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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 8

August 2013

Volume 3, Issue 8

Pages i–ii, 2393–2782

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.727

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Nutrient cycling in early coral life stages: Pocillopora damicornis larvae provide their algal symbiont (Symbiodinium) with nitrogen acquired from bacterial associates (pages 2393–2400)

      Janja Ceh, Matt R. Kilburn, John B. Cliff, Jean-Baptiste Raina, Mike van Keulen and David G. Bourne

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.642

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      This article reports the ability of coral larvae to acquire, and incorporate nitrogen from bacterial associates and transfer it to their algal symbiont Symbiodinium. This tight nutrient cycling within the coral holobiont (the coral animal and its symbiotic microbial partners) has not previously been reported in coral larvae, however might well contribute to the survival of vulnerable early coral life stages and therefore the maintenance and distribution of coral reefs.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      When should a trophically transmitted parasite exploit host compensatory responses? (pages 2401–2408)

      Frédérique Dubois, Frédéric Thomas and Jacques Brodeur

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.647

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      We developed a simulation model in which parasites may affect their hosts' behaviour by using two non-mutually exclusive strategies: a manipulation sensu stricto strategy and a strategy based on the exploitation of host compensatory responses. We predict that the exploitation of host compensatory responses can be evolutionary stable when the alteration improves the susceptibility to predation by final hosts without compromising host survival during parasite development. Furthermore, our finfings indicate that the transmission rate of parasites in a definitive host is highest when each of the two strategies affects different traits.

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      Testing potential selective agents acting on leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea: predictions based on an adaptive leaf shape cline (pages 2409–2423)

      Brandon E. Campitelli and John R. Stinchcombe

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.641

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      We test hypothesized selective agents acting on leaf shape in Ipomoea hederacea. While we find that all of the selective agents impose natural selection, none of them act differentially according to leaf shape genotype. We suggest alternative approaches for determining the selective agents acting on leaf shape.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Length of activity season drives geographic variation in body size of a widely distributed lizard (pages 2424–2442)

      Terézia Horváthová, Christopher R. Cooney, Patrick S. Fitze, Tuula A. Oksanen, Dušan Jelić, Ioan Ghira, Tobias Uller and David Jandzik

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.613

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      We examined geographic and climatic variation in life-history traits of the reproductively bimodal common lizard, the most widespread terrestrial reptile. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the body size is mainly driven by length of the activity season and that the interpopulation variation in fecundity is explained by reproductive mode. Our findings suggest that time constraints imposed by environment rather than ambient temperature play a major role in shaping life histories in the common lizard.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Genetic structure of wildcat (Felis silvestris) populations in Italy (pages 2443–2458)

      F. Mattucci, R. Oliveira, L. Bizzarri, F. Vercillo, S. Anile, B. Ragni, L. Lapini, A. Sforzi, P. C. Alves, L. A. Lyons and E. Randi

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.569

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      Deep climatic changes during the Pleistocene shaped the distributions of temperate-adapted species. The European wildcat (Felis s. silvestris) populations currently distributed in Italy differentiated in, and expanded from two distinct glacial refuges, respectively located in the southern Apennines and at the periphery of the eastern Alps.

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Frequency of hybridization between Ostrinia nubilalis E-and Z-pheromone races in regions of sympatry within the United States (pages 2459–2470)

      Brad S. Coates, Holly Johnson, Kyung-Seok Kim, Richard L. Hellmich, Craig A. Abel, Charles Mason and Thomas W. Sappington

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.639

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      This work describes the development of new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers within the pheromone gland expressed fatty acyl reductase (pgfar) gene of Ostrinia nubilalis. These SNPs were shown to segregate based upon female pheromone production, and thus provide the first description of an assay for genetic determination of O. nubilalis pheromone strain from field-collected samples. These assays were applied to estimate hybridization within field populations, and represent valuable tools for future population genetic studies of this species.

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      Environmental effects on molecular and phenotypic variation in populations of Eruca sativa across a steep climatic gradient (pages 2471–2484)

      Erik Westberg, Shachar Ohali, Anatoly Shevelevich, Pinchas Fine and Oz Barazani

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.646

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      This article describes the use of several types of data to estimate the influence of the environment on intraspecific genetic variation in populations originating from a steep climatic gradient. In addition to molecular marker data, we made use of phenotypic evaluation from common garden experiments, and a broad GIS based environmental data with edaphic information gathered in the field. This study, among others, lead to the identification of an outlier locus with an association to trichome formation and herbivore defense, and its ecological adaptive value is discussed.

