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Ecology and Evolution

Cover image for Vol. 4 Issue 14

July 2014

Volume 4, Issue 14

Pages i–iii, 2799–2977

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
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      Issue Information (pages i–iii)

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.808

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      An evolutionary perspective on leaf economics: phylogenetics of leaf mass per area in vascular plants (pages 2799–2811)

      Olivier Flores, Eric Garnier, Ian J. Wright, Peter B. Reich, Simon Pierce, Sandra Dìaz, Robin J. Pakeman, Graciela M. Rusch, Maud Bernard-Verdier, Baptiste Testi, Jan P. Bakker, Renée M. Bekker, Bruno E. L. Cerabolini, Roberta M. Ceriani, Guillaume Cornu, Pablo Cruz, Matthieu Delcamp, Jiri Dolezal, Ove Eriksson, Adeline Fayolle, Helena Freitas, Carly Golodets, Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, John G. Hodgson, Guido Brusa, Michael Kleyer, Dieter Kunzmann, Sandra Lavorel, Vasilios P. Papanastasis, Natalia Pérez-Harguindeguy, Fernanda Vendramini and Evan Weiher

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1087

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      Phylogenetic patterns in a key trait of plants resource-use strategies, leaf mass per area, are analyzed across a large dataset of vascular plants. Growth forms appear as a major correlate of the tempo of trait evolution. Different phenotypic optima are evidenced major across clades suggesting phylogenetic constraints in the phenotypic evolution of leaves.

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      Evaluating range-expansion models for calculating nonnative species' expansion rate (pages 2812–2822)

      Sonja Preuss, Matthew Low, Anna Cassel-Lundhagen and Åsa Berggren

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1106

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      We compared the performance of seven commonly used methods to estimate expansion rates of species distribution changes. We examined how type of distribution data and sampling effort affect the precision and reliability of expansion rates. We found that methods using data from the species range margin are more robust to sampling effort and may better describe the species true expansion than data collected from the species general distribution. Our study also shows that low and undirected sampling efforts, as sometimes are the results of citizen-collected data, cannot always be used for high-accuracy range-shift estimations.

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      Elevational variation in density dependence in a subtropical forest (pages 2823–2833)

      Meng Xu and Shixiao Yu

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1123

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      The strength of density-dependent seedling mortality can vary between altitudes in subtropical forests. Soilborne pathogens may play a crucial role in this instance of spatial variation in density dependence.

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      Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models? (pages 2834–2847)

      Carlos Ponce, Carolina Bravo and Juan Carlos Alonso

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1125

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      We investigated the effects of three measures included in an AES on a steppe bird community in central Spain in different seasons. We also compared the predictive capacity and costs of models based on simple habitat measurements (habitat models) with that of models, which incorporate detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). The two main conclusions of our study were the following: (i) AES benefited birds but some non-AES field types did it too and the effects of each agri-environmental measure varied seasonally. (ii) The so-called food models increased the explanatory power with respect to habitat models and enabled to identify the ultimate causes underlying birds' responses.

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      Can novel genetic analyses help to identify low-dispersal marine invasive species? (pages 2848–2866)

      Peter R. Teske, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan M. Waters and Luciano B. Beheregaray

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1129

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      The genetic identification of low-dispersal marine invaders is challenging because native populations of such species also frequently experience genetic bottlenecks. We tested whether genetic analyses that provide detailed information on demographic history supported the hypothesis that the Tasmanian sea squirt Pyura doppelgangera recently established itself in mainland Australia and New Zealand. Our results show that methods that reconstruct trends in population size are no more informative than simple summary statistics, but estimates of divergence between native and introduced populations are informative at a temporal scale suitable to differentiate between recent introductions and ancient divergence.

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      Parallel adaptations to nectarivory in parrots, key innovations and the diversification of the Loriinae (pages 2867–2883)

      Manuel Schweizer, Marcel Güntert, Ole Seehausen, Christoph Leuenberger and Stefan T. Hertwig

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1131

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      Using a phylogenetic comparative approach with broad taxon sampling and 15 continuous characters of the digestive tract, we demonstrate that nectarivorous parrots differ in several traits from the remaining parrots. These trait-changes indicate phenotype–environment correlations and parallel evolution, and may reflect adaptations to feed effectively on nectar. The diet shift was associated with significant trait shifts at the base of the radiation of the lories and might be considered as an evolutionary key innovation which promoted significant nonadaptive lineage diversification through allopatric partitioning of the same new niche.

