planimetric and topographic estimates of home-ranges sizes produced highly robust models using the average slope as the sole independent factor. Planimetric estimates in areas with an average slope of 16.3° (±0.4) or more, or altitudinal ranges above the 1800 m will incur in errors ≥5%. In these areas, topography should be included in home-range studies.

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      Assessing the cryptic invasion of a domestic conspecific: American mink in their native range (pages 2296–2309)

      Kaela B. Beauclerc, Jeff Bowman and Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.630

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      We assessed whether domestic mink escape from farms in North America, and hybridize with native mink. We have shown that domestic–wild hybrids do occur, but that their distribution is limited to areas in close proximity to mink farms, suggesting that domestic escapees and their hybrids have low fitness.

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      Quantifying the biomass of parasites to understand their role in aquatic communities (pages 2310–2321)

      Jason Lambden and Pieter T. J. Johnson

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.635

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      By infecting multiple hosts and acting as a food resource, parasites can affect food-webs and ecosystem energy transfer. We developed an approach to quantify parasite biomass and applied it to 12 species representing >10,000 individuals. This method will facilitate future investigations into the ecological significance of parasites, particularly with respect to ecosystem energetics.

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      Genetic by environment interactions affect plant–soil linkages (pages 2322–2333)

      Clara C. Pregitzer, Joseph K. Bailey and Jennifer A. Schweitzer

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.618

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      Our study found that tree genotype, environment and, in one case, their interaction drive variation in plant traits that can regulate soil nutrient pools and processes. On the basis of our results we could predict two- to fivefold shifts in C storage and rates of net N mineralization associated with tree genotypes given an increase in 3°C (i.e., range of responses from lowest to highest elevation sites), reflecting phenotypic plasticity in plant traits that link soils to plants via inputs of organic matter.

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      Changes in the genetic structure of Atlantic salmon populations over four decades reveal substantial impacts of stocking and potential resiliency (pages 2334–2349)

      Charles Perrier, René Guyomard, Jean-Luc Bagliniere, Natacha Nikolic and Guillaume Evanno

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.629

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      Examining the genetic makeup of 25 Atlantic salmon populations over 41 years, we found a decrease in genetic differentiation among populations and variable admixture rates of stocked populations. Interestingly, admixture decreased after stocking's end, suggesting short-term impacts of some stocking events. This study illustrates the usefulness of the analysis of historic DNA to highlight contemporary modifications in the genetic diversity of wild populations.

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      Using GPS telemetry to validate least-cost modeling of gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) movement within a fragmented landscape (pages 2350–2361)

      Claire D. Stevenson, Mark Ferryman, Owen T. Nevin, Andrew D. Ramsey, Sallie Bailey and Kevin Watts

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.638

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Global positioning system (GPS) telemetry and least-cost modelling were used to assess the detailed inter-patch movements of a small mammal across the landscape. This is the first study to use GPS on grey squirrels to record highly detailed movements and landscape use.

    45. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Recent physical connections may explain weak genetic structure in western Alaskan chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) populations (pages 2362–2377)

      Michael R. Garvin, Christine M. Kondzela, Patrick C. Martin, Bruce Finney, Jeffrey Guyon, William D. Templin, Nick DeCovich, Sara Gilk-Baumer and Anthony J. Gharrett

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.628

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Weak genetic structure among salmon populations is often attributed to straying (gene flow). We show that historical connections among river drainages that do not presently exist explains the weak genetic structure of chum salmon populations in western Alaska.

    46. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      A new method for identifying rapid decline dynamics in wild vertebrate populations (pages 2378–2391)

      Martina Di Fonzo, Ben Collen and Georgina M. Mace

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.596

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study introduces a method for diagnosing rapid declines caused by increasing pressure, which could be extendible to any wildlife populations. This method could be used by resource managers to prioritize which population decline to tackle first. Our study supplements current extinction-risk analyses, focused solely on percentage change in population size.

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