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      Reproductive isolation and cryptic introgression in a sky island enclave of Appalachian birds (pages 2485–2496)

      Brian S. Davidson, Gene D. Sattler, Sara Via and Michael J. Braun

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.604

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      Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) hybridize with Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) in the northern Appalachian Mountains. We use genetic data to show that the last large breeding population of atricapillus in the southern Appalachians has experienced genetic introgression from carolinensis, but at a much lower level than populations to the north, confirming that the southern populations are reproductively isolated due to a behaviorally mediated elevational range gap during the breeding season.

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      Populations at risk: conservation genetics of kangaroo mice (Microdipodops) of the Great Basin Desert (pages 2497–2513)

      John J. Andersen, David S. Portnoy, John C. Hafner and Jessica E. Light

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.637

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      The Great Basin Desert of western North America has experienced frequent habitat alterations due to a complex biogeographic history and recent anthropogenic impacts, with the more recent alterations likely resulting in the decline of native fauna and flora. Herein, newly acquired nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci were utilized to assess patterns of variation within and among spatially discrete groups of the dark (Microdipodops megacephalus) and pallid (M. pallidus) kangaroo mouse, and to evaluate gene flow, demographic trends, and genetic integrity. Results of this study indicate that each Microdipodops group should be recognized, and therefore managed, as a separate unit in an effort to conserve these highly specialized taxa that contribute to the diversity of the Great Basin Desert ecosystem (photo credit J. C. Hafner).

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies (pages 2514–2523)

      Jennifer A. H. Koop, Jeb P. Owen, Sarah A. Knutie, Maria A. Aguilar and Dale H. Clayton

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.651

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      Host immune responses can protect against the negative fitness consequences of parasitism; however, the strength and effectiveness of these responses vary among hosts. Strong host immune responses are often assumed to correlate with greater host fitness. This study investigates the relationship between host immune response, parasite load, and host fitness using Darwin's finches and an invasive nest parasite. We found that while the immune response of mothers appeared defensive, it did not rescue current reproductive fitness.

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      Can migrants escape from density dependence? (pages 2524–2534)

      Francisco Marco-Rius, Pablo Caballero, Paloma Morán and Carlos Garcia de Leaniz

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.652

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      Our study tests the hypothesis that organisms can “escape” from density-dependence constrains by migrating, and that this strategy maximizes growth by reducing competition from conspecifics. To test this, we reconstructed individual growth profiles of sea trout (Salmo trutta) before and after migration, and related these to estimates of year class strength over a 13-year period. We found that variation in circuli spacing was generally much greater among individuals than within individuals, and that scale growth was inversely related to year class strength, both during the freshwater and marine growing seasons. However, density-dependence was c. 2.5 times stronger in freshwater (before migration) than at sea (after migration) indicating that although migrants might benefit from enhanced growth by moving into the sea, they do not appear to become free from density-dependence constraints completely. Our findings shed light on the nature of density-dependent regulation in migratory species, and provide a plausible mechanism for the maintenance of partial migrations if, as our study indicates, resident and migratory individuals are subjected to density-dependent forces of varying strength before and after migration.

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      Modeling implications of food resource aggregation on animal migration phenology (pages 2535–2546)

      Frédéric Bailleul, Volker Grimm, Clément Chion and Mike Hammill

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.656

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      The present paper aims to explore the hypothesis that changes in migration phenology are not necessarily or exclusively triggered by changes in food abundance, but also by changes in the spatial distribution of food, which is largely determined by physical processes. In particular, we suggested that since climate change primarily affects these processes, it could be that the resulting changes in how homogeneous or clumped food is distributed affects foraging efficiency strongly enough to cause changes in migration phenology, even if the total amount of resource would remain the same. We developed an individual-based model (IBM) investigating the potential impact of the timing of migration on foraging efficiency, quantified by total prey capture, of individuals confronted with different spatial structures of food resources. The results of the model support the field observations.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Failed species, innominate forms, and the vain search for species limits: cryptic diversity in dusky salamanders (Desmognathus) of eastern Tennessee (pages 2547–2567)

      Stephen G. Tilley, Joseph Bernardo, Laura A. Katz, Lizmarie López, J. Devon Roll, Renée L. Eriksen, Justin Kratovil, Noëlle K. J. Bittner and Keith A. Crandall

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.636

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      Cytochrome B sequences and allozymes reveal complex patterns of molecular variation in Desmognathus populations in eastern Tennessee. It may never be possible to reconcile species limits with patterns of phylogeny, morphology, and gene exchange in these salamanders.

