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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 13

July 2014

Volume 4, Issue 13

Pages i–iii, 2625–2798

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.807

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Selection based on the size of the black tie of the great tit may be reversed in urban habitats (pages 2625–2632)

      Juan Carlos Senar, Michael J. Conroy, Javier Quesada and Fernando Mateos-Gonzalez

      Article first published online: 7 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.999

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      Most reported examples of differences between urban and nonurban animals reflect behavioral plasticity. Here, we show that survival prospects in forest great tits increased the larger the size of their black breast band, but the reverse was found for urban birds. Our results therefore show that divergent selection can be also an important mechanism in local adaptation to urban hábitats.

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      Different degree of paternal mtDNA leakage between male and female progeny in interspecific Drosophila crosses (pages 2633–2641)

      Emmanouil Dokianakis and Emmanuel D. Ladoukakis

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1069

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      Despite the presence of mechanisms which protect the faithful maternal transmission of mtDNA in animals, it has been observed leakage of paternal mtDNA in several species. This leakage has been considered as accidental. We have used interspecific Drosophila crosses to show that there is differential leakage of paternal mtDNA between male and female hybrids. This suggests nonaccidental leakage of paternal mtDNA, and this might have important implications on the evolution of mtDNA.

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      An Illumina metabarcoding pipeline for fungi (pages 2642–2653)

      Miklós Bálint, Philipp-André Schmidt, Rahul Sharma, Marco Thines and Imke Schmitt

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1107

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      We provide a step by step protocol for pruning and analyzing Illumina metabarcoding data of complex fungal communities. While the individual tools we use are not novel, we think that our pipeline can be of great help especially to those labs with only basic bioinformatics knowledge.

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      On the fate of seasonally plastic traits in a rainforest butterfly under relaxed selection (pages 2654–2667)

      Vicencio Oostra, Paul M. Brakefield, Yvonne Hiltemann, Bas J. Zwaan and Oskar Brattström

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1114

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      Many organisms display phenotypic plasticity as adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations, but little is known about the evolutionary fate of plastic responses if selection is relaxed. Here, we study whether the ancestral plasticity of a rainforest butterfly is still retained despite the fact that it no longer inhabits a seasonal habitat.

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      Dual phylogenetic origins of Nigerian lions (Panthera leo) (pages 2668–2674)

      Talatu Tende, Staffan Bensch, Ulf Ottosson and Bengt Hansson

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1116

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      Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences have shown that the Nigerian lions have separate origins. The population located in the west resembles closely the lion population in Benin, while the Nigerian lion population located central northeast resemble the Cameroon lion population.

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      Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata) (pages 2675–2692)

      Andrea L. Baden, Sheila M. Holmes, Steig E. Johnson, Shannon E. Engberg, Edward E. Louis Jr and Brenda J. Bradley

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1119

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      Here, we evaluate the genetic structure and population dynamics of a critically endangered lemur species, Varecia variegata. Using a large, geographically representative sample (209 individuals, 19 localities) and both microsatellite and mtDNA sequence data, we found that the Mangoro River acts as an effective barrier to dispersal; localities north of the Mangoro River were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (less population genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those south of the river. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward.

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      Habitat heterogeneity drives the geographical distribution of beta diversity: the case of New Zealand stream invertebrates (pages 2693–2702)

      Anna Astorga, Russell Death, Fiona Death, Riku Paavola, Manas Chakraborty and Timo Muotka

      Article first published online: 2 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1124

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      We explored the geographic distribution of β diversity of New Zealand stream invertebrates and studied whether their β diversity can be explained by one or more of the general mechanisms (productivity, habitat heterogeneity, dispersal limitation, disturbance) proposed to explain broad-scale β diversity patterns. Our results suggest that local environmental heterogeneity may be the strongest determinant of β diversity of stream communities, more so than regional- or landscape-scale variables.

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      Operator bias in software-aided bat call identification (pages 2703–2713)

      Georg Fritsch and Alexander Bruckner

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1122

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      We investigated the bias in the results from 21 operators manually validating the output from automated bat call identifications. The resulting species lists are influenced by the operator's experience, as well as by the amount of bat call recordings available. We can show that identification bias during validation is a major issue; nevertheless, manual validation of the software's unvalidated output is indispensable for reasonable results.