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      Model-based conservation planning of the genetic diversity of Phellodendron amurense Rupr due to climate change (pages 2884–2900)

      Jizhong Wan, Chunjing Wang, Jinghua Yu, Siming Nie, Shijie Han, Yuangang Zu, Changmei Chen, Shusheng Yuan and Qinggui Wang

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1133

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      We developed a new computational framework for the prediction of the effects of climate change on habitat suitability and genetic diversity. This molecular and computational workflow of this study is generalizable for the planning of protection areas for any species in decline and permits the development of long-term management plans from the conservation of genetic diversity.

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      Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population (pages 2901–2912)

      Abigail A. R. Kula, Dean M. Castillo, Michele R. Dudash and Charles B. Fenster

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1134

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      The outcome of interspecific interactions may vary with environmental context, and we examined a pollinating seed predator interaction when host plant density varied. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by Hadena ectypa resulted in reduced Silene stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population.

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      Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide (pages 2913–2930)

      Wilm Daniel Kissling, Lars Dalby, Camilla Fløjgaard, Jonathan Lenoir, Brody Sandel, Christopher Sandom, Kristian Trøjelsgaard and Jens-Christian Svenning

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1136

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      Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the ecology, evolution, and broad-scale distribution of biodiversity, but such data are of often lacking for species-rich clades. Here, we compiled and evaluated a comprehensive and unique dataset of diet preferences for all terrestrial mammal species worldwide. The digitalization, extrapolation, and validation procedures used here are transferable to other trait data and taxa, and we provide this dataset as a freely available resource to enable macroecological analyses.

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      Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and selection in bacterial-sensing toll-like receptor 4 in two house mouse subspecies (pages 2931–2944)

      Alena Fornuskova, Josef Bryja, Michal Vinkler, Miloš Macholán and Jaroslav Piálek

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1137

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      Analyses of the molecular variability and evolutionary processes shaping an innate immunity-related gene of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) in two house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus musculus, Mmm, and M. m. domesticus, Mmd) showed contrasted evolutionary histories of Tlr4 in the two subspecies. Variability of Tlr4 in Mmd was dramatically reduced in comparison to Mmm. We also revealed several species-specific positions of Tlr4 at intrasubspecififc level that are likely to be under positive selection. Our data also showed, that recombination play an important role in maintaining variability of this important immune genes, at least in Mmm.

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      The magnitude of behavioral isolation is affected by characteristics of the mating community (pages 2945–2956)

      Daniel R. Matute

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1142

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      This report demonstrates that at least for Drosophila, a high frequency of heterospecific males (and a low frequency of conspecifics) can lead to increased levels of hybridization even in situations in which females have access to conspecific males. The probability of hybridization increases as the relative frequency of heterospecific males increases (and the frequency of conspecific males lowers).

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      Comparing determinants of alien bird impacts across two continents: implications for risk assessment and management (pages 2957–2967)

      Thomas Evans, Sabrina Kumschick, Ellie Dyer and Tim Blackburn

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1144

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      Invasive alien species can have serious adverse impacts on both the environment and the economy. Being able to predict the impacts of an alien species could assist in preventing or reducing these impacts. This study aimed to establish whether there are any life history traits consistently correlated with the impacts of alien birds across two continents, Europe and Australia, in order to establish whether such life history traits have the potential to be adopted as predictors of alien bird impacts.

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      Diet alters delayed selfing, inbreeding depression, and reproductive senescence in a freshwater snail (pages 2968–2977)

      Josh R. Auld and John F. Henkel

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1146

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      We use a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to illustrate that a high-quality diet reduces the adaptive delay in selfing, exaggerates inbreeding depression and increases the rate of reproductive senescence in a simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail. These unique trans-generational effects are discussed in the context of life-history plasticity.

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