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      Combining molecular evolution and environmental genomics to unravel adaptive processes of MHC class IIB diversity in European minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) (pages 2568–2585)

      Helene Collin, Reto Burri, Fabien Comtesse and Luca Fumagalli

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.650

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      Using next-generation sequencing, the present manuscript identifies the relative roles of neutral and adaptive processes driving the evolution of MHC class IIB (MHCIIB) genes in natural populations of a cyprinid fish: the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We highlight that the relative importance of neutral versus adaptive processes in shaping immune competence may differ between duplicates as a consequence of alternative selective regimes or different genomic contexts.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard (pages 2586–2599)

      Philipp R. Semenchuk, Bo Elberling and Elisabeth J. Cooper

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.648

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      Winter warming events, often occurring together with rain, can substantially remove snow cover and thereby expose plants to cold winter air. Depending on morphology, different parts of the plant can be directly exposed. On this picture, we see Dryas octopetala seed heads from the previous growing season protrude through the remaining ice layer after a warming event in early 2010. The rest of the plant, including meristems and flower primordia, are still somewhat protected by the ice. In the background we can see a patch of Cassiope tetragona protruding through the ice; in this case, the whole plant including flower primordia is exposed, which might be one reason why this species experienced a loss of flowers the following season. Photograph by Philipp Semenchuk.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Recent colonization by a coastal plant of inland habitats at an ancient freshwater lake, Lake Biwa: multilocus sequencing and a demographic history of Lathyrus japonicus (Fabaceae) (pages 2600–2611)

      Tatsuo Ohtsuki, Hajime Ikeda and Hiroaki Setoguchi

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.654

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      Ancient lakes, continuous existence for millions of years, are have been recognized as “long-term isolated islands” in terrestrial ecosystems and are home to landlocked species. Lake Biwa, one of the world's few ancient freshwater lakes, harbors many coastal plants that also inhabit marine coastlines. We assessed the genetic isolation of beach pea, Lathyrus japonicus, in this ancient freshwater lake using an isolation with migration (IM) model based on variation at eight nuclear DNA loci. The estimated demographic parameters revealed a recent divergence (postglacial period) of inland populations, suggesting that a Holocene thermal maximum was involved in the origin of the Biwa populations and their genetic divergence.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      High-throughput SNP-genotyping analysis of the relationships among Ponto-Caspian sturgeon species (pages 2612–2618)

      Sergey M. Rastorguev, Artem V. Nedoluzhko, Alexander M. Mazur, Natalia M. Gruzdeva, Alexander A. Volkov, Anna E. Barmintseva, Nikolai S. Mugue and Egor B. Prokhortchouk

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.659

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      In the present study, the high-throughput genotyping analysis of several sturgeon populations was performed. SNP markers for species identification were defined. The possible explanation of the baerii-like mitotype presence in some Russian sturgeons in the Caspian Sea was suggested.

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence of gene flow between sympatric populations of the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean putative species of Bemisia tabaci (pages 2619–2633)

      Abdessalem Tahiri, Fabien Halkett, Martine Granier, Gwénaelle Gueguen and Michel Peterschmitt

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.655

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      The whitefly Bemisia tabaci – one of the most damaging pests of open field and protected cropping globally – displays a complex of putative species, which can coexist locally. We show here that gene flow between the two most invasive putative species is rare but did exist under natural conditions. The results are discussed in relation to the secondary endosymbiont infection status determined on a sub-sample of individuals, and the contrasting outcomes of previously reported crossing experiments between these putative species.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Noncrop flowering plants restore top-down herbivore control in agricultural fields (pages 2634–2646)

      Oliver Balmer, Lukas Pfiffner, Johannes Schied, Martin Willareth, Andrea Leimgruber, Henryk Luka and Michael Traugott

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.658

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      This study provides a comprehensive assessment of how habitat manipulation affects biocontrol services of a natural enemy community including both parasitoids and generalist predators. The trophic interactions between pests, parasitoids and predators were determined to achieve a better systemic understanding of top-down herbivore control, which can be strengthened when natural enemies complement each other or dampened by intraguild interactions. Our approach to selectively enhance the third trophic level to counteract specific herbivores was successful for both predators and parasitoids. Our results show significant positive effects of companion plants on predation of pest eggs and parasitism of pest larvae. Importantly, our data also suggest that carabids, staphylinids and spiders do not substantially interfere with parasitoid biocontrol as parasitoid DNA was rarely detected in predator guts.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Investigating sex-specific dynamics using uniparental markers: West New Guinea as a case study (pages 2647–2660)