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      Diversity and evolution of the Wolbachia endosymbionts of Bemisia (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) whiteflies (pages 2714–2737)

      Xiao-Li Bing, Wen-Qiang Xia, Jia-Dong Gui, Gen-Hong Yan, Xiao-Wei Wang and Shu-Sheng Liu

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1126

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      We confirmed the prevalence of the symbiont Wolbachia in indigenous Bemisia tabaci whiteflies is higher than that in invasive whiteflies. Furthermore, We discovered a new Wolbachia supergroup by sequencing five marker genes (16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, hcpA, and fbpA genes). However, through the study, many protein-coding genes were shown to have limitations in detecting and classifying new Wolbachia supergroups, which raised a challenge to the widely utilized standard analysis system for Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing.

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      Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population (pages 2738–2748)

      Helen R. Sofaer, T. Scott Sillett, Kathryn M. Langin, Scott A. Morrison and Cameron K. Ghalambor

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1127

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      Population density can shape demographic rates by affecting both competition and predation, but these effects are rarely partitioned. We found that rainfall and density-dependent nest predation had stronger effects on fecundity than intraspecific competition in an island songbird population where we expected competition to be strong. Our results challenge assumptions about the drivers of demographic variation, while our analytical approach highlights methods that separate the processes affecting reproductive failure from those affecting the number of young produced by successful individuals.

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      Timing matters: species-specific interactions between spawning time, substrate quality, and recruitment success in three salmonid species (pages 2749–2758)

      Katharina Sternecker, Marco Denic and Juergen Geist

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1128

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      This study investigates how the interaction of temperature and substrate quality affects the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

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      The evolution of phenotypes and genetic parameters under preferential mating (pages 2759–2776)

      Derek A. Roff and Daphne J. Fairbairn

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1130

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      This article extends and adds more realism to Lande's analytical model for evolution under mate choice using individual-based simulations in which females sample a finite number of males and the genetic architecture of the preference and preferred trait evolves. The simulations show that the equilibrium heritabilities of the preference and preferred trait and the genetic correlation between them (rG), depend critically on aspects of the mating system (the preference function, mode of mate choice, choosiness, and number of potential mates sampled), the presence or absence of natural selection on the preferred trait, and the initial genetic parameters. Under some parameter combinations, preferential mating increased the heritability of the preferred trait, providing a possible resolution for the lek paradox.

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      Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners (pages 2777–2786)

      Mirka Macel, Ric C. H. de Vos, Jeroen J. Jansen, Wim H. van der Putten and Nicole M. van Dam

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1132

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      It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel defense metabolites compared with native plants. Using a comprehensive untargeted metabolomics approach, we assessed the metabolite profiles of seven congeneric species pairs of native and exotic plants. We show that the exotic plant species contain more unique metabolites than related natives.

  3. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Review
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world (pages 2787–2798)

      Juliet Brodie, Christopher J. Williamson, Dan A. Smale, Nicholas A. Kamenos, Nova Mieszkowska, Rui Santos, Michael Cunliffe, Michael Steinke, Christopher Yesson, Kathryn M. Anderson, Valentina Asnaghi, Colin Brownlee, Heidi L. Burdett, Michael T. Burrows, Sinead Collins, Penelope J. C. Donohue, Ben Harvey, Andrew Foggo, Fanny Noisette, Joana Nunes, Federica Ragazzola, John A. Raven, Daniela N. Schmidt, David Suggett, Mirta Teichberg and Jason M. Hall-Spencer

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1105

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      In this study, predictions are made as to how rapid warming and ocean acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the north-east Atlantic in this century based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that kelp forests will die out in the south due to warming, maerl habitat lost in the north through acidification, seagrasses will proliferate, associated epiphytes will switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species, and invasive species will thrive. Thus, structurally diverse seaweed canopies with associated calcified and noncalcified flora may be replaced with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.

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