      Stefano Mona, Ernest Mordret, Michel Veuille and Mila Tommaseo-Ponzetta

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.660

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      We have applied the prediction of the sampling theory in a meta-population and we have corroborated our finding using spatial explicit simulations. Both approaches are fundamentally meant to deal with structured populations: we strongly believe in the importance of tacking structure into account when inferring the demographic history of a species.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Male–male aggression peaks at intermediate relatedness in a social spider mite (pages 2661–2669)

      Yukie Sato, Martijn Egas, Maurice W. Sabelis and Atsushi Mochizuki

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.661

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      Inclusive fitness theory predicts that when individuals live in groups or colonies, aggression should peak at intermediate levels of average relatedness in the colony. Here, we study how male–male aggression varies with average relatedness in naturally occurring colonies of the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis miscanthi. In support of theory, male–male aggression and weapon size strongly peak at intermediate average relatedness.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Phylogenetic and morphometric analyses reveal ecophenotypic plasticity in freshwater mussels Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis (Bivalvia: Unionidae) (pages 2670–2683)

      Kentaro Inoue, David M. Hayes, John L. Harris and Alan D. Christian

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.649

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      In this study, we found Obovaria jacksoniana and Villosa arkansasensis are synonomous. We suggest that morphological differences between the two species are caused by ecophenotypic plasticity, where V. arkansasensis is the upstream morphotype and O. jacksoniana is the downstream morphotype of a single species.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl (pages 2684–2695)

      Troy I. Wellicome, L. Danielle Todd, Ray G. Poulin, Geoffrey L. Holroyd and Ryan J. Fisher

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.616

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      Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Combining genetic and demographic data for prioritizing conservation actions: insights from a threatened fish species (pages 2696–2710)

      Ivan Paz-Vinas, Lise Comte, Mathieu Chevalier, Vincent Dubut, Charlotte Veyssiere, Gaël Grenouillet, Geraldine Loot and Simon Blanchet

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.645

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      We combined genetic and demographic data from a threatened freshwater fish species (Parachondrostoma toxostoma) at the river basin scale for conservation purposes. Genetic diversity and effective population sizes are very low, probably due to the strong genetic bottlenecks detected in this study. The species spatial distribution and abundance also decreased during the last decades.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Global change-type drought-induced tree mortality: vapor pressure deficit is more important than temperature per se in causing decline in tree health (pages 2711–2729)

      Derek Eamus, Nicolas Boulain, James Cleverly and David D. Breshears

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.664

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      This study disaggregates the influence of temperature and vapour pressure deficit on net primary productivity of an Australian woodland and their interactions with drought as potential causal agents in recent widespread forest mortality.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Opposing effects on glutathione and reactive oxygen metabolites of sex, habitat, and spring date, but no effect of increased breeding density in great tits (Parus major) (pages 2730–2738)

      Caroline Isaksson

      Article first published online: 11 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.663

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      Oxidative stress has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Here multiple markers of oxidative stress were analysed in wild great tits. The results reveal that the endogenously synthesized antioxidant glutathione and markers of plasma oxidative stress are affected in opposing directions with regard to sex, habitat type, and spring date. Clutch size was negatively associated with oxidative damage, which suggests that those with high reproductive investment can combat physiological costs linked to oxidative stress. The experimentally manipulated breeding density did not influence oxidative stress physiology. The study highlights the need to measure multiple markers to understand the role of oxidative stress in limiting the expression of life-history traits and trajectories in different ecological contexts.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms (pages 2739–2750)

      Alexander V. Semenov, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Debora C. M. Glandorf, Menno Schilthuizen and Willem F. de Boer

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.640

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We offer generic advice to risk assessors and applicants that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in field testing.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evolutionary ecology of intraspecific brain size variation: a review (pages 2751–2764)

      Abigél Gonda, Gábor Herczeg and Juha Merilä

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.627

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      Evolution of brain size and architecture is a widely studied topic. However, the majority of studies are interspecific and comparative. Here we summarize the recently growing body of intraspecific studies based on population comparisons and outline the future potential in this approach.

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      High evolutionary potential of marine zooplankton (pages 2765–2781)

      Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg and Erica Goetze

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.644

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      Recent attention has focused on the ecological responses of open ocean zooplankton to current global change, including range shifts and changing phenology. Here, we argue that marine zooplankton also are well poised for evolutionary responses to global change.

  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Reviews
    5. Corrigendum